naagarikta

naagarikta ek vishesh saamaajik, raajanaitik, raashtreeya, ya maanav sansaadhan samudaaya ka ek naagrik hone ki avastha hai.

saamaajik anubandh ke siddhaant ke tahat naagarikta ki avastha mein adhikaar aur uttaradaayitv donon shaamil hote hain. "sakriya naagarikta" ka darshan arthaat naagrikon ko sabhi naagrikon ke jeevan mein sudhaar karne ke liye aarthik sahabhaagita, saarvajanik, swayamsevi kaarya aur isi prakaar ke prayaason ke maadhyam se apne samudaaya ko behtar banaane ki disha mein kaarya karna chaahiye. is disha mein, kuchh deshon mein school naagarikta shiksha upalabdh karte hain. varjeeniya liyeri (1999) ke dvaara naagarikta ko "adhikaaron ke ek samuchchaya-ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya gaya hai- unke anusaar naagarikta ki avastha mein praathamik roop se saamudaayik jeevan mein raajanaitik bhaageedaari, matadaan ka adhikaar, samudaaya se vishesh sanrakshan praapt karne ka adhikaar aur daayitv shaamil hain.[1]


sabhi naagrikon ka naagari samooh (Citizenry) kahalaata hai.

anukram

raashtreeya naagarikta

aam taur par naagarikta ko ek vyakti aur ek vishesh desh ke beech sambandh ke roop mein dekha jaata hai.

praacheen grees mein, mukhya raajanaitik ikaai shahar-raajya hota tha aur naagrik vishesh shahar-raajya ke sadasya hote the. pichhle paanch sau varshon mein, raashtra-raajya ke vikaas ke saath, naagarikta ko ek vishesh raashtra ki sadasyata ke roop mein jaana jaane laga hai. kuchh had tak, kuchh sansthaaen raashtreeya seemaaon ko paar kar jaati hain, jaise vyaapar sangathan, gair-sarkaari sangathan aur malti-national Corporation aur kabhi kabhi shabd "vishv ka naagrik" un logon ke liye prayukt kiya jaata hai jo kisi vishesh raashtra ke saath kam sambandh rakhate hain, iske bajaay unamein poori duniya ke saath samabandhit hone ki bhaavana adhik hoti hai.

aadhunik samay mein, naagarikta ki neeti joos seingunis (jus sanguinis) ("rakt ka adhikaar") aur joos soli (jus soli) ("mruda ka adhikaar") raashtron ke beech vibhaajit hai. ek joos seingunis neeti jaateeyata ya vansh ke aadhaar par naagarikta deti hai aur yeh Europe mein prachalit ek raashtra raajya ki avadhaarana se sambandhit hai. ek joos soli neeti har us vyakti ko naagarikta deti hai jo raajya ke praant vishesh mein paida hua hai, is neeti ka anusaran sanyukt raajya sahit America ke kai deshon mein kiya jaata hai. kai deshon mein sthaaneeya raashtra ki ek sankar janm adhikaar aavashyakta aur kam se kam ek abhibhaavak ki naagarikta ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

aamtaur par sameekaran ke maadhyam se ya ek aise vyakti se vivaah karke bhi kisi desh ki naagarikta praapt ki ja sakti hai jo us desh ka naagrik hai (jure metreemoni (jure matrimonii)).

antararaashtreeya naagarikta

haal hi ke varshon mein, kuchh antar sarkaari sangathanon ne naagarikta se sambandhit shabdaavali aur avadhaarana ko antarraashtreeya star tak vistrut kiya hai,[2] jahaan yeh naagrikon ke sanyukt avayav deshon ki samagrata par laagoo hoti hai. is star par naagarikta ek dviteeyak avadhaarana hai, jahaan adhikaar raashtreeya naagarikta se vyutpann hote hain.

raashtramandal naagarikta

"raashtramandal naagarikta" ki avadhaarana tab se astitv mein hai jab se raashtramandal raashtron ki sthaapana hui hai. jaisa ki Europeeya sangh ke maamale mein hota hai, koi vyakti raashtramandal naagarikta ko tabhi praapt kar sakta hai agar vah raashtramandal sadasya raajya ka naagrik ho. is prakaar ki naagarikta kuchh raashtramandal deshon mein kuchh visheshaadhikaar upalabdh karaati hai:

