naipoliyn truteeya

naipoliyn truteeya

lui naipoliyn bonaapaart (20 April 1808 - 9 January 1873 E.) fraanseesi ripblik ka pratham raashtrapati tatha naipoliyn truteeya ke roop mein dviteeya fraanseesi saamraajya ka shaasak tha. vah naipoliyn pratham ka bhateeja tatha uttaraadhikaari tha.

parichay

Charles looi nepoliyn bonaapaart Europe ke unneesaveen shataabdi ke shaasakon mein sabse adhik saahasik aur vilkshan tha. yeh naipoliyn mahaan ke bhaai lui bonaapaart tatha naipoliyn ki sauteli ladki josefeen ki putri haartes byoohaaraneis se peris mein 1808 E. mein utpann hua tha. us samay iska chaacha naipoliyn mahaan apne gaurav ke shikhar par tha. naipoliyn ke nishkaasan par lui naipoliyn apni maaain ke saath Switzerland chala gaya. vaheen apni maan ki dekhbhaal mein isne shiksha pai. kuchh kaal tak yeh Germany tatha Italy mein bhi raha. lui naipoliyn us vaataavaran mein shikshit evam Dixit hua jahaaain usaki paarivaarik paranparaaeain French kraanti evam raashtreeyata ki paryaayavaachi bani. France se viyna ki vyavastha ko samaapt kar bonaapaart vansheeya shaasan sthaapit karna lui naipoliyn ka jeevan lakshya bana. Italy ke kraantikaari dal kaarabonaari ke sadasya ki haisiyat se lui naipoliyn ne Pope ke virooddh chalaaai gaye 1831 ke asafal aandolan mein bhaag liya. lui naipoliyn ne straasavarg (Strasbourg) ke durgarakshakon dvaara ek asafal vidroh karaaya jiske parimaanasvaroop France ke shaasak lui Phillip dvaara use amareeka bhej diya gaya. vahaaain se 1837 mein vah Switzerland lauta aur 1838 mein England pahuaincha.

san 1839 mein lui naipoliyn ne ek pustak ki rachana ki jismein naipoliyn bonaapaart ke vichaaron ki vyaakhya karte hue 'bonaapaartavaad', samaajavaad tatha shaantivaad ka vichitr sammishran upasthit kiya gaya tha. is rachana ke parinaam svaroop saare France mein naipoliym ko lekar kuchh rudhigt evam pauraanik galp chalne lage. naipoliyn Ajay sveekaar kiya gaya aur usaki tathaakathit paraajaya shatruon ka shadyantr maatr bataayi gayi. tatkaaleen French shaasak lui Phillip ne bhi aupachaarik roop se is tathya ko sanmukh apni aastha prakat ki tatha August, 1840 E. mein seint helena se nepoliyn mahaan ki asthiyaaain maingavaakar unhein poorn pavitrata ke saath sthaapit kiya. isi samay lui naipoliyn bolon (Boulogne) mein sainik vidroh karaane mein asafal hua aur bandi banaakar haig ke kile mein band kar diya gaya. kaaraagaar mein lui ne raajaneetik aur saamaajik vishyon par kuchh pustakein likheen. chh: varsh ke uparaant 1846 mein vah kisi prakaar se nikal bhaasha aur London mein sharan li.

1848 ki French kraanti mein ise apne lakshya tak pahuainchane ka avsar mila. is baar usane maun grahan karna hi shreyaskar samjha tatha ingalaind ke nivaasiyon ke sanmukh vidhaan aur vyavastha ki shapath khaai. September 1848 E. mein vah paaainch dipaartameint se national vidhaan parishad ka sadasya hua tatha agale December mein ek bahusankhyak mat ke saath vah nai ganatantreeya vyavastha ka adhyaksh bana. ab dheere dheere naipoliyn ne sena ke netaaon ko apni or aakarshit karna praarambh kiya tatha 2 December 1851 E. mein maaainrani (Morny), seint aaranaad (Saint Arnaud) sareekhe mantriyon tatha police pramukh maupaas (Maupas) ki sahaayata se ek shadyantr kar shaasanasatta hathiya li aur theek ek varsh baad swayam ko 'naipoliyn truteeya' ke naam se France ka samraat ghoshit kiya.

naipoliyn ki gaarhasthik neeti ka uddeshya France ko dhanadhaanya se samruddhashaali banaana tha. usane aarthik udaarata ka sinddhaant apnaaya, lui Phillip ke sabhi madhyamavargeeya sudhaaron ko apna yogadaan diya, vaiyaktik udyogon evam vyavasaaon se saare niyantran hata liye aur utpaadan ke vibhinn kshetron mein masheenon ka prayog tatha audyogik Corporation ki sthaapana ko badhaava diya. kredit liyaanes (Créadit Lyonnais) kredit-faanasiyr (Créadit foncier) tatha society general (Sociéaté Géanéarale) aisi aijeinseej ki sthaapana kar usane France ki raashtreeya pooainji badhaayi. 1855 aur 1867 ki audyogik pradarshani is baat ka saakshya deti thi ki naipoliyn ke tatvaavadhaan mein France ki kitni bhautik samruddhi hui.

kintu apni vaideshik neeti mein lui naipoliyn ne naipoliyn mahaan ki bhaaainti kuchh aisi saahasik chhalaange leen jinke parinaam svaroop usaka patan hua tatha Europeeya raashtra use bhi naipoliyn mahaan ki hi bhaaainti svaatantrya apaharan karanevaala samajhne lage. kreemiya ke yuddh mein usane Britain ke saath roos ke viruddh Turkey saamraajya ki sahaayata kar France ki vaideshik pratishtha badhaayi. Italy ke ekeekaran mein kaavoor (Cavour) ka samarthan kiya tatha saivaaya (Savoy) aur nees (Nice) ke pradesh praapt kiye kintu kaavoor ki manjil aadhi hi paar hui thi ki isne use sandhi ke liye vivsh kiya. parinaamasvaroop Europe mein ise vishvaasaghaati aur pratikriyaavaadi samjha gaya. jab bismaark ne ostriya ko paraast kar diya to naipoliyn ise apni hi paraajaya samajh baitha. ataev bismaark ki ganana mein Germany ka ekeekaran fraaains ko khaded dene mein hi poornatv ko pahuainchata tha. lui naipoliyn ne bismaark se antat: yuddh chhod hi diya aur 1871 ke seedan (Sedan) ke yuddh kshetr mein use bismaark ke saamane nat hona pada aur France mein 'truteeya ganatantr' ki sthaapana hui. lui naipoliyn ne Britain ke saath opeeyam (opium) yuddh mein bhaag lekar (1858 se 60) sudoor poorv cheen mein French prabhutv sthaapit kiya aur kanbodiya mein French protektoret (French Protectorate) banaaya. lui naipoliyn ka Mexico abhiyaan yadyapi French pratishtha ko punarjeevit karne ka upakram tha kintu ismein bhi nepoliyn ko lajjit hona pada.