naamadev

samaybhagavaan

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angoothaakaar|naam dev

naamadev Maharashtra ke prasiddh sant ho gaye hain. inke samay mein naath aur mahaanubhaav panthon ka Maharashtra mein prachaar tha.

sant naamadev ka janm san 1269 (samvat 1327) mein Maharashtra ke sataara jile mein Krishna nadi ke kinaare base naraseebaamani naamak gaaainv mein ek darji parivaar mein hua tha. inke pita ka naam daamaasheti aur maata ka naam gonaai devi tha. inka parivaar Bhagwan vitthal ka param bhakt tha. naamadev ka vivaah raadhaabaai ke saath hua tha aur inke putr ka naam Narayan tha.

sant naamadev ne visoba khechar ko guru ke roop mein sveekaar kiya tha. ye sant jnyaaaneshvar ke samakaaleen the aur umr mein unase 5 saal bade the. sant naamadev, sant jnyaaaneshvar ke saath poore Maharashtra ka bhraman kiye, bhakti-geet rache aur janta janaardan ko samata aur prabhu-bhakti ka paath padhaaya. sant jnyaaaneshvar ke paralokagaman ke baad inhonne poore Bhaarat ka bhraman kiya. inhonne maraathi ke saath hi saath hindi mein bhi rachanaaeain likheen. inhonne athaarah varsho tak Punjab mein bhagavannaam ka prachaar kiya. abhi bhi inki kuchh rachanaaeain sikkhon ki dhaarmik pustakon mein milti hain. mukhabaani naamak pustak mein inki rachanaaeain sangrahit hain. aaj bhi inke rachit geet poore Maharashtra mein bhakti aur prem ke saath gaae jaate hain. ye samvat 1407 mein samaadhi mein leen ho gaye.

naamadev ve Maharashtra ke prasiddh sant ho gaye hain. inke samay mein naath aur mahaanubhaav panthon ka Maharashtra mein prachaar tha. naath panth "alakh niranjan" ki yogaparak saadhana ka samarthak tatha baahyaadanbaron ka virodhi tha aur mahaanubhaav panth vaidik karmakaand tatha bahudevopaasana ka virodhi hote hue bhi moortipooja ko sarvatha nishiddh naheen maanata tha. inke atirikt Maharashtra mein pandharapur ke "vithoba" ki upaasana bhi prachalit thi. saamaanya janta prati varsh aashaadhi aur kaartiki ekaadashi ko unke darshanon ke liye pandharapur ki "vaari" (yaatra) kiya karti thi (yeh pratha aaj bhi prachalit hai) is prakaar ki vaari (yaatra) karanevaale "vaarakari" kahalaate hain. vitthalopaasana ka yeh "panth" "vaarakari" sanpradaaya kahalaata hai. naamadev isi sanpradaaya ke pramukh sant maane jaate hain.

anukram

naamadev ka kaalanirnaya

vaarakari sant naamadev ke samay ke sambandh mein vidvaanon mein matabhed hai. matabhed ka kaaran yeh hai ki Maharashtra mein naamadev naamak paaainch sant ho gaye hain aur un sabne thodi bahut "abhang" aur padarachana ki hai. aavate ki "sakal santagaatha" mein naamadev ke naam par 2500 abhang milte hain. lagbhag 600 abhangon mein keval naamadev ya "naama" ki chhaap hai aur shesh mein "vishnudaasanaama" ki.

kuchh vidvaanon ke mat se donon "naama" ek hi hain. vishnu (vithoba) ke das hone se naamadev ne hi sambhavat: apne ko vishnudaas "naama" kehna praarambh kar diya ho. is sanbadh mein Maharashtra ke prasiddh itihaasakaar vi.ka. raajavaade ka kathan hai ki "naabha" shinpi (darji) ka kaal shake 1192 se 1272 tak hai. vishnudaasanaama ka samay shake 1517 hai. yeh ekanaath ke samakaaleen the. pro॰ raanade ne bhi raajavaade ke mat ka samarthan kiya hai. shri raajavaade ne vishnudaas naama ki "baavan akshari" prakaashit ki hai jismein "naamadevaraaya" ki vandana ki gayi hai. isse bhi siddh hota hai ki ye donon vyakti bhinn hain aur bhinn bhinn samay mein hue hain. chaandorakar ne mahaanubhaavi "nemadev" ko bhi vaarakari naamadev ke saath jod diya hai. parantu dau॰ tulapule ka kathan hai ki yeh bhinn vyakti hai aur koli jaati ka hai. iska vaarakari naamadev se koi sambandh naheen hai. naamadev ke samasaamayik ek vishnudaas naama kavi ka aur pata chala hai par yeh mahaanubhaav sanpradaaya ka hai. isne mahaabhaarat par oveebaddh granth likha hai. iska vaarakari naamadev se koi sanbadh naheen hai.