  • aise kuchh deshon mein anya raashtramandal deshon ke naagrikon ko yaatra karne ke liye tourist visa ki aavashyakta naheen hoti hai.
  • kuchh raashtramandal deshon mein anya raashtramandal deshon ke nivaasi naagrikon ko raajanaitik adhikaar bhi diye jaate hain udaaharan, sthaaneeya aur raashtreeya chunaavon mein matadaan ka adhikaar aur kuchh maamalon mein yahaan tak ki chunaav mein khade hone ka adhikaar.
  • kuchh maamalon mein kisi bhi pad par (civil sevaaon sahit) kaam karne ka adhikaar diya jaata hai, ismein kuchh vishisht padon ko shaamil naheen kiya jaata (udahaaran, defence, raajyapaal ya raashtrapati, pradhaan mantri).

haalaanki Ireland ne 1949 mein raashtramandal ko chhod diya, aksar iske saath aisa vyavahaar kiya jaata hai, jaise ki yeh raashtramandal ka sadasya ho. kaanooni dastaavejon mein 'raashtramandal aur Ireland ganaraajya' ke liye sandarbh diya jaata hai aur iske naagrikon ko vishesh roop se sanyukt raashtra mein videshi naagrikon ke roop mein vargeekrut naheen kiya jaata hai.

1921 mein nishtha ke sandarbh mein paribhaashit kiye jaane par Canada raashtreeyata ke siddhaant se alag ho gaya. 1935 mein aayarish mukt raajya ne pehli baar apni naagarikta ko shuroo kiya (haalaanki, aayarish naagrikon ko abhi bhi sinhaasan par baithane ke liye yogya maana jaata tha aur aaj bhi unhein videshi naheen maana jaata hai, haalaanki Ireland raashtramandal ka sadasya naheen hai; mure vi paarkes [1942] aal E aar 123). Canada ka naagarikta adhiniyam jo 1 January 1947 ko astitv mein aaya, Canada ki ek alag naagarikta upalabdh karaata hai, yeh un naagrikon ko svat: hi praapt ho jaati hai jo Canada mein paida hue hain (vishesh apavaadon ke saath) aur saath hi ismein aisi paristhitiyon ko bhi paribhaashit kiya jaata hai jinke tahat koi vyakti sameekrut naagrik ban sakta hai. raashtramandal naagarikta ki avadhaarana ko 1948 mein british raashtreeyata adhiniyam 1948 mein shuroo kiya gaya. anya dominiyn ne nyoojeelaind, british raashtreeyata aur nyoojeelaind naagarikta adhiniyam 1948 mein is siddhaant ko apnaaya. naagarikta ne nishtha ko pratisthaapit kar diya hai, jo ek prateekaatmak parivartan ki tulana mein kuchh adhik hai.

naagarikta adhiktar raashtra raajya ki sadasyata se sambandhit hoti hai, parantu is shabd ko ek up raashtreeya star bhi laagoo kiya ja sakta hai. up raashtreeya sansthaaen rejeedeinsi ya anyatha, aavashyakataaon ko adhyaaropit kar sakti hain, jo naagrikon ko us sanstha ki raajaneeti mein hissa lene ki anumati deti hai, ya is sanstha ki sarkaar ke dvaara upalabdh karaaye gaye faayadon ka aanand uthaane ka mauka pradaan karti hai. lekin aise maamalon mein, ye paatr kabhi kabhi praasangik raajya, praant ya kshetr ke "naagrik" maane jaate hain. iska ek udaaharan bataata hai ki Swiss naagarikta ka mool aadhaar kaise kisi vyaktigat kamyoon ki naagarikta hai, jisse ek keintan ya konafedareshan ki naagarikta praapt hoti hai. ek anya udaaharan hai ek aalaind (Åaaland) jahaan naagrik Finland, hembigdasaraat (hembygdsräaatt) mein vishesh praanteeya naagarikta ka laabh uthaate hain.

sanyukt raajya America mein ek dohari naagarikta pranaali hai jismein vyakti apne nivaas raajya ke saath sanyukt raajya ka bhi naagrik hai. raajya ke samvidhaan sanyukt raajya ke samvidhaan ke tahat diye jaane vaale adhikaaron se pare aur inse badhkar adhikaar pradaan kar sakte hain aur saath hi karaadhaan ke samprabhu adhikaar aur sainya seva sahit apne daayitvon ko bhi adhyaaropit kar sakte hain (har raajya kam se kam ek sainya bal rakhata hai jo raashtreeya sainya sthaanaantaran seva, raajya ke national guard ke adheen hota hai, jabki kuchh anya raajya ek doosra sainya bal rakhate hain jo raashtreeyakaran ke adheen naheen hota hai).

Europeeya sangh (iyoo) naagarikta

maastareechat sandhi ne Europeeya sangh ki naagarikta ki avadhaarana ko shuroo kiya. Europeeya sangh ki sanshodhit sandhi[3] ka anuchhed 17 (1) kehta hai ki

sangh ki naagarikta iske dvaara sthaapit hai. har vyakti jiske paas sadasya raajya ki raashtreeyata hai, vah sangh ka naagrik hoga. sangh ki naagarikta poorak hogi aur raashtreeya naagarikta ko pratisthaapit naheen karegi.

sanshodhit Europeeya sangh sandhi[3] Europeeya sangh ke naagrikon ke vishisht nyoonatam adhikaaron ko sthaapit karti hai. sanshodhit yaropeeya sangh sandhi ka anuchhed 12 sandhi ke daayare ke bheetar gair bhedabhaav ke saamaanya adhikaar ki guaranty deta hai. anuchhed 18 sadasya raajyon mein mukt aandolan aur aavaas ka ek seemit adhikaar deta hai, bajaay iske ki Europeeya sangh ke naagrik raashtreeya hain. anuchhed 18-21 lekh aur 225 vishisht raajanaitik adhikaar upalabdh karte hain.

sangh ke naagrikon ke paas kisi bhi sadasya raajya mein aarthik gatividhi mein hissa lene ka vyaapak adhikaar bhi hota hai (anuchhed 39, 43, 49 EC), jo sangh naagarikta mein shaamil hone ko poorvadinaankit karta hai.

itihaas

naagarikta ki avadhaarana pehle kaanoonon se utpann hui.

polis naagarikta

pehle prakaar ki naagarikta is baat par aadhaarit thi ki log polis ke chhote paimaane ke kaarbanik samudaayon mein, kis tareeke se praacheen yoonaani kaal mein rahate the. un dinon mein naagarikta ko ek saarvajanik maamale ke roop mein naheen dekha jaata tha, yeh ek vyakti ke niji jeevan se alag hoti thi. naagarikta ke daayitv polis ke dainik jeevan ke saath gaharaai se jude hue the. sahi maayane mein manushya hone ke liye, vyakti ko samudaaya ka ek sakriya naagrik banana padta tha, jise arastu ne is tarah se abhivyakt kiya tha: "samudaaya ke maamalon ke sanyachaalan mein hissa na lene ka arth hai ki ya to aap jaanavar hain ya devata!" naagarikta ka yeh roop samudaaya ke prati naagrikon ke daayitvon par aadhaarit tha, iske bajaay samudaaya mein naagrikon ko diye jaane vaale adhikaar adhik maayane naheen rakhate the. yeh ek samasya naheen thi kyonki ve sabhi log drudhta se polis ke saath jude the; unka apna bhaagya aur samudaaya ka bhaagya ek doosare se prabalata se sambandhit the. iske alaava, polis ke naagrik daayitvon ko dhaarmik hone ka avsar maanate the, yeh unke liye sammaan aur aadar ka ek srot hota tha. Athens mein, shaasak aur shaasit donon prakaar ke naagrik the, mahatvapoorn raajanaitik aur nyaayik kaaryaalayon ko ghumaaya jaata tha aur sabhi naagrikon ko raajanaitik sabha mein bolne aur matadaan dene ka adhikaar hota tha.

haalaanki, polis ki naagarikta ka ek mahatvapoorn pahaloo vishishtata thi. praacheen grees aur rom tatha madhyakaaleen shaharon mein naagarikta, jo polis ki naagarikta ka anusaran karti thi, vah vishisht thi aur asamaanata ki sthiti ko vyaapak roop se sveekrut kiya jaata tha. naagrikon ka star gair naagrikon ki tulana mein kaafi uchch tha. gair naagrikon mein mahilaaen, gulaam aur 'baaraberiyn' shaamil the. udaaharan ke liye, mahilaaon ko raajanaitik bhaageedaari ke liye asamarth aur tarkaheen maana jaata tha (haalaanki kuchh log, visheshakar pleto isse asahamat hain). koi vyakti naagrik ho sakta hai ya naheen ise nirdhaarit karne ke tareeke sampatti (vyakti ke dvaara chukaae jaane vaale karon ki maatra), raajanaitik sahabhaagita, ya viraasat (donon abhibhaavak polis mein janme hone chaahiye) par aadhaarit ho sakte hain.

