nainotakaneeki

Fullerene Nanogears - GPN-2000-001535.jpg
nainotakaneeki
poorvasandarbh
kvaantam siddhaant
ilektऱaaunik chip · miniyecharaaijeshan
moor ka niyam · vaamaneekaran ki baadhaaeain
kvaantam siddhaant ke anuprayog ·
nainotakaneeki ke upaagam
tal-sheersh upaagam · sheersh-tal upaagam
anuprayog
nainokan · naino-oshadhiyaaain · naino paimaane par abhiklan


· nainokristal praadarshi

nainotakaneek ya nainopraudyogiki, vyaavahaarik vigyaan ke kshetr mein, 1 se 100 naino (arthaat 10−9 m) skel mein prayukt aur adhyayan ki jaane waali sabhi takaneekon aur sambandhit vigyaan ka samooh hai. nainotakaneek mein is seema ke andar jaalsaaji ke liye vistrut roop mein antar-anushaasanaatmak kshetron, jaise vyaavahaarik bhautiki, padaarth vigyaan, ardhachaalak bhautiki, vishaal anukanika rasaayan shaastr (jo raasaayan shaastr ke kshetr mein anuon ke gair kovalent prabhaav par kendrit hai), svayamaanulipik masheenaen aur robotiks, rasaayanik abhiyaantriki, yaaaintrik abhiyaaaintriki aur vaidyut abhiyaaaintriki. abhi yeh kehna mushakil hai ki in rekhaaon mein anusandhaan ke kya parinaam honge. nainopraudyogiki ko vidyamaan vigyaan ka naino skel mein vistaareekaran, ya vidyamaan vigyaan ko ek naye aadhunik shabdh mein punaraadhaarit kar raha hai.

bakministar fullareen C60, jise bakibaul bhi kahatein hain, jo kaarban ke sabse saral dhaache, fullareen, hai. fullareen parivaar ke sadasyon par anusandhaan nainopraudyogiki ka mahatvapoorn vishay hai.

nainotakaneek mein do pramukh padvatiyon ko apnaaya gaya hai. pehli padvati mein padaarth aur upakaran aanavik ghatakon se banaae jaatein hain jo anuon ke aanuvik abhigyaan ke dvaara sv-ekatran ke rasaayanik sidhaanton par aadharith hai. doosari padvati mein naino-vastuon ka nirmaan bina anu-satah par niyantran ke, bade sattvon se kiya jaata hai. nainotakaneek mein aaveg maadhyam aur kolaaidal vigyaan par naveekrut ruchi aur nayi peedhi ke vishleshnaatmak upakaran, jaise ki paramaanvik bal sookshmadarshi yantr (AFM) aur avlokan tanaling sookshmadarshi yantr (STM). in yantron ke saath ilektraun kiran ashmalekhan aur aanavik kiran epitaiksi jaise vidhion ke prayog se naino-vinyaason ke prakalan se is vigyaan mein unnati hui.

aadhunik upayog mein nainotakaneek ke udaaharan aanuvik dhaanche par aadhaarit polimr aur satah vigyaan par aadhaarit computer chip ka nirmaan hai. nainotakaneek ke anek aashaajanak kshetron, jaise kvaantam dots aur nainontyoobs, ke baavajood, vaastavik vaanijyik upayog ambaar star par nainonkanon ka upayog mein seemit hai, jaise dhoop malaham, prasaadhan saamagri, rakshaatmak lep, dava supurdagi[1] aur daag pratirodhi kapadon.

anukram

udgam

nainotakaneeki ke siddhaanton ka pehla prayog (magar is naam ke gadhane se poorv) keltek mein December 29 1959, American fisikl asosiyeshan ke baithak ke doraan richhard feinman ke vyaakhyaan, "dairas pleinti of room et the botam" (aadhaar mein kaafi jagah hai), mein hua. feman ne ek vidhi ka ullekh kiya jismein ekal anuon aur anukanikaaon ke prakalan hetu sookshm yantron ko banaane ka sujhaav hai. unhonne is doraan gurutvaakarshan ke ghatate prabhaav aur prushth tanaav aur vaun dar vaal aakarshan ke badhate pramukhata ka ullekh kiya. nainotakaneek shabd ko gadhane ka shreya tokyo vigyaan vishvavidyaalaya ke professor norio taaniguchhi ne kiya. 1980 mein iski paribhaasha ka bakhaan gaharaai sein erik drekslar ne kiya, jinhonne naino skel ke vigyaan aur yantron ko lokapriya banaaya apne vyaakhyaanon se aur apni kitaabein se. nainotakaneeki aur nainovijnyaaan 1980 ke dashak mein in do aavishkaaron se hui: guchh vigyaan aur avlokan tanaling sookshmadarshi yantr (STM). inki sahaayata se 1986 me fullareen ka aur uske kuchh saal baad kaarban nainotyoob ka. ardhachaalak naino kristal ka sanshleshan aur us par anusandhaan hua. iske kaaran kai nainontyoobon ka aavishkaar hua. paramaanvik bal sookshmadarshi yantr (AFM) ka aavishkaar STM ke 5 saal baad hua.

kaarban nainontyoobs ka sajeevan

mool siddhaant

ek nainomeetar meter ka sau karodavaan, ya 10−9, bhaag hai. tulana ke liye:

  • kaarban:kaarban anukanikaaon mein anuon ke beech ki doori lagbhag .12-.15 nm hoti hai.
  • DNA ki chaudaai kareeban 2 nm hai.
  • sabse chhoti koshikaaen, maikoplaasma jaati ke jeevaanu ki chaudaai kareeban 200 nm hai.

ek nainomeetar ka ek meter ki tulanaatmak upamaaen

  • agar ek kancha ek nainomeetar ho to pruthvi ek meter hoga.[2]
  • ek nainomeetar ek aadmi ki daadhi mein utana badaav hoga jab tak ke vah apne astare ko apne chehare tak laata hai.[2]

bade se chhota: ek taatvik pariprekshya

paramaanvik bal sookshmadarshi yantr se kiya drushtigochar, svachh sone (Au)(100) ki satah ka pratibinb. alag-alag anuon ko satah mein dekha ja sakta hai.

jaise jaise ham ek bhautik vayavastha ko chhota karte jaate hain, hamein naye bhautik pratibhaason ka pata chalta hai. inmein shaamil hain saankhyikeeya yaantriki aur pramaatra yaantriki. maikro, ya 10−6, aayaamon mein bhi in pratibhaason ka pata nahi chalta. naino skel mein tal-kshetrafal se ghanafal ke anupaat ke badh jaane ke kaaran yaantrik, ushn, prakaashik tatha utprerak jaise bhautik gunadharmon ka prabhaav badal jaat hai. naveen "yaantrik" gunadharmon mein anusandhaan nainomekainiks ke tahat ho raha hai.

naino-padaarthon ke utprerak barataav ka jaiv-padaarthon ke saath ant:kriya ke jokhim ka adhyayan ek mahatvapoorn vishay hai.

naino-padaarthon ke in gunadharmon ke kai anokhe anuprayog hain. udaaharan ke liye, gair paaradarshi padaarth ka paaradarshi hona (taanba), achar padaarthon ka utprerak banana (plaatinm, sona), gair dahanasheel ka dahanasheel padaarth banana (eluminiym), thos padaarth ka saamaanya taapamaan mein taral hona (sona), ya kuchaalak padaarth ka chaalak hona (silikaun).

saral se jatil: ek aanuvik pariprekshya

aadhoonik sanshleshik raasaayanashaastr aaj vahaaain tak pahuainch chuka hai ki chote anuon se bade dhaaainchein ki sanrachana ki ja sakti hai. aaj in padyatiyaan se anekon prakaar ke upayogi rasaayan banaaye ja rahe hain, jaise ki davaayein aur vaanijyik upayogi bahulak. vishaal anukanika raasaayan shaast ya/aur aanuvik svaya-sanyojan ise ek kadam aage le jaata hai - ek-ek kar anuon ko punarnidhaarit aakaaron mein sahej kar vishaal anukanikaaon ki sanrachana karke.

adhikaansh laabhadaayak dhaanchon ke nirmaan nahi ho pa raha hai kyonki iske liye zaroorat padti hai jatil aur ushmaagatiki ke sidhaanton ke pare anuon ke asambhav sanrachanaaon ki. iske baavajood prakruti mein kai aise udaaharan hain, jaise ki James vautsn aur frainsis krik dvaara vyaakhyit base pair aur kinvak-vikrutya anyonyakriyein. nainotakaneek ki chunauti hai prakruti ke in sidhaanton ka prayog karne ki.

aanuvik daantedaar pahinyo ka naasa ke dvaara computer anukaran

aanavik nainotakaneeki: ek deerghakaaleen pariprekshya

aanavik nainotakaneeki mein, jise aanavik nirmaan bhi kehte hain, naino skel ki masheenon ka upayog karke aanuvik paimaane par naino padhaarthon ko banaaya jaata hai. yeh takaneek saamaanya nirmaan takaneekon se bhinn hai, jinka prayog kaarban nainotyoobs ya nainokanon ke utpaadan mein hot hai. is takaneek ka aadhaar prakruti ke anant udaaharanon mein milta hai. drekslar aur anya vaigyaaniko[3] ka vishrvaas hai ki, pehle jeev anukaran se aur fir yaantrik abhiyaantriki ke siddhaanton ke upayog se utpaadan takaneekon ko viksit karke prograamayogya yukti baneinge. vaheen kaarlos montemaagamo[4] ka manana hai ki silikaun aur jaivik aanuvik masheenon ke takaneekon ko saath laane se baneingi naino sistam. ek aur vichaaradhaara richhrad smaali ki, jinke anusaar iname se kisi bhi takaneek ke safal hone ki koi bhi sambhaavana nahi.

Dr Alex jetal aur unke saathiyon[5][6] ne laurens barkali lab mein aur, ho aur li[7] ne kornel vishvavidyaalaya mein kai mahatvapurn safalataaeain paayeen hain.

nainopraudyogiki ka upayog

haalaanki nainotakaneeki ke sambhaavit upayogon ka bavandar sa hai, adhiktar vaanijyik upayog pehli peedhi ke nishkriya padhaarthon ka hi hai. iname shaamil hai taiteniym daai aaksaaid ka prayog prasaadhan saamagreeon mein, chaaaindi naino kan ka prayog khaadapadaarthon ke dibbaabandi, kapadon, keetaanunaashakon aur ghareloo yantron mein, jasta aaksaaid naino kan ka prayog prasaadhan saamagreeon, rangalep (peint), baahari-furniture vaarnish; aur seriym aaksaaid indhan-utprerak ke roop mein.[8]

fir bhi, abhi anusandhaan kiye bina agale shikhar par jaana sambhav nahi hai. 'naino' shabdh ke mool siddhaaton ko utpaadan ke star tak le jaane ke liye naino star me anuon ka parichaalan par anusandhaan jaari hai. kintu 'naino' shabdh ke takaneeki udyami aur vaigyaaniko dvaara durupayog ek pratikshep ko janm de sakta hai[9]. chikitsa kshetr mein jaiv takaneek ke kshetr mein nainotakaneek ki madad se kai saari aisi beemaariyon ka nidaan sambhav ho sakta hai jo ki abhi kaafi mushkil hai. udaaharan ke liye nainotakaneek se bane shukshm sanyantr ko manushya ke shareer ke andar sthaapit karke manushya ki beemaari ki sthiti ki baraabar nigraani rakhi ja sakti hai.


aashay

nainotakaneeki ke vyaapak sambhaavit upayogon ke daavon ke kaaran kai chintaaon ko vyakt kiya ja raha hai. saamaajik svaasthya par iske dushprabhaav ke dar se naino padaarthon ke audyogik star par utpaadan par, jahaaain shaasan ke niyantran ki apeksha ki ja rahi hai, vahaaain in niyantranon se is anusandhaan par protsaahaan dene ki rai di ja rahi hai.

deerghakaaleen chintaaen samaaj par aarthik kuprabhaav, jaise viksit aur vikaasasheel raashton ke beech badhate aarthik asamataaen aur arthavyavastha ka pashch-abhaavagrast avastha mein jaana, hain.

ullekh

  1. abdelavaahed dabloo, degobart ji, stainamessi S, fessi H, (2006). "Freeze-drying of nanoparticles: Formulation, process and storage considerations". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 58 (15): 1688-1713.
  2. a aa Kahn, Jennifer (2006). "nainotakaneeki". national jiyograafik 2006 (June): 98-119.
  3. http://www.crnano.org/developing.htm Developing Molecular Manufacturing, kris feeniks
  4. http://www.cnsi.ucla.edu/institution/personnel?personnel%5fid=105488 kaarlos montemaagamo
  5. http://www.physics.berkeley.edu/research/zettl/pdf/312.NanoLett5regan.pdf Nanocrystal-Powered Nanomotor, Dr Alex jetal aur unke saathi
  6. http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/sabl/2005/May/Tiniest-Motor.pdf Surface-tension-driven nanoelectromechanical relaxation oscillator, Dr Alex jetal aur unke saathi
  7. http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Nov99/molecules.ws.html kornel samaachaar, Chemical bonding by assembling molecules one at a time
  8. nainotakaneeki upabhokta utpaad soochi (angreji)
  9. David beroobe ka chintan naino ke bavandar par (angreji)

baahya kadiyaaain