naamadev vishyak ek aur vivaad hai. "gurugranth saahab" mein naamadev ke 61 pad sangruheet hain. Maharashtra ke kuchh vivechakon ki dhaarana hai ki gurugranth saahab ka naamadev punjabi hai, mahaaraashtreeya naheen. yeh ho sakta hai, vah mahaaraashtreeya vaarakari naamadev ka koi shishya raha ho aur usane apne guru ke naam par hindi mein pad rachana ki ho. parantu mahaaraashtreeya vaarakari naamadev hi ke hindi pad gurugranthasaahab mein sankalit hain. kyonki naamadev ke maraathi abhangon aur gurugranthasaahab ke padon mein jeevan ghatnaaon tatha bhaavon, yahaaain tak ki roopak aur upamaaon ki samaanata hai. at: maraathi abhangakaar naamadev aur hindi padakaar naamadev ek hi siddh hote hain.

mahaaraashtreeya vidvaan vaarakari naamadev ko jnyaaaneshvar ka samasaamayik maanate hain aur jnyaaaneshvar ka samay unke granth "jnyaaaneshvari" se pramaanit ho jaata hai. jnyaaaneshvari mein usaka rachanaakaal "1212 shake" diya hua hai. dau॰ mohanasinh deevaana naamadev ke kaal ko kheenchakar 14veen aur 15veen shataabdi tak le jaate hain. parantu unhonne apne mrutasamarthan ka koi akaatya pramaan prastut naheen kiya. naamadev ki ek prasiddh rachana "teerthaavali" hai jiski praamaanikta nirvivaad hai. usamein jnyaaanadev aur naamadev ki sahayaatraaon ka varnan hai. at: jnyaaanadev aur naamadev ka samakaaleen hona ant:saakshya se bhi siddh hai. naamadev jnyaaaneshvar ki samaadhi ke lagbhag 55 varsh baad tak aur jeevit rahe. is prakaar naamadev ka kaal shake 1192 se shake 1272 tak maana jaata hai.

jeevanacharitr

naamadev ka janm shake 1192 mein pratham sanvatsar kaartik shukl ekaadashi ko narasi braahmani naamak gram mein daama shet shinpi (darji) ke yahaaain hua tha. inka man Patrick vyavasaaya mein kabhi naheen laga. ek din jab ye apne upaasya aavadhya ke naaganaath ke darshan ke liye gaye, inhonne mandir ke paas ek stri ka apne rote hue bachche ko buri tarah se maarate hue dekha. inhonne jab usase usaka kaaran poochha, usane badi vedana ke saath kaha, "iske baap ko to daakoo naamadev ne maar daala ab main kahaaain se iske pet mein ann daalooain". naamadev ke man par is ghatna ka gahra prabhaav pada. ye virkt ho pandharapur mein jaakar "vithoba" ke bhakt ha gaye. vaheen inki jnyaaaneshvar parivaar se bheint hui aur usi ki prerana se inhonne naathapanthi visoba khechar se deeksha li. jo naamadev pandharapur ke "vitthal" ki pratima mein hi Bhagwan ko dekhte the, ve khechar ke sampark mein aane ke baad use sarvatr anubhav karne lage. usaki premabhakti mein gyaan ka samaavesh ha gaya. dau॰ mohanasinh naamadev ko raamaanand ka shishya batalaate hain. parantu Maharashtra mein inki bahumaanya guru parampara is prakaar hai -

jnyaaaneshvar aur naamadev uttar Bhaarat ki saath saath yaatra ki thi. jnyaaaneshvar maaravaad mein koladarji naamak sthaan tak hi naamadev ke saath gaye. vahaaain se lautakar unhonne aalandi mein shake 1218 mein samaadhi le li. jnyaaaneshvar ke viyog se naamadev ka man Maharashtra se uchat gaya aur ye Punjab ki or chale gaye. gurudaasapur jile ke ghobhaan naamak sthaan par aaj bhi naamadev ji ka mandir vidyamaan hai. vahaaain seemit kshetr mein inka "panth" bhi chal raha hai. santon ke jeevan ke saath katipya chamatkaari ghatanaaeain judi rahati hai. naamadev ke charitra mein bhi sultaan ki aajnyaa se inka mrut gaaya ko jilaana, poorvaabhimukh aavadhya naaganaath mandir ke saamane keertan karne par pujaari ke aapatti uthaane ke uparaant inke pashchim ki or jaate hi uske dwaar ka pashchimaabhimukh ho jaana, vitthal ki moorti ka inke haath dugdhapaan karna, aadi ghatanaaeain samaavisht hain. Maharashtra se lekar Punjab tak vitthal mandir ke mahaadvaar par shake 1272 mein samaadhi le li. kuchh vidvaan inka samaadhisthaan ghomaan maanate hain, parantu bahumat pandharapur ke hi paksh mein hain.

