naastikta

duniya bhar naastikta ko sveekaar karne vaalon ki ginti
kaarl maarks jinhonne dharm ke khtaron ka vishesh ullekh kiya
'navanaastikta' ke chaar pramukh daarshanik (oopari baaeain se dakshinaavart): richrd daukins, kristofr hichens, dainiyl dainet, evam saim hairis

naastikta athva naastikvaad ya aneeshvaravaad vah siddhaant jo jagat ki srushti karne vaale, iska sanchaalan aur niyantran karanevaale kisi bhi ishvar ke astitv ko sarvamaanya pramaan ke na hone ke aadhaar par sveekaar naheen karta. (naasti = na + asti = naheen hai, arthaat ishvar naheen hai.) naastik log ishvar (Bhagwan) ke astitv ka spasht pramaan na hone kaaran jhooth karaar dete hain. adhikaansh naastik kisi bhi devi devata, paraalaukik shakti, dharm aur aatma ko naheen maanate. hindu darshan mein naastik shabd unke liye bhi prayukt hota hai jo vedon ko maanyata naheen dete. naastik maanane ke sthaan par jaanane par vishvaas karte hain. vaheen aastik kisi na kisi ishvar ki dhaarana ko apne dharm, sanpradaaya, jaati, kul ya mat ke anusaar bina kisi pramaanikta ke sveekaar karta hai. naastikta ise andhavishvaas kehti hai kyonki kisi bhi do dharmon aur maton ke ishvar ki maanyata ek naheen hoti hai. naastikta roodhivaadi dhaaranaaon ke aadhaar naheen balki vaastavikta aur pramaan ke aadhaar par hi ishvar ko sveekaar karne ka darshan hai. naastikta ke liye ishvar ki satta ko sveekaar karne ke liye abhi tak ke sabhi tark aur pramaan aparyaapt hai.

darshan ka aneeshvaravaad ke anusaar jagat swayam sanchaalit aur swayam shaasit hai. ishvaravaadi ishvar ke astitv ke liye jo pramaan dete hain, aneeshvaravaadi un sabki aalochna karke unako kaat dete hain aur sansaaragat doshon ko batalaakar nimnalikhit prakaar ke tarkon dvaara yeh siddh karne ka prayatn karte hain ki aise sansaar ka rachanevaala ishvar naheen ho sakta.

ishvaravaadi kehte hai ki manushya ke man mein ishvarapratyaya janm se hi hai aur vah svayansiddh evam anivaarya hai. yeh ishvar ke astitv ka dyotak hai. iske uttar mein aneeshvaravaadi kehte hain ki ishvarabhaavana sabhi manushyon mein anivaarya roop se naheen pai jaati aur yadi pai bhi jaati ho to keval man ki bhaavana se baahari vastuon ka astitv siddh naheen hota. man ki bahut si dhaaranaaon ko vigyaan ne asiddh pramaanit kar diya hai.

jagat mein sabhi vastuon ka kaaran hota hai. bina kaaran ke koi kaarya naheen hota. kaaran do prakaar ke hote hain-ek upaadaan, jiske dvaara koi vastu banti hai aur doosra nimitt, jo usako banaata hai. ishvaravaadi kehte hain ki ghat, pat aur ghadi ki bhaaainti samast jagat bhi ek kaarya (krut ghatna) hai ataev iske bhi upaadaan aur nimitt kaaran hone chaahiye. kuchh log ishvar ko jagat ka nimitt kaaran aur kuchh log nimitt aur upaadaan donon hi kaaran maanate hain. is yukti ke uttar mein aneeshvaravaadi kehte hain ki iska hamaare paas koi pramaan naheen hai ki ghat, pat aur ghadi ki bhaaainti samast jagat bhi kisi samay utpann aur aarambh hua tha. iska pravaah anaadi hai, at: iske srashta aur upaadaan kaaran ko dhooaindhne ki aavashyakta naheen hai. yadi jagat ka srashta koi ishvar maan liya jaaya jo anek kathinaaiyon ka saamana karna padega; yatha, usaka srushti karne mein kya prayojan tha? bhautik srushti keval maanasik athva aadhyaatmik satta kaise kar sakti hai? yadi iska upaadaan koi bhautik padaarth maan bhi liya jaaya to vah usaka niyantran kaise kar sakta hai? vah swayam bhautik shareer athva upakaranon ki sahaayata se kaarya karta hai athva bina usaki sahaayata ke? srushti ke hue bina ve upakaran aur vah bhautik shareer kahaaain se aae? aisi srushti rachane se ishvar ka, jisko uske bhakt sarvashaktimaan, sarvajnya aur kalyaanakaari maanate hain, kya prayojan hai, jismein jeevan ka ant maran mein, sukh ka ant du:kh mein sanyog ka viyog mein aur unnati ka avanati mein ho? is du:khamaya srushti ko banaakar, jahaaain jeev ko khaakar jeev jeeta hai aur jahaaain sab praani ek doosare shatru hain aur aapas mein sab praaniyon mein sangharsh hota hai, bhala kya laabh hua hai? is jagat ki durdasha ka varnan yogavaasishth ke ek shlok mein bhali bhaaainti milta hai, jiska aashay nimnilikht hai--

kaun sa aisa gyaan hai jismein trutiyaaain na hon, kaun si aisi disha hai jahaaain du:khon ki agni prajvalit na ho, kaun si aisi vastu utpann hoti hai jo nasht honevaali na ho, kaun sa aisa vyavahaar hai jo chhalakapat se rahit ho? aise sansaar ka rachanevaala sarvajnya, sarvashaktimaan aur kalyaanakaari ishvar kaise ho sakta hai?

ishvaravaadi ek yukti yeh diya karte hain ki is bhautik sansaar mein sabhi vastuon ke antargat aur samast srushti mein, niyam aur uddeshyasaarthakata pai jaati hai. yeh baat iski dyotak hai ki iska sanchaalan karanevaala koi buddhimaan ishvar hai is yukti ka aneeshvaravaad is prakaar khandan karta hai ki sansaar mein bahut si ghatanaaeain aisi bhi hoti hain jinka koi uddeshya, athva kalyaanakaari uddeshya naheen jaan padta, yatha ativrushti, anaavrushti, akaal, baadh, aag lag jaana, akaalamrutyu, jara, vyaadhiyaaain aur bahut se hinsak aur dusht praani. sansaar mein jitne niyam aur aikya drushtigochar hote hain utani hi aniyamitata aur virodh bhi dikhaai padte hain. inka kaaran dhooaindhna utana hi aavashyak hai jitna niyamon aur aikya ka. jaise, samaaj mein sabhi logon ko raaja ya raajyaprabandh ek doosare ke prati vyavahaar mein niyantrit rakhata hai, vaise hi sansaar ke sabhi praaniyon ke oopar shaasan karanevaale aur unako paap aur punya ke liye yaatana, dand aur puraskaar denevaale ishvar ki aavashyakta hai. iske uttar mein aneeshvaravaadi yeh kehta hai ki sansaar mein praakrutik niyamon ke atirikt aur koi niyam naheen dikhaai padte. paap aur punya ka bhed mithya hai jo manushya ne apne man se bana liya hai. yahaaain par sab kriyaaon ki pratikriyaaeain hoti rahati hain aur sab kaamon ka lekha baraabar ho jaata hai. iske liye kisi aur niyaamak tatha shaasak ki aavashyakta naheen hai. yadi paap aur punya ke liye dand aur puraskaar ka prabandh hota tatha unako rokane aur karaanevaala koi ishvar hota; aur punyaatmaaon ki raksha hua karti tatha paapaatmaaon ko dand mila karta to isaamaseeh aur Gandhi jaise punyaatmaaon ki nrushans hatya na ho paati.

is prakaar aneeshvaravaad ishvaravaadi sooktiyon ka khandan karta hai aur yahaaain tak kah deta hai ki aise sansaar ki srushti karanevaala yadi koi maana jaaya to buddhimaan aur kalyaanakaari ishvar ko naheen, dusht aur moorkh shaitaan ko hi maanana padega.

paashchaatya daarshanikon mein anek aneeshvaravaadi ho gaye hain aur hain. Bhaarat mein jain, bauddh, chaarvaak, saankhya aur poorvameemaansa darshan aneeshvaravaadi darshan hain. in darshanon mein di gayi yuktiyon ka sundar sankalan haribhdr soori likhit shaddarshan samuchchaya ke oopar gunaratn ke likhe hue bhaashya, kumaaril bhatt ke shlokavaartik aur raamaanujaachaarya ke brahmasootr par likhe gaye shreebhaashya mein paaya jaata hai.

dharm manushya ko baatainneain ka kaam karta hai. at: ishvar sirf janta ka afeem hota hai.

bhaarateeya darshan mein naastik

bhaarateeya darshan mein naastik shabd teen arthon mein prayukt hua hai.

(1) jo log ved ko param pramaan naheen maanate ve naastik kahalaate hain. is paribhaasha ke anusaar bauddh, jain aur lokaayat maton ke anuyaayi naastik kahalaate hain aur ye teenon darshan naastik darshan kahe jaate hain.

(2) jo log paralok aur mrutyupashchaat jeevan mein vishvaas naheen karte; is paribhaasha ke anusaar keval chaarvaak darshan jise lokaayat darshan bhi kehte hain, Bhaarat mein naastik darshan kahalaata hai aur uske anuyaayi naastik kahalaate hain.

(3) jo log ishvar (khuda, gaud) ke astitv mein vishvaas naheen karte. ishvar mein vishvaas na karanevaale naastik kai prakaar ke hote hain. ghor naastik ve hain jo ishvar ko kisi roop mein naheen maanate. chaarvaak matavaale Bhaarat mein aur raink etheest log paashchaatya deshein mein ishvar ka astitv kisi roop mein sveekaar naheen karte; ardhanaasti unka kah sakte hain jo ishvar ka srushti, paalan aur sanhaarakarta ke roop mein naheen maanate. is pirbhaasha ke anusaar Bhaarat ke bahut se darshan naastik ki koti mein aa jaate hain. vaastav mein nyaaya aur vedaant darshanon ko chhodkar Bhaarat ke anya darshan saankhya, yog, vaisheshik, meemaansa, bauddh aur jain naastik darshan kahe ja sakte hain kyonki inmein ishvar ko sarjak, paalak aur vinaashak naheen maana gaya hai. aise naastikon ko hi aneeshvaravaadi kehte hain.

naastikta mein tark kaun sa aisa gyaan hai jismein trutiyaaain na hon, kaun si aisi disha hai jahaaain du:khon ki agni prajvalit na ho, kaun si aisi vastu utpann hoti hai jo nasht honevaali na ho, kaun sa aisa vyavahaar hai jo chhalakapat se riht ho? aise sansaar ka rachanevaala sarvajnya, sarvashaktimaan aur kalyaanakaari ishvar kaise ho sakta hai? naastikta ke paksh mein tark ishvar ke astitv ka koi saboot naheen hai. use dekha, suna, mahasoos kiya naheen ja sakta. prakruti ke saare niyam kaanoon vigyaan se samajhe ja sakte hain. jagat aur jeevan ka udbhav bhi vigyaan se samjha ja sakta hai. dharmagranthon mein bakavaas likhi gayi hai. unki kahaaniyaaain pareekathaaeain lagti hain, jinka aitihaasik pramaan naheen hai. yadi ishvar hai, to is vishv mein itna paap, dukh aur peeda kyon hai ? dharmagranthon ne ek manushya ko doosare manushya se pruthak kar diya hai.

aadhunik kaal mein naastik

naastik arthaat aneeshvaravaadi log sabhi desho aur kaalon mein paae jaate hain. is vaigyaanik aur bauddhik yug mein naastikon ki kami naheen hai. balki yeh kehna theek hoga ki aise log aajkal bahut kam mileinge jo naastik (aneeshvaravaadi) naheen hai. naastikon ka kehna yeh hai ki ishvar mein vishvaas karne ki aavashyakta hi naheen padti. sarjak maanane ki aavashyakta to tabhi hogi jab ki yeh pramaanit ho jaae ki kabhi srushti ki utpatti hui hogi. yeh jagat sada se chala aa raha jaan padta hai. iske kisi samay mein utpann hone ka koi pramaan hi naheen hai. utpann bhi hua to iska kya pramaan hai ki iski vishesh vyakti ne banaaya ho, apne kaaranon se svat: hi yeh ban gaya ho. iska chaalak aur paalak maanane ki bhi aavashyakta naheen hai kyonki jagat mein itni maarakaat, itna naash aur dhvans tatha itna du:kh aur anyaaya dikhaai padta hai ki iska sanchaalak aur paalak koi samajhdaar aur sarvashaktimaan aur achha Bhagwan naheen maana ja sakta, sanbhavat: vo ek vikshipt shaktidhaarak hi ho sakta hai. sansaar mein surgeon aur sanhaar donon saath saath chal rahe hain. isliye yeh kehna vyarth hai, ki kisi din iska poora sanhaar ho jaaega aur uske karne ke liye ishvar ko maanane ki aavashyakta hai. naastikon ke vichaar mein aastikon dvaara diye gaye ishvar ke astitv ko siddh karne ke liye sabhi pramaan pramaanaabhaas hain.

inhein bhi dekhein