naalanda vishvavidyaalaya

naalanda vishvavidyaalaya

navanirmit naalanda vishvavidyaalaya ka logo
sthaapana 2010
kulaadhipti amartya sen[1][2]
upakulapati gopa sabharvaal[3]
avasthiti raajageer, naalanda ke sameep, Bihar, Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
jaalasthal naalanda vishvavidyaalaya jaalasthal(aadhikaarik)
naalanda ke praacheen vishvavidyaalaya ke avashesh.

yeh praacheen Bhaarat mein uchch shiksha ka sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn aur vikhyaat kendra tha. mahaayaan bauddh dharm ke is shiksha-kendra mein heenayaan bauddh-dharm ke saath hi anya dharmon ke tatha anek deshon ke chhaatr padhte the. vartamaan Bihar raajya mein Patna se 88.5 kilometer dakshin-poorv aur raajageer se 11.5 kilometer uttar mein ek gaaainv ke paas alekjeindar kaningham dvaara khoje gaye is mahaan bauddh vishvavidyaalaya ke bhagnaavashesh iske praacheen vaibhav ka bahut kuchh andaaj kara dete hain. anek puraabhilekhon aur saataveen shataabdi mein Bhaarat bhraman ke liye aaye cheeni yaatri hvenasaang tatha itsing ke yaatra vivranon se is vishvavidyaalaya ke baare mein vistrut jaankaari praapt hoti hai. yahaaain 10,000 chhaatron ko padhaane ke liye 2,000 shikshak the. prasiddh cheeni yaatri hvenasaang ne 7 veen shataabdi mein yahaaain jeevan ka mahattvapoorn ek varsh ek vidyaarthi aur ek shikshak ke roop mein vyateet kiya tha. prasiddh 'bauddh saariputr' ka janm yaheen par hua tha.

mote akshar== sthaapana va sanrakshan == is vishvavidyaalaya ki sthaapana ka shreya gupt shaasak kumaaragupt pratham 450-470 ko praapt hai.[4][5] is vishvavidyaalaya ko Kumar gupt ke uttaraadhikaariyon ka poora sahayog mila. guptavansh ke patan ke baad bhi aane vaale sabhi shaasak vanshon ne iski samruddhi mein apna yogadaan jaari rakha. ise mahaan samraat harshavarddhan aur paal shaasakon ka bhi sanrakshan mila. sthaaneeya shaasakon tatha Bhaarat ke vibhinn kshetron ke saath hi ise anek videshi shaasakon se bhi anudaan mila.

anukram

svaroop

yeh vishv ka pratham poornat: aavaaseeya vishvavidyaalaya tha. viksit sthiti mein ismein vidyaarthiyon ki sankhya kareeb 10,000 evam adhyaapakon ki sankhya 2000 thi. saataveen shati mein jab hvenasaaङ aaya tha us samay 10,000 vidyaarthi aur 1510 aachaarya naalanda vishvavidyaalaya mein the. is vishvavidyaalaya mein Bhaarat ke vibhinn kshetron se hi naheen balki Korea, Japan, cheen, Tibet, Indonesia, faaras tatha Turkey se bhi vidyaarthi shiksha grahan karne aate the. naalanda ke vishisht shikshaapraapt snaatak baahar jaakar bauddh dharm ka prachaar karte the. is vishvavidyaalaya ko nauveen shataabdi se baarahaveen shataabdi tak antarraashtreeya khyaati praapt thi.

parisar

atyant suniyojit dhang se aur vistrut kshetr mein bana hua yeh vishvavidyaalaya sthaapatya kala ka adbhut namoona tha. iska poora parisar ek vishaal deevaar se ghira hua tha jismein pravesh ke liye ek mukhya dwaar tha. uttar se dakshin ki or mathon ki kataar thi aur unke saamane anek bhavya stoop aur mandir the. mandiron mein buddh Bhagwan ki sundar moortiyaaain sthaapit theen. kendreeya vidyaalaya mein saat bade kaksh the aur iske alaava teen sau anya kamre the. inmein vyaakhyaan hua karte the. abhi tak khudaai mein terah math mile hain. vaise isse bhi adhik mathon ke hone hi sambhaavana hai. math ek se adhik manjil ke hote the. kamre mein sone ke liye patthar ki chauki hoti thi. deepak, pustak ityaadi rakhane ke liye aale bane hue the. pratyek math ke aaaingan mein ek kuaaain bana tha. aath vishaal bhavan, das mandir, anek praarthana kaksh tatha adhyayan kaksh ke alaava is parisar mein sundar bageeche tatha jheelein bhi thi.