naamadev ke mat

bisova khechar se deeksha lene ke poorv tak ye sagunopaasak the. pandharapur ke vitthal (vithoba) ki upaasana kiya karte the. deeksha ke uparaant inki vitthalabhakti sarvavyaapak ho gayi. mahaaraashtreeya sant parampara ke anusaar inki nirgun bhakti thi, jismein sagun nirgun ka kaai bhedabhaav naheen tha. unhonne maraathi mein kai sau abhang aur hindi mein sau ke lagbhag pad rache hain. inke padon mein hathayog ki kundalini-yog-saadhana aur premaabhakti ki (apne "Ram" se milne ki) "taalaabeli" (vihvalabhaavana) donon hain. nirguni kabeer ke samaan naamadev mein bhi vrat, teerth aadi baahyaadanbar ke prati upeksha tatha bhagavannaam evam sataguru ke prati aadar bhaav vidyamaan hai. kabeer ke padon mein yatatatr naamadev ki bhaavachhaaya drushtigochar hoti hai. kabeer ke poorv naamadev ne uttar Bhaarat mein nirgun bhakti ka prachaar kiya, jo nirvivaad hai.

paralok gaman

aapne do baar teerth yaatra ki va saadhoo santo se bhram door karte rahe| jyon jyon aapki aayu badhati gayi tyon tyon aapka yash failata gaya| aapne dakshin mein bahut prachaar kiya| aapke guru Dave jnyaaaneshvar ji paralok gaman kar gaye to aap bhi kuchh uparaam rahane lag gaye| antim dinon mein aap Punjab aa gaye| ant mein aap assi saal ki aayu mein 1407 vikrami ko paralok gaman kar gaye|

saahityak den

naamadev ji ne jo baani uchchaaran ki vah gurugranth saahib mein bhi milti hain| bahut saari baani dakshin va Maharashtra mein gaai jaati hai| aapki baani padhne se man ko shaanti milti hai va bhakti ki taraf man lagta hai|

thaakur ko doodh pilaana

ek din naamadev ji ke pita kisi kaam se baahar ja rahe the| unhonne naamadev ji se kaha ki ab unke sthaan par vah thaakur ki seva kareinge jaise thaakur ko snaan karaana, mandir ko svachh rakhana va thaakur ko doodh chadhaana| jaise saari maryaada main poorn karta hooain vaise tum bhi karna| dekhna laaparavaahi ya aalasya mat karna naheen to thaakur ji naaraaj ho jaaeainge|

naamadev ji ne vaisa hi kiya jaise pitaaji samajhaakar gaye the| jab usane doodh ka katora bharakar thaakur ji ke aage rakha aur haath jodkar baitha va dekhta raha ki thaakur ji kis tarah doodh peete hain? thaakur ne doodh kahaaain peena tha? vah to patthar ki moorti the| naamadev ko is baat ka pata naheen tha ki thaakur ko chammach bharakar doodh lagaaya jaata va shesh doodh pandit pi jaate the| unhonne binti karni shuroo ki he prabhu! main to aapka chhota sa sevak hooain, doodh lekar aaya hooain krupa karke ise grahan keejiye| bhakt ne apni bechaini is prakaar pragat ki -

he prabhu! yeh doodh main kapala gaaya se doh kar laaya hooain| he mere gobind! yadi aap doodh pi leinge to mera man shaant ho jaaega naheen to pitaaji naaraaj honge| sone ki katori mainne aapke aage rakhi hai| peee! avashya peee! mainne koi paap naheen kiya| yadi mere pitaaji se pratidin doodh peete ho to mujhse aap kyon naheen le rahe? he prabhu! daya karein| pitaaji mujhe pehle hi bura va nikmma samajhte hain| yadi aaj aapne doodh na piya to meri khair naheen| pitaaji mujhe ghar se baahar nikaal deinge|

jo kaarya naamadev ke pita saari umr na kar sake vah kaarya naamadev ne kar diya| us maasoom bachche ko pandito ki baimaani ka pata naheen tha| vah thaakur ji ke aage minnatein karta raha| ant mein prabhu bhakt ki bhakti par khinche hue aa gaye| patthar ki moorti dvaara hainse| naamadev ne iska jikr is prakaar kiya hai -

aiku bhagatu mere hirde basai|| 
naame dekhi naraainu hasai|| (panna 1163)

ek bhakt prabhu ke hradaya mein bas gaya| naamadev ko dekhkar prabhu hains pade| hains kar unhonne donon haath aage badhaaen aur doodh pi liya| doodh peekar moorti fir vaisi hi ho gayi|

doodhu peeaai bhagatu ghari gaiaa ||
naame hari ka darasanu bhaiaa|| (panna 1163 - 64)

doodh pilaakar naamadev ji ghar chale gaye| is prakaar prabhu ne unako saakshaat darshan diye| yeh naamadev ki bhakti maarg par pratham jeet thi|

shuddh hradaya se ki hui prarthana se unke paas shaktiyaaain aa gayi| vah bhakti bhav vaale ho gaye aur jo vachan muainh nikalte vahi satya hote| jab aapke pitaaji ko yeh gyaan hua ki aapne thaakur mein jaan daal di va doodh pilaaya to vah bahut prasann hue| unhonne samjha unki kul safal ho gayi hai|

baahari kadiyaaain