naatya shaastr

guru maani maadhav chaakyaar ke prakhyaat rasaabhinya

naatakon ke sambandh mein shaastreeya jaankaari ko naatya shaastr kehte hain. is jaankaari ka sabse puraana granth bhi naatyashaastr ke naam se jaana jaata hai jiske rachayita bharat muni the. bharat muni ka kaal 400 ipoo ke nikat maana jaata hai.

sangeet, naatak aur abhinay ke sampoorn granth ke roop mein bhaaratamuni ke naatya shaastr ka aaj bhi bahut sammaan hai. unka maanana hai ki naatya shaastr mein keval naatya rachana ke niyamon ka aakalan naheen hota balki abhineta rangamanch aur prekshak in teenon tatvon ki poorti ke saadhanon ka vivechan hota hai. 37 adhyaayon mein bharatamuni ne rangamanch abhineta abhinay nrutyageetavaadya, darshak, dasharoopak aur ras nishpatti se sambandhit sabhi tathyon ka vivechan kiya hai. bharat ke naatya shaastr ke adhyayan se yeh spasht ho jaata hai ki naatak ki safalta keval lekhak ki pratibha par aadhaarit naheen hoti balki vibhinn kalaaon aur kalaakaaron ke samyak ke sahayog se hi hoti hai.[1]

anukram

parichay

bharatanaatyam aadi bhaarateeya shaastreeya nrutya, naatyashaastr se prerit hain.

naatyashaastr (bhaarateeya) naatya aur nrutt, drushya kaavya ke ye do bhed hain. nat nati dvaara kisi avasthaavishesh ki anukruti naatya hai - 'naatyate abhinyatven roopyate- iti naatyam'. taal aur laya ki sangati se anubaddh anukrut ko nrutt kehte hain. ye donon hi abhinay ke vishay hain aur lalit kala ke antargat maane jaate hain. naatya ke pramukh ang chaar hain - vaachik, saatvik, aangik aur aahaarya. ukti-pratyukti ki yathaavat anukruti vaachik abhinay ka vishay hai. bhaavon ka yathaavat pradarshan saatvik abhinay hai. bhaavapradarshan ke liye haath, pair, netr, bhroo, evam kati, mukh, mastak aadi angon ki vividh cheshtaaon ki anukruti aangik abhinay hai. deshavidesh ke anuroop veshabhoosha, chaaladhaal, rahan sahan aur boli ki anukruti aahaarya abhinay ka vishay hai. chaturvidh abhinay ke sahaayak nrutya, geet, vaadya evam gati, vrutti, pravrutti aur aasan ka anusandhaan bhi naatya ke antargat hai. is prakaar abhinay ke vividh ang evam upaangon ke svaroop aur prayog ke aakaaraprakaar ka vivran prastut kar tatsanbandhi niyam tatha vyavahaar ko nirdhaarit karanevaala shaastr 'naatyashaastr' hai. abhinay ke anuroop sthaan ko naatyagruh kehte hain jiske prakaar, nirmaan evam saajasajja ke niyamon ka pratipaadan bhi naatyashaastr ka hi vishay hai. vividh shreni ke abhineta evam abhinetri ke vyavahaar, paraspar sanlaap aur abhinay ke nirdeshan evam nirdeshak ke kartavyon ka vivran bhi naatyashaastr ki vyaapak paridhi mein samaavisht hai. iska mukhya uddeshya aihik jeevan ki naana vedanaaon se parishraant janta ka manoranjan hai - yeh Dave, daanav evam maanav samaaj ke liye aamod pramod ka saral saadhan hai. yeh nayanon ki trupti karanevaala evam bhaavodrek ka parimaarjan kar prekshakavarg ka aahlaadit karanevaala manoram anusandhaan hai - yeh jaatibhed, vargabhed, vayobhed aadi naisargik evam saamaajik vibhedon se nirpeksh, bhinn ruchi ki janta ka saamaanya roop se samaaraadhan karanevaala ek kaant, 'chaakshushakratu' hai. iske pravartak swayam prajaapati hain jinhonne rigved se paathya, saamaved se geet, yajurved se abhinay tatha atharvaangirs se ras ka parigrah kar saarvavarnik pancham ved ka praadurbhaav kiya. uma mahaadev ne supreet ho lokaanuranjan ke hetu laasya evam taandav ka sahayog dekar ise upakrut kiya hai. vastut: aisa koi shaastr, koi shilp, na koi vidya aur na koi kala aisi hai jiska pratinidhitv naatyashaastr mein na ho. is tarah anupam divyata se anupraanit naatyashaastr mein na ho. is tarah anupam divyata se anupraanit naatyashaastr ke adhishthaata Dave ki bhi kalpana, itar ved evam vedaangon ke adhishthaataaon ki bhaaainti, ki gayi hai jiske svaroop ka ullekh 'nrusinhapraasaad' naamak granth mein milta hai.

'naatyashaastramidan ramyan mrugavaktran jataadharam. akshasootran trishoolan ch vibhraarnaach trilochanam.'

naatya sambandhi niyamon ki sanhita ka naam 'naatyashaastr' hai. bhaarateeya parampara ke anusaar naatyashaastr ke aadya rachayita swayam prajaapati maane gaye hain aur use 'naatyaved' kehkar naatyakala ko vishisht sammaan pradaan kiya gaya hai.

jis prakaar param purush ke ni:shvaas se aavirbhoot vedaraashi ke drashta vividh rishi prakalpit hain usi tarah mahaadev dvaara prokt naatyaved ke drashta shilaali, krushaashv aur bharatamuni maane gaye hain. shilaali evam krushaashv dvaara sankalit naatyasanhitaaeain aaj upalabdh naheen hai, keval bharat muni dvaara praneet granth hi upalabdh hua hai jo 'naatyashaastr' ke naam se prathit hai. iska pranayan sambhavat: Kashmir desh mein hua.

naatyashaastr ka rachanaakaal, nirmaanashaili tatha bahi: saakshya ke aadhaar par isa poorv doosari shataabdi ke lagbhag sthir kiya ja sakta hai.

bharatamuni ka naatyashaastr

is granth mein pratyabhijnyaa darshan ki chhaap hai. pratyabhijnyaa darshan mein sveekrut 36 mool tatvon ke prateek svaroop naatyashaastr mein 36 adhyaaya hain. pehle adhyaaya mein naatyotpatti, doosare mein mandapavidhaan dene ke pashchaat agale teen adhyaayon mein naatyaaranbh se poorv ki prakriya ka vidhaan varnit hai. chhathe aur saatavein adhyaaya mein rason aur bhaavon ka vyaakhyaan hai, jo bhaarateeya kaavyashaastr mein vyaapt rasasiddhaant ki aadhaarashila hai. aathavein aur navein adhyaaya mein upaang evam angon dvaara prakalpit abhinay ke svaroop ki vyaakhya kar agale chaar adhyaayon mein gati aur karanon ka upanyaas kiya hai. agale chaar adhyaayon mein gati aur karanon ka upanyaas kiya hai. agale chaar adhyaayon mein chhand aur alankaaron ka svaroop tatha svaravidhaan bataalaaya hai. naatya ke bhed tatha kalevar ka saangopaang vivran 18vein aur 19vein adhyaaya mein dekar 20vein vrutti vivechan kiya hai. tatpashchaat 29vein adhyaaya mein vividh prakaar ke abhinyon ki visheshataaeain di gayi hain. 29 se 34 adhyaaya tak geet vaadya ka vivran dekar 35vein adhyaaya mein bhoomiviklp ki vyaakhya ki hai. antim adhyaaya upasanhaaraatmak hai.