prabandhan

samast vishvavidyaalaya ka prabandh kulapati ya pramukh aachaarya karte the jo bhikshuon dvaara nirvaachit hote the. kulapati do paraamarshadaatri samitiyon ke paraamarsh se saara prabandh karte the. pratham samiti shiksha tatha paathyakram sambandhi kaarya dekhti thi aur dviteeya samiti saare vishvavidyaalaya ki aarthik vyavastha tatha prashaasan ki dekh-bhaal karti thi. vishvavidyaalaya ko daan mein mile do sau gaaainvon se praapt upaj aur aay ki dekh-rekh yahi samiti karti thi. isi se sahastron vidyaarthiyon ke bhojan, kapde tatha aavaas ka prabandh hota tha.

aachaarya

is vishvavidyaalaya mein teen shreniyon ke aachaarya the jo apni yogyataanusaar pratham, dviteeya aur truteeya shreni mein aate the. naalanda ke prasiddh aachaaryon mein sheelabhadr, dharmapaal, chandrapaal, gunamati aur sthirmati pramukh the. 7 veen sadi mein hvenasaang ke samay is vishv vidyaalaya ke pramukh sheelabhadr the jo ek mahaan aachaarya, shikshak aur vidvaan the. ek praacheen shlok se gyaat hota hai, prasiddh bhaarateeya ganitjnya evam khagolajnya aaryabhat bhi is vishvavidyaalaya ke pramukh rahe the. unke likhe jin teen granthon ki jaankaari bhi upalabdh hai, ve hain: dashageetika, aaryabhatteeya aur tantr. jnyaaata bataate hain, ki unka ek anya granth aaryabhatt siddhaant bhi tha, jiske aaj maatr 34 shlok hi upalabdh hain. is granth ka 7 veen shataabdi mein bahut upayog hota tha.

pravesh ke niyam

pravesh pareeksha atyant kathin hoti thi aur uske kaaran pratibhaashaali vidyaarthi hi pravesh pa sakte the. unhein teen kathin pareeksha staron ko utteern karna hota tha. yeh vishv ka pratham aisa drushtaant hai.[5] shuddh aacharan aur sangh ke niyamon ka paalan karna atyant aavashyak tha.

adhyayan-adhyaapan paddhati

is vishvavidyaalaya mein aachaarya chhaatron ko maukhik vyaakhyaan dvaara shiksha dete the. iske atirikt pustakon ki vyaakhya bhi hoti thi. shaastraarth hota rahata tha. din ke har pahar mein adhyayan tatha shanka samaadhaan chalta rahata tha.

adhyayan kshetr

yahaaain mahaayaan ke pravartak naagaarjun, vasubandhu, asang tatha dharmakeerti ki rachanaaon ka savistaar adhyayan hota tha. ved, vedaant aur saankhya bhi padhaaye jaate the. vyaakaran, darshan, shalyavidya, jyotish, yogashaastr tatha chikitsaashaastr bhi paathyakram ke antargat the. naalanda ki khudaai mein mili anek kaaainse ki moortiyo ke aadhaar par kuchh vidvaanon ka mat hai ki kadaachit dhaatu ki moortiyaaain banaane ke vigyaan ka bhi adhyayan hota tha. yahaaain khagolashaastr adhyayan ke liye ek vishesh vibhaag tha.

pustakaalaya

naalanda mein sahasron vidyaarthiyon aur aachaaryon ke adhyayan ke liye, nau tal ka ek viraat pustakaalaya tha jismein 3 lakh se adhik pustakon ka anupam sangrah tha.[5] is pustakaalaya mein sabhi vishyon se sambandhit pustakein thi. yeh 'ratnaranjak' 'ratnodadhi' 'ratnasaagar' naamak teen vishaal bhavanon mein sthit tha. 'ratnodadhi' pustakaalaya mein anek apraapya hastalikhit pustakein sangraheet thi. inmein se anek pustakon ki pratilipiyaaain cheeni yaatri apne saath le gaye the.

chhaatraavaas

yahaan chhaatron ke rahane ke liye 300 kaksh bane the, jinmein akele ya ek se adhik chhaatron ke rahane ki vyavastha thi. ek ya do bhikshu chhaatr ek kamre mein rahate the. kamre chhaatron ko pratyek varsh unki agrimta ke aadhaar par diye jaate the. iska prabandhan swayam chhaatron dvaara chhaatr sangh ke maadhyam se kiya jaata tha.

chhaatr sangh

yahaan chhaatron ka apna sangh tha. ve swayam iski vyavastha tatha chunaav karte the. yeh sangh chhaatr sambandhit vibhinn maamalon jaise chhaatraavaason ka prabandh aadi karta tha.

aarthik aadhaar

chhaatron ko kisi prakaar ki aarthik chinta na thi. unke liye shiksha, bhojan, vastr aushadhi aur upachaar sabhi ni:shulk the. raajya ki or se vishvavidyaalaya ko do sau gaaainv daan mein mile the, jinse praapt aay aur anaaj se usaka kharch chalta tha.

avsaan

13 veen sadi tak is vishvavidyaalaya ka poornat: avsaan ho gaya. muslim itihaasakaar minhaaj aur tibbati itihaasakaar taaraanaath ke vruttaanton se pata chalta hai ki is vishvavidyaalaya ko turkon ke aakramanon se badi kshati pahuainchi. taaraanaath ke anusaar teerthikon aur bhikshuon ke aapasi jhagadon se bhi is vishvavidyaalaya ki garima ko bhaari nuksaan pahuaincha. ispar pehla aaghaat hun shaasak mihirkul dvaara kiya gaya. 1199 mein turk aakramanakaari bakhtiyaar khilji ne ise jala kar poornat: nasht kar diya.[4]

aitihaasik ullekh

prasiddh cheeni vidvaan yaatri hven tsaang aur itsing ne kai varshon tak yahaaain saanskrutik va darshan ki shiksha grahan ki. inhonne apne yaatra vruttaant va sansmaranon mein naalanda ke vishay mein kaafi kuchh likha hai.[5][k] hvenatsaang ne likha hai ki sahasron chhaatr naalanda mein adhyayan karte the aur isi kaaran naalanda prakhyaat ho gaya tha. din bhar adhyayan mein beet jaata tha. videshi chhaatr bhi apni shankaaon ka samaadhaan karte the. itsing ne likha hai ki vishvavidyaalaya ke vikhyaat vidvaanon ke naam vishvavidyaalaya ke mukhya dwaar par shvet aksharon mein likhe jaate the.

praacheen avasheshon ka parisar

is vishvavidyaalaya ke avashesh chaudah hekteyar kshetr mein mile hain. khudaai mein mili sabhi imaaraton ka nirmaan laal patthar se kiya gaya tha. yeh parisar dakshin se uttar ki or bana hua hai. math ya vihaar is parisar ke poorv disha mein va chaitya (mandir) pashchim disha mein bane the. is parisar ki sabse mukhya imaarat vihaar-1 thi. aaj mein bhi yahaan do manjila imaarat shesh hai. yeh imaarat parisar ke mukhya aangan ke sameep bani hui hai. sambhavat: yahaan hi shikshak apne chhaatron ko sambodhit kiya karte the. is vihaar mein ek chhota sa praarthanaalaya bhi abhi surakshit avastha mein bacha hua hai. is praarthanaalaya mein Bhagwan buddh ki bhagn pratima bani hai. yahaan sthit mandir nan. 3 is parisar ka sabse bada mandir hai. is mandir se samooche kshetr ka vihangam drushya dekha ja sakta hai. yeh mandir kai chhote-bade stoopon se ghira hua hai. in sabhi stoopon mein Bhagwan buddh ki vibhinn mudraaon mein moortiyaan bani hui hai.

anya sthal

naalanda puraataatvik sangrahaalaya

vishvavidyaalaya parisar ke vipreet disha mein ek chhota sa puraataatvik sangrahaalaya bana hua hai. is sangrahaalaya mein khudaai se praapt avasheshon ko rakha gaya hai. ismein Bhagwan buddh ki vibhinn prakaar ki moortiyon ka achha sangrah hai. inke saath hi buddh ki teraakota moortiyaan aur pratham shataabdi ke do martabaan bhi is sangrahaalaya mein rakha hua hai. iske alaava is sangrahaalaya mein taanbe ki plate, patthar par khude abhilekh, sikke, barttan tatha 12veen sadi ke chaaval ke jale hue daane rakhe hue hain.

nav naalanda mahaavihaar

yeh ek shikshan sansthaan hai. ismein paali saahitya tatha bauddh dharm ki padhaai tatha shodh hoti hai. yeh ek naya sthaapit sansthaan hai. ismein doosare deshon ke chhaatr bhi padhaai ke liye yahaan aataae hain.

hvenatsaang memoriyl hall

yeh ek navarnimit bhavan hai. yeh bhavan cheen ke mahaan teerthayaatri hven tsaang ki smruti mein banavaaya gaya hai. ismein hvenasaang se sambandhit vastuen tatha unki moorti dekhi ja sakti hai.

badgaanv, silaav raajageer

badgaanv naalanda ka niktatam gaanv hai. yahaan ek sarovar aur praacheen soorya mandir hai. yeh sthaan chhath ke liye prasiddh hai. naalanda se thodi door par silaav sthit hai jo svaadisht mithaai “akhaajaa” ke liye prasiddh hai. inke paas hi raajagruh hai.