roman saamraajya mein, polis naagarikta mein parivartan aaya: naagarikta chhote paimaane ke samudaaya se poorn saamraajya mein vistrut ho gayi. rom ke logon ne mahasoos kiya ki poore saamraajya se logon ko naagarikta dena vijay praapt roman shaasi kshetron ko vaidyata deta hai. roman yug mein naagarikta ab kisi raajaneetik agency ka darja naheen thi; yeh kam hokar ab ek nyaayik suraksha aur kaanoon aur niyam ki abhivyakti mein badal gayi thi. (dekhein sivis romenas sam (Civis romanus sum)).

madhyayugeen aur praarambhik aadhunik naagarikta

Europeeya madhya yugon ke dauraan, naagarikta aamtaur par shaharon se sambandhit hoti thi, dekhein barghar (burgher), great barghar (Great burgher) aur borgeoisi (Bourgeoisie). abhijaat varg ke paas aam logon ki tulana mein adhik visheshaadhikaar hote the (dekhein eristokresi), parantu fraansisi kraanti aur anya kraantiyon ne in visheshaadhikaaron ko radd kar diya aur naagrik banaaye.

maanad naagarikta

kuchh desh un logon ko "maanad naagarikta" pradaan karte hain, jinhein vishesh roop se saraahaneeya ya prashansaneeya maana jaata hai.

raashtrapati ki manjoori aur sanyukt raajya Congress adhiniyam ke dvaara, maanad naagarikta keval saat vyaktiyon ko di gayi hai.

Canada ki maanad naagarikta ke liye sansad ke sarvasammati se anumodan ki aavashyakta hoti hai. gine chune log jinhein Canada ki maanad naagarikta di gayi hai, ve hain 1985 mein raaul vaalenbarg posthumosali, 2001 mein nelsan mandela, 14 vein dalaai laama, 2006 mein tenajin gyaatso, 2007 mein ong sen soo kyi aur 2009 mein prince kareem aaga Khan.

2002 mein dakshin Korea ne dach football (saukar) coach goos hidink ko maanad naagarikta di jinhonne safalataapoorvak aur apratyaashit roop se raashtreeya team ko 2002 FIFA vishv cup mein pahuncha diya. 2006 mein ek black Korean ameriki football khilaadi hines ward ko bhi maanad naagarikta se sammaanit kiya gaya, kyonki unhonne half-koriyans ke khilaaf Korea mein bhedabhaav ko kam karne ka prayaas kiya tha.

ameriki abhinetri enjelina joli ko 2005 mein unke maanavataavaadi prayaason ke liye kambodiya ki maanad naagarikta se sammaanit kiya gaya.

cricketer Matthew Hayden aur harshal Gibbs ko 2007 cricket vishv cup mein unki record tod paari ke liye 2007 mein seint kits aur nevis ki maanad naagarikta se sammaanit kiya gaya.


Germany mein maanad naagarikta shaharon, kasbon aur kabhi kabhi sangheeya raajyon ke dvaara pradaan ki jaati hai. maanad naagarikta vyakti ki mrutyu ke saath samaapt ho jaati hai, ya asaadhaaran maamalon mein, ise shahar, kasbe ya raajya ki sansad ya parishad ke dvaara vaapas le liya jaata hai. yuddh ke aparaadhiyon ke maamale mein, aise sabhi sammaan 12 October 1946 ko "Germany ki mitr niyantran parishad ke anuchhed VIII, khand II, akshar i" ke dvaara le liye gaye. kuchh maamalon mein, maanad naagarikta ko 1989/90 ko GDR ke patan ke baad poorv GDR sadasyon jaise erich honekar se le liya gaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

Ireland mein, "maanad naagarikta" vaastav mein ek poorn kaanooni naagarikta hai jismein Ireland mein rahane aur matadaan karne ka adhikaar shaamil hota hai.

kyooba ke samvidhaan ke adhyaaya II anuchhed 29 pairaagraaf 'e) ke anusaar janm se kyooba ke ve naagrik videshi hain, jinhonne apne asaadhaaran gunon ke se kyooba ke sangharsh mein jeet haasil ki, unhein janas ke dvaara kyooba ke naagrik maana jaata hai.[4] che gvera ko kyooba kraanti mein bhaag lene ke liye fidel kaastro ke dvaara kyooba ke maanad naagrik ka sammaan diya gaya, baad mein gvera ne unhein prakhyaat vidaai bhi di.[5]

aitihaasik drushti se adhikaansh raajya naagarikta ko apