nand vansh

323 isa poorv mein dhanaanand ke shaasanakaal mein nandavansh ka saamraajya apni charam avastha mein tha

nandavansh praacheen Bhaarat ka ek raajavansh tha jisne paaainchaveen-chauthi shataabdi isa poorv uttari Bhaarat ke vishaal bhaag par shaasan kiya.

anukram

parichay

mahaapadmanand

itihaas ki jaankaari ke anek vivran puraanon, jain aur bauddh granthon evam yoonaani itihaasakaaron ke varnan mein praapt hote hain. tathaapi itna nishchit roop se kaha ja sakta hai ki nandon ka ek raajavansh tha jiski adhikaansh prakrutiyaaain bhaarateeya shaasan parampara ki thi. kartiys kehta hai ki sikandar ke samay vartamaan nand vaastav mein ek kisaan tha, yoonaani lekhakon ke varnanon se gyaat hota hai ki vah "vartamaan raaja" agramas athva jandramas (chandramas ?) tha, jiski pehchaan dhanaanand se ki gayi hai. usaka pita mahaapadmanand tha, jo kartiys ke upayukt kathan se naai jaati ka thaharata hai. kintu kuchh puraan granth aur jain granth "parishisht parvan mein bhi use naapit ka putr kaha gaya hai. in anek sandarbhon se keval ek baat spasht hoti hai ki nandavansh ke raaja naai jaati ke the.

nandavansh ka pratham aur sarvaprasiddh raaja mahaapadmanand hua. puraanagranth usaki ginti shaishunaagavansh mein hi karte hain, kintu bauddh aur jain anutrutiyon mein use ek nae vansh (nandavansh) ka praaranbhakarta maana gaya hai, jo sahi hai. use jain granthon mein ugrasen (agrasen) aur puraanon mein mahaapadmapati bhi kaha gaya hai. puraanon ke kaliyugaraajavruttaantavale anshon mein use atibli, mahaakshatraantak aur aur parashuraam ki sanjnyaaaeain di gayi hain. spasht hai, bahut badi senaavaale (ugrasen) us raaj ne (yoonaani lekhakon ka kathan hai ki nandon ki sena mein do lakh paidal, 20 hajaar ghudsavaar, do hajaar chaar ghodevaale rath aur teen hajaar haathi the) apne samakaalik anek kshatriya raajavanshon ka uchhed kar apne bal ka pradarshan kiya . yeh aashcharya naheen ki us apaar dhan aur sainyashakti se usane himaalaya aur narmada ke beech ke saare pradeshon ko jeetne ka upakram kiya. uske jeete hue pradeshein mein aikshvaaku (ayodhya aur shraavasti ke aaspaas ka komal raajya), paanchaal (uttarapashchimi uttar pradesh mein bareli aur Rampur ke paarshvavarti kshetr), kauravya (indraprasth, Delhi, kurukshetr aur thaaneshvar), kaashi (Varanasi ke paarshvavarti kshetr), haihaya (dakshinaapath mein narmadaateer ke kshetr), ashmak (godaavari ghaati mein paudanya athva potan ke aaspaas ke kshetr), veetihotr (dakshinpath mein ashmakon aur haihayon ke kshetron mein lage hue pradesh), kaling (udeesa mein vaitarani aur varaah nadi ke beech ka kshetr), shoorasen (mathur ke aaspaas ka kshetr), mithila (Bihar mein mujaffarapur aur darabhanga jilon ke beechavaale kshetr tatha Nepal ki taraai ka kuchh bhaag), tatha anya anek raajya shaamil the. himaalaya aur vindhyaachal ke beech kaheen bhi uske shaasanon ka ullanghan naheen ho sakta tha. is prakaar usane saari pruthvi (Bhaarat ke bahut bade bhaag) par "ekaraat, hokar raajya kiya. mahaapadmanand ki in puraanokt vijyon ki praamanikta kathaasaritsaagar, khaaravel ke haathi gufaavaale abhilekh tatha Mysore se praapt kuchh abhilekhon ke kuchh bikhre hue ullekhon se bhi siddh hoti hai."

puraanon mein mahaapadmanand ke das putr uttaraadhikaari bataae gaye hain. vahaaain unke naam milte hain -

(1) gangan paal, (2) panduk, (3) pandugati, (4) bhootapaal, (5) raashtrapaal, (6) govishaanak, (7) dashasiddhak, (8) kaivart aur (9) dhananand, (10) chand nand.