punarjeevan prayaas

naalanda shiksha aur gyaan-vigyaan ka pracheenatam kendra raha hai tatha kabhi mahaan vishvavidyaalaya rahe is vikhyaat naalanda ke puraavasheshon ko yoonesko vishv dharohar banaaya ja sakta hai. is sambandh mein bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan ne yoonesko ko apni sifaarish bhej di hai. bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan ne naalanda puraavashesh praacheen smaarak evam puraataatvik sthal aur puraavashesh adhiniyam 1958 ke tahat sanrakshit sthal ghoshit kiya hai. is sthaan ki mool saamagriyon se hi iski marammat karaai gayi hai. yeh poora prayaas kiya gaya ki mool roop na badle.

yunesko adhikaariyon ke anusaar naalanda sthit mandir sankhya teen ka nirmaan pancharatn sthaapatya kala se kiya gaya hai. yeh dakshin-poorv Asia ke kai sthalon ke alaava kanbodiya ke ankoravaat mandir se mel khaata hai. iske alaava naalanda aur takshashila mein bhi kaafi samaanataaen hain. Bhaarat sarkaar ke paryatan mantraalaya ke atulya Bhaarat abhiyaan ke saath mil kar NDTV dvaara aayojit ek raashtravyaapi sarvekshan ke tahat konaark soorya mandir, meenaakshi mandir, khajuraaho, laal kila, Delhi, jaisalamer durg, naalanda vishvavidyaalaya aur dhaulaaveer jaise sthalon ko Bhaarat ke saat aashcharya ke roop mein chuna gaya hai.[6]

naalanda vishvavidyaalaya ke naam par ek nae vishvavidyaalaya ki sthaapana ki ja rahi hai. prasiddh Nobel puraskaar vijeta saahityakaar amartya sen ke anusaar varsh 2010 tak shaikshanik satr bhi aarambh ho jaaega. iske punarjeevan prayaas mein Singapore, cheen, Japan va dakshin-Korea ne bhi sahayog dene ka vaada kiya hai. iske oopar sansad mein vidheyak paarit hone par iske bhavan ka nirmaan bhi shuru ho jaaega. ismein East Asia sammelan ke 16 desh aarthik sahayog deinge.[7]

aavaagaman

  • vaayu maarg: yahaaain se 89 kilometer door niktatam havaai adda Patna ka jayaprakaash Narayan havaai adda hai.
  • rel maarg: naalanda mein bhi railway station hai, kintu yahaan ka pramukh railway station raajageer hai. raajageer jaane waali sabhi trene naalanda hokar jaati hai.
  • sadak maarg: naalanda sadak maarg dvaara kai niktavarti shaharon se juda hai:
*raajageer (12 kimi),

chitr deergha

teeka tippani

k. ^

"us jamaane mein vishv ke kai jagahon, sumaatra, cheen, Thailand Korea, Sri Lanka aadi jagahon se vidyaarthi jnyaaanaarjan karne aate the par is vishvavidyaalaya ki naamaankan prakriya bahut mushkil thee…hven tsaang

sandarbh

  1. "Amartya Sen to be chancellor of Nalanda International University [naalanda antarraashtreeya vishvavidyaalaya ke naye kulaadhipti amartya sen honge]" (angreji mein). daily news end enaalisis. 19 July 2012. http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report_amartya-sen-to-be-chancellor-of-nalanda-international-university_1717242. abhigman tithi: 21 sitmbar 2014.
  2. "Amartya Sen named Nalanda University Chancellor [amartya sen naalanda vishvavidyaalaya ke kulaadhipti ke roop mein naamit]" (angreji mein). the times of indiya. 20 July 2012. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-07-20/news/32763124_1_nalanda-university-board-members-george-yeo. abhigman tithi: 21 sitmbar 2014.
  3. "DNA special: How PMO shot down Pranab's choice for Nalanda Vice Chancellor [DNA vishesh: pradhaanamantri kaaryaalaya ne kaise Pranab ki pasand ko hataaya]" (angreji mein). daily news end enaalisis. 5 May 2012. http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report_dna-special-how-pmo-shot-down-pranabs-choice-for-nalanda-vc_1684639. abhigman tithi: 21 sitmbar 2014.
  4. a aa ka॰amaa॰ munshi, aara॰asee॰ majumadaar (1984). bhaarateeya janta ka itihaas aur sanskruti: shrenya yug. Motilal banaaraseedaas pablisrs. pa॰ 470. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788120822887. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=KtF8zGa5zvcC&pg=PT470.
  5. a aa i E dhanapati paandeya (1998). praacheen Bhaarat ka raajaneetik aur saanskrutik itihaas. Motilal banaaraseedaas pablisrs. pa॰ 191. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788120823808. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=EGR2yLsj1DcC&pg=PA191.
  6. http://taau.taau.in/2009/06/25.html
  7. sen, amartya. "2010 tak naalanda vishvavidyaalaya mein shuroo ho jaaegi padhaai" (hindi mein) (echateeem). IANS. http://www.newkerala.com/hindi/bharath-samachar/208.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.

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