yeh granth mukhyat: do paathaantaron mein upalabdh hai 1. auttareeya paath aur 2. daakshinaatya. paandulipiyon mein ek aur 37vaaain adhyaaya bhi kvachit upalabdh hota hai jiska samaavesh nirnayasaagari sanskaran mein sampaadak ne kiya hai. iske atirikt mool maatr granth ka prakaashan chaukhanba sanskrut series, Varanasi se bhi hua hai jiska paath nirnayasaagari paath se bhinn hai. Abhinav bhaarati teeka sahit naatyashaastr ka sanskaran gaayakavaad series ke antargat Baroda se kramash: prakaashyamaan hai.

vastut: yeh granth naatyasanvidhaan tatha rasasiddhaant ki maulik sanhita hai. iski maanyata itni adhik hai ki iske vaakya 'bharatasootr' kahe jaate hain. sadiyon se ise aarsh sammaan praapt hai. is granth mein moolat: 12,000 padya tatha kuchh gadyaansh bhi tha, isi kaaran ise 'dvaadashasaahastri sanhita' kaha jaata hai. parantu kaalakramaanusaar iska sankshipt sanskaran prachalit ho chala jiska aayaam chhah hajaar padyon ka raha aur yeh sankshipt sanhita 'shatasaahastri' kahalaai bharatamuni ubhaya sanhita ke praneta maane jaate hain aur praacheen teekaakaaron dvaara unka 'dvaadash saahastreekaar' tatha 'shatsaahastreekaar' ki upaadhi se paraamarsh yatr tatr kiya gaya hai. jis tarah aaj upalabdh chaanakya neeti ka aadhaar vruddh chaankya aur smrutiyon ka aadhaar kramash: vruddh vasishth, vruddh manu aadi maana jaata hai usi tarah vruddhi bharat ka bhi ullekh milta hai. iska yeh taatparya naheen ki vasishth, manu, chaanakya, bharat aadi do do vyakti ho gaye, parantu is sandarbh mein 'vruddh' ka taatparya paripoorn sanhitaakaar se hai.

teekaaeain

naatyashaastr par anek vyaakhyaaeain likhi gain aur bharatasootron ke vyaakhyaata apne apne siddhaant ke pratishthaapak aachaarya maane gaye jinke mat kaavyashaastr sambandhi vividh vaad ke roop mein prachalit hue. aise aachaaryon mein ullekhaneeya naatyashaastr ke vyaakhyaata hain reetivaadi bhatt udbhat, pushtivaadi bhatt lollat, anumitivaadi shankuk, muktivaadi bhatt naayak aur abhivyaktivaadi Abhinav gupt. inke atirikt nakhakutt, maatrugupt, raahulak, keertighr, thakaleegarbh, harshadev tatha shreepaadashishya ne bhi naatyashaastr par apni apni vyaakhyaaeain prastut ki theen. inmein se 'shreepaadashishyakrut' 'bharatatilk' naam ki teeka sarvapraacheen prateet hoti hai. is samay Abhinav gupt krut abhinvabhaarati teeka hi mudranaadheen hai. naatyashaastr mein pratipaadit sangeetaadhyaaya ke vyaakhyaata anek ho gaye hain. jinmein pramukh bhatt sumanas, bhattavruddhi, bhattayantr aur bhatt gopaal hain. inke atirikt bharatamuni ke pradhaan shishya maatang, dattil evam kohal naatyashaastr ke aadhaar par sangeetaparak svatantr granth, sadaashiv aur randikeshvar ne nrutya par tatha bhatt taut prabhruti ne rasameemaansa par rache hain. bharat naatyashaastr ka ras bhaavaadhyaaya bhaarateeya manovijnyaaan ka aadhaar granth maana jaata hai.

sandarbh

  1. maalaveeya, daaain. sudhaakar (1995). hindi dasharoopak. Varanasi, Bhaarat: krushnadaas academy. pa॰ 7.

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