puraanon ke sumaalya ko bauddh granthon mein ullikhit mahaapadm ke atirikt anya aath naamon mein kisi se mila sakana kathin prateet hota hai. kintu sabhi milaakar sankhya ki drushti se navanand kahe jaate the. ismein koi vivaad naheen. puraanon mein un sabka raajyakaal 100 varshon tak bataaya gaya hai - 88 varshon tak mahaapadmanand ka aur 12 varshon tak uske putron ka. kintu ek hi vyakti 88 varshon tak raajya karta rahe aur uske baad ke kramaagat 8 raaja keval 12 varshon tak hi raajya karein, yeh buddhigraahya naheen prateet hota. sinhali anushrutiyon mein navanandon ka raajyakaal 40 varshon ka bataaya gaya hai aur use ham sahi maan sakte hain. tadanusaar navanandon ne lagbhag 364 E. poo. se 324 E. poo. tak shaasan kiya. itna nishchit hai ki unamein antim raaja agramas (augrasainya (?) arthaat ugrasen ka putr) sikandar ke aakraman ke samay magadha (prasaai-praachi) ka samraat tha, jiski vishaal aur shaktishaali senaaon ke bhaya se yoonaani sipaahiyon ne poras se hue yuddh ke baad aage badhne se inkaar kar diya. plootaark kehta hai ki chandragupt (saindraakottas) maurya ne sikandar se milkar usaki neechakulotpatti aur janta mein apriyta ki baat kahi thi. sambhav hai, dhananand ko ukhaad feinkane ke liye chandragupt ne us videshi aakramanakaari ke upayog ka bhi prayatn kiya ho. "mahaavanshateeka" se gyaat hota hai ki antim nand kathor shaasak tatha lobhi aur krupan svabhaav ka vyakti tha. sambhavat: is lobhi prakruti ke kaaran hi use dhananand kaha gaya. usane chaanakya ka apamaan bhi kiya tha. iski pushti mudraaraakshas naatak se hoti hai, jisse gyaat hota hai ki chaanakya apne pad se hata diya gaya tha. apamaanit hokar usane nand saamraajya ke unmoolan ki shapath li aur Rajkumar chandragupt maurya ke sahayog se use us kaarya mein safalta mili. un donon ne us kaarya ke liye Punjab ke kshetron se ek vishaal sena taiyaar ki, jismein sambhavat: kuchh videshi tatv aur lutere vyakti bhi shaamil the. yeh bhi gyaat hota hai ki chandragupt ne dhananand ko ukhaad feinkane mein parvatak (poras) se bhi sandhi ki thi. usane magadh par do aakraman kiye, yeh sahi prateet hota hai, parantu "divyaavadaan" ki yeh anushruti ki pehle usane seedhe magadh ki rajdhani paataliputr par hi dhaava bol diya tatha asafal hokar use aur chaanakya ko apne praan bachaane ke liye vesh banaakar bhaagna pada, sahi naheen prateet hoti. un donon ke beech sambhavat: 324 E. poo. mein yuddh hua, jab magadh ki rajdhani paataliputr mein chandragupt ne mauryavansh ka praarambh kiya.

saaraansh

344 E. poo. mein mahaapadyanand naamak vyak‍aati ne nand vansh ki sthaapana ki. puraanon mein ise mahaapadm tatha mahaabodhivansh mein ugrasen kaha gaya hai. yeh naai jaati ka tha.

use mahaapadm ekaarat, sarv kshatraantak aadi upaadhiyon se vibhooshit kiya gaya hai. mahaapadm nand ke pramukh raajya uttaraadhikaari hue hain- ugrasen, pandook, paandugati, bhootapaal, raashtrapaal, yovishaanak, dashasiddhak, kaivart, dhanaanand. iske shaasan kaal mein Bhaarat par aakraman sikndar dvaara kiya gaya. sikndar ke Bhaarat se jaane ke baad magadh saamraajya mein ashaanti aur avyavastha faili. dhanaanand ek laalachi aur dhan sangrahi shaasak tha, jise aseem shak‍aati aur sampatti ke baavajood vah janta ke vish‍aavaas ko naheen jeet saka. usane ek mahaan vidvaan braahman chaanakya ko apamaanit kiya tha.

  • chaanakya ne apni kootaneeti se dhanaanand ko paraajit kar chandragupt maurya ko magadh ka shaasak banaaya.
  • mahaapadmanand pehla shaasak tha jo ganga ghaati ki seemaaon ka atikraman kar vindhya parvat ke dakshin tak vijay pataaka laharaai.
  • nand vansh ke samay magadh raajanaitik drushti se atyant samruddhashaali saamraajya ban gaya.
  • vyaakaran ke aachaarya paanini mahaapadmanand ke mitr the.
  • varsh, upavarsh, var, ruchi, kaatyaayan jaise vidvaan nand shaasan mein hue.
  • shaakataaya tatha sthool bhadr dhanaanand ke jain mataavalambi amaatya the.

sandarbh granth

  • neelakanth shaastri (sanpaadit) : ej ov di nandaj aind mauryaj;
  • ej ov inpeeriyl unity (bhaarateeya vidyaabhavan, Mumbai); kaibrij history ov India

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain