naav

ganga nadi mein logon se bhari ek nauka
maaladeev mein ek naav

naav ya nauka (boat) daaaind, kshepani, chappoo, patavaar ya paal se chalanevaala chhota jalayaan hai. aajkal naavein engine se bhi chalne lagi hain aur itni badi bhi banane lagi hain ki pot (jahaaj) aur nauka (naav) ke beech bhed karna kathin ho jaata hai. vaastav mein pot aur nauka donon samaanaarthak shabd hain, kintu praaya: nauka shabd chhote ke aur pot bade ke arth mein prayukt hota hai.

anukram

praanrabhik itihaas

BABUR CROSSING RIVER SON Folio from an illustrated manuscript of 'Babur-Namah', Mughal, Akbar Period, dated AD 1598, Artist Jagnath

praacheen chitron mein bade bade jahaaj to kuchh achhi tarah chitrit dekhe jaate hain, kintu naavon ke chitr yadi kaheen hain bhi to atyant anagadh aur asaavadhaaneepoorvak bane hue. keval kaheen kaheen khudaaiyon mein prastarayugeeya avasheshon ke saath inke bhi bhagnaavashesh mile hain. pauraanik jalaplaavan ke baad shatapath braahman ke anusaar manu ke, baaibil ke anusaar nooh ke aur yoonaan ke apolodaares ke anusaar diukaliyaan ke naav mein chadhkar bachane ki kathaaeain anek deshon mein milti hain. aur bhi anek granthon mein naavon ka jikr aaya hai, kintu kaheen bhi naav ke svaroop ka varnan naheen hai. isliye bade bade jahaajon ki tulana mein naavon ka praarambhik itihaas praaya: agyaat hi hai. aajkal naavon ke aadim svaroopon ko dekhkar unke udbhav aur vikaas ki rooparekha ka keval kaalpanik anumaan hi lagaaya ja sakta hai.

aadivaasiyon ne idhar udhar jaane aur apna saamaan dhaane ke liye jab nadi naale paar karne ke aaranbhik prayaas kiye honge tab unhein lakdi ya halake padaarthon ki kuchh maatra baaaindhakar, ya fir kisi vruksh ka tana kolakar tatha use paani mein tairaakar, apne uddeshya mein safalta mili hogi. inheen mein ham naav ya jahaaj ka mool nihit maan sakte hain. yeh vivaadaaspad hai ki tana kolakar banaai hui dongi pehle astitv mein I ya paani par tairanevaale sarapat, narakul aadi ka beda. shaayad chhaal ki dongiyaaain aur bhi baad mein bani aur iske baad pashuon ke chamade ke mashakon mein hava bharakar, uske oopar ghaas foos, lakdi aadi ka paatan lagaakar, inse log paani mein paar utarane lage. saath hi saath chamade ki panasuiya bhi banane lagi hongi. ye kuchh sudhare hue svaroop the. kuchh bhi ho, yeh aashcharyajanak tathya hai ki bahut door door deshon mein sthit, aapas mein kabhi bhi ek doosare se sampark mein na aa sakanevaale logon ke man mein alag alag, ek jaise hi vichaar utpann hue.

aarambh mein ye bede ya dongiyaaain, apni gati ke liye paani ke pravaah par hi nirbhar hongi. kintu jab kisi ne yeh khoj ki hogi ki kisi latthe ya chappoo ki sahaayata se vah inhein ichhaanusaar idhar udhar, nadi ki dhaara ke aar paar, ya pravaah ke saath, athva ulate bhi le ja sakta hai, tab use apni safalta par avashya hi bada harsh aur garv hua hoga. fir to nadiyon, jheelon aur kachhon mein vihaar karte karte logon ne kabhi kabhi achhe mausam mein tat se door samudra mein bhi jaana aarambh kar diya hoga. dheere dheere prayog se usaki maaaing badhi, trutiyon ki khoj hui aur sudhaar bhi soojhe. gati badhaane ki aavashyakta anubhav hui. bede ke chaaron or se aur uske beech mein se bhi, paani uchhalakar oopar aa jaata tha, isse bhi bachana tha. yahi gati aur oopar sookha rakhane ki aavashyakta hi naathv ke itihaas mein aadi kaal se aajatak manushya ko apne aavishkaar mein bhaaainti bhaaainti ke sudhaar karne ki or prerit karti rahi. kuchh drushtiyon se dongi achhi rahi, to kuchh drushtiyon se beda. jaise dongi mein paani bheetar naheen aata, kintu usamein na to bede ke baraabar vahanakshamata hi hai aur na utana sthairya. naav naam se donon hi aaj tak kaam aate hain aur donon hi upayogitaaon ko milaakar hi bhaaainti bhaaainti ki naavein banaai gayi hain. jaise hi lakdi ke takhte, bhale hi ve kulhaadi se kaat faadkar anagadh roop se banaae gaye hon, jodne ki kala logon ne seekhi, ve jalaabhedya vakasaanuma naav bhi banaane lage. ismein chaude peinde ke kaaran bede ki bhaanti sthairya aur ooainchi deevaaron ke kaaran dongi ki bhaaainti sookha sthaan upalabdh hue. dheere dheere iske sire kuchh kuchh gol, kuchh kuchh nukeele, kuchh kuchh oopar uthe hue, isi prakaar bhaaainti bhaaainti ke banaae jaane lage.

chamade ya baaains ki bani hui panasuiya se shaayad logon ka lakdi ke dhaaainche par koi aavaran chadhaakar naav banaane ka vichaar utpann hua. unke saamane nirmaan ki do vidhiyaaain I : (1) pehle baahari aavaran banaakar uske bheetar kadiyaaain aur taane lagaakar majaboot karna aur (2) pehle dhaaaincha banaakar uske baahar aavaran lagaana. rachana bhi do prakaar ki hone lagi - ek to sapaat takhtaabandeevaali, jisse takhte dhaar se dhaar milaakar ek doosare se jode jaate hain aur doosari chadhva takhtaabandi waali, jismein oopar ka pratyek takhta apne neechevaale takhte ke oopar thoda chadhaakar lagaaya jaata hai, jisse satah par dhaariyaaain, ya lambi lakeerein, dikhaai deti hain. sapaat rachana ka udbhav bhoomadhyasaagar mein, ya shaayad poorv ki or, hua aur chadhvaaain rachana ka aavishkaar kaidineviya mein hua, jahaaain se vah Europe ke uttari deshon mein faila.

vartamaan naavein

praacheen naunirmaan vidhiyon ke utkrusht namoone aur naukaanayan kala poorvi samudron mein, bhaarateeya mahaasaagar aur dakshini prashaant mahaasaagar mein dekhne ko milti hain, jahaaain naavein shaayad sarvapratham I. nakr nauka (draigan bot) 73 foot tak lambi, 4 foot tak chaudi aur 21 inch gahari hoti hai. iske chappe ka fal 6.. inch chauda, faavade ke aakaar ka hota hai. syaam aur varma donon deshon mein nadeetaton par bahut ghani aabaadi hai. yahaaain ki hansak nauka (dak bot) prasiddh hai. patavaari latakaakar potavaahan ki syaami vidhi sabse adhik praacheen hai. malaayaavaale nauka-nirmaan-kala mein daksh hote hain, kintu vahaaain ki sthaaneeya paristhitiyain anukool naheen hain. vahaaain ki naavon ka visthaapan bahut thoda hota hai, kaat j aakaar ki aur chaudaai bahut kam hoti hain. falasvaroop, inmein sthairya aur vaayu ke pratikool chalne ki kshamata kam hoti hai. naav banaane ki puraani vidhi ke anusaar tana kolakar yahaaain usaki bagalein baahar ki or faila di jaati hain aur aavashyakataanusaar unamein aur takhte lagaakar ooainchaai badha di jaati hai.

bhaarateeya naavon mein Madras ki taranganauka (sarf bot) banaavat ki drushti s apne uddeshya ke liye utkrusht hai. hugali nadi ki dinghi naavein mistr ke praacheen namoonon se milti julati hain. jaise jaise pashchim ki or jaate hain, arab ki bagala (dhau) naav ki tarah ki naavein milti hain. inmein aisi visheshataaeain hoti hain jinka vikaas bade bade jahaaj banaane mein kiya gaya hai : jaise adhik chaudaai, aage nikla hua maatha aur chauda pichhal. inmein dhaaainche ke oopar dohari takhtaabandi ka aavaran rahata hai, jisse ye sookhi rahati aur tikaaoo bhi hoti hain. bina pulavaali nadiyon par, mahatvapoorn sadkon ka yaataayaat niptaane ke liye, naavein hi kaam aati hain. bad badi naavon par ek motor gaadi ya do bailagaadiyaaain laadi ja sakti hain. inmein dhalavaaain lohe ke khanbhon aur saaainkal ki reling lagi hoti hai, jo aavashyakataanusaar ukhaadi ya lagaai ja sakti hai.

bhoomadhyasagar ki naavon ki visheshata hai gol maatha aur yaan ke baahar pichhal par lataki hui gahari patavaari. yoonaani aur itaalavi saagaron mein badi sundar banaavat aur atyadhik vahanakshamataavaali asankhya prakaar ki naavein rahati hai, kintu mistr ke praacheen namoone ki naavein ab kaheen naheen dikhaai padteen. neel nadi mein nagar naamak bahut badi, chammach ke aakaar ki, chaude pichhalavaali, anagadh naavein chalti hain. ye 60 foot tak lambi hoti hai aur 45 tan tak bojh le jaati hai. aage chalakar, jahaaain nadeetat bahut ooainche hai, bade bade uthale bajare chalte hain, jinhein gayaasa kehte hain. inmein bahut ooainche do do mastool hote hain, taaki unapar lage paal tat ke oopar se aanevaali hava pakad sakein.

yadyapi san 1855 mein lainbot naamak ek fraanseesi ne prabalit kankreet ki chhoti naav bhi peteint kara li thi, tathaapi nauka nirmaan ke liye lakdi ka hi prayog aadi kaal se hota aaya hai aur iska sthaan vyaapak roop se koi anya padaarth naheen le saka. peepon mein, jo tairate hue pul aadi banaane ke kaam aate hain, ispaat lagta hai. aajkal naavon, jahaajon aadi mein virmaavraait ki chaadarein bahut lagne lagi hain. virmaabraait ailyaminiym ki mishradhaatu hai, jo atyant halaki, kintu majaboot, hoti hai aur khaane paani se bhi prabhaavit naheen hoti.

aadhunik pravrutti

Germany ki queen mairi

19veen sadi ke madhya mein naavon mein engine lagne lage. naukaavihaar ke liye bhaapanauka ka khoob prachalan hua, kintu nauparivhan tatha pattanon mein iska prayog bahut dheere dheere badha. 20veen shati ke aarambh mein bhi yaheen pravrutti rahi, kintu pratham vishvayuddh ke baad, jab vaashpayantr vishvasaneeya samajh liya gaya, inka prayog sabhi kshetron mein badi teji se badha. inka maanakeekaran hone se sansaar ke adhik sabhya kahe jaanevaale deshon mein chitravichitr aur darshaneeya naavon ke sthaaneeya namoone badi teji se gaayab hone lage. Europeeya taton mein sabhi jagah, jahaaain atyant vibhinnataapoorn paristhitiyaaain theen, ek hi gati hui, arthaat paalapatavaar ki jagah bhaap ne le li. kintu hind mahaasaagar, dakshini prashaant mahaasaagar, dakshini amareeka ki nadiyon aur Africa ki jheelon mein abhi inka vyaapak prayog naheen ho paaya hai.

vaanijya ke liye bhaapanauka bahut upayogi siddh hui hai. yeh kam se kam do teen foot paani mein bhi aasaani se chal sakti hai. Bhaarat ki adhikaansh badi badi nadiyon mein sookhi ritu mein bhi itna paani rahata hai. isliye nauparivaahan ke liye yahaaain vyaapak kshetr hai. nauparivhan ki unnati karke sadkon aur relon par bhaar kam karne ke liye sarkaar bhi prayatnasheel hai. ganga, yamuna, sindh, narmada, godaavari aadi baarahamaasi nadiyon ki is drushti se padtaal ho rahi hai. brahmaputr ko farakka ke nikat ganga se aur ganga ki narmada nadi dvaara arab saagar se, mila dene se desh ke poorv se pashchim tak mahaan aarthik mahatvavaala jalamaarg ban sakta hai.

great Britain mein 19veen shati mein nau-nirmaan-udyog mein badi unnati hui. machhali udyog ke vistaar aur pratispardha ke kaaran is udyog mein baraabar sudhaar hote rahe. jaise jaise naap badhti gayi, bhaap ka prayog bhi badhta gaya. Amreeki naarve nipte peindevaali, chaude sirevaali, aadhi paatanavaali, khuli khenevaali ya paalavaali, ek mastoolavaali aadi anek prakaar ki hoti hain.

raksha naarve

praacheen kaal mein bhi jahaajon ke saath naarve raha karti theen. ve ya to unapar ladi rahati theen, ya unase baindhi rahati theen. yoonaani aur roman yuddhapoton ke saath bhi rahati theen, kintu ve shataabdiyon tak rakshaakaarya sanpaadan mein aksham theen. inglaind mein 19veen shati mein ek kaanoon banaakar jahaaj mein naavon ka pratimaan nirdhaarit kar diya gaya, kintu yeh pratimaan jahaaj ke tan bhaar ke aadhaar par tha, yaatriyon ki sankhya kein aadhaar par naheen. san 1912 ki bheeshan potadurghatana ke falasvaroop naya pratimaan nirdhaarit hua, jiske anusaar yaatreepoton mein sab yaatriyon ke liye aur bhaaravaahi poton mein donon or ke samast karmeedal ke liye paryaapt naavon ki vyavastha hoti hai.

England ke poorveetat ki rakshaanaukaaeain utkrusht koti ki, sundar, lambi aur kam visthaapanavaali naarve hain, jo kharaab mausam mein aur chand saagar mein saahasapoorn kaam ke liye prasiddh hain.

baahari kadiyaaain