narak

sheershak

yam ki sabha, lagbhag 1800

narak, svarg ka vilomaarthak hai. vishv ki praaya: sabhi jaatiyon aur dharmon ki aadim tatha praacheen maanyata ke anusaar maranottar adhaulok, sthaan ya avastha jahaaain kisi devata, devadoot ya raakshas dvaara adharmi, naastik, paapi aur aparaadhi dushtaatmaaeain dandit hoti hain.

vibhinn sanskrutiyon mein narak ki kalpana

saamaanyat: thande deshon mein narak ki kalpana himaachhaadit lok aur garm deshon mein agnitpt lok ke roop mein milti hai. iski sthiti, sankhya, prakaar aur dandayaatana ke sambandh mein vividh kalpanaaeain hain.

hindu narak dakshin aur paataal ke nimnatal bhaag mein kalpit hai, jahaaain chitragupt ki pushti par yamadevata paapi ko uske aparaadh ke anusaar 28 narakon mein se kinheen ki yaatana dene ka nirnaya apne dooton ko dete hain. atharvaved se Bhagwat puraan tak aate aate narakon ki sankhya 50 karod ho gayi jinmein 21, 28 ya 40 mukhya hain.

muslim narak ('narak (dojakh)' aur 'jahannum') vishaal agnipunj ke samaan hai aur saatavein tabake mein tahat-ul-shari mein sthit hai jahaaain maalik naamak devadoot ke anushaasan mein 19 sveeron (jabaaniya) ya dooton dvaara ishvari krupa se vanchit gunahagaaron ko dhakel diya jaata hai.

paarasi narak (gaatha ke anusaar 'droojo deman', 'pahalavi' droojotman) uttar disha mein sthit andhakaar tatha durgandhapoorn, aartanaad se mukharit aur asahya sheetal hai.

isaai narak timiraachhann bruhat‌ gart, yantranaabhog ka kaaraagaar, chir prajvalit agnilok aur agnisrovar ke roop mein varnit hai.

is prakaar mukhyat: do dhang ke narakon ka ullekh milta hai - sheetakar aur daahakar. bauddhadharm mein in donon prakaar ke narakon ki alag alag sankhyaaeain kramash: aath aur saat hain. vidvaanon ka mat hai ki aagneya nar ki kalpana isaai mool ki hai kintu ise poori tarah sahi naheen kaha ja sakta.

narak ke svaroopon aur paralok mein paapiyon ke prati dand ki dhaarana ka kramik vikaas hua hai. bhaarateeya narak kalpana ka itihaas rigvaidik athva usase bhi praacheen ho sakta hai. iska kramik vikaas atharvaved (1/11, 4/5/5, 5/3/11, 5/19, 8/2/24, 11/6/11, 18/3/3), vaajasaneya sanhita (30/5), shatapath braahman (6/2/3/27) aur paravarti puraan saahitya (padm. a. 34, paataal khan. a. 47; vi.pu. 2/6/7- 32; mark.pu. 19/3/39 brahm vai., prakruti khan., a. 27- 28, bha.pu. 5/26/5) mein hua hai. is kram mein kathopanishd tatha darshanashaastr mein narak aur mrutaatma ke svaroop ki daarshanik vyakhyaaeain bhi hui hain. isi prakaar baaibil mein aae anake padon ke angreji roopaantar 'hel' ke arth mein isaai narak ki vibhinn vyaakhyaaeain praapt hoti hain. yeh pehle mukhyat: old testaameint ke 'shioon' shabd ka angreji roopaantar tha jo praacheen yahoodi drushtikon ke anusaar mrutaatmaaon ka aavaas hai. fir vahi shabd 'hedes' (Hedes) ke liye prayukt hone laga. lekin iska prayog 'jehenna' ke liye sarvaadhik hota hai jiska naamakaran henom ki ghaati ke ek sthaan ke naam par hua aur baad mein 'bhaaveedand' ke liye prasiddh hua. 'hel' ke sambandh mein paranparit maanyata ke viruddh isaai dharmasudhaarakon ke vichaar kuchh doosare the. Martin loothar ka vichaar tha ki paapaatmaaeain mrutyu ki sthiti mein apni naastik aur malin vrutti ke kaaran 'antim din' ke poorv tak peedit hoti hain. narak ko va ishvar ke upadeshon aur aastikta se shoonya dooshit ant: karan ki sanjnyaa dete hain. is prakaar isaai narak aur narakadand ki maanyataaon ka vikaas svayansiddh hai. iske atirikt narakabhog ki avadhi, parimaan, yantrana ki prakruti aadi ko lekar bhi paashchaatya tatha praachya dharmon mein matabhed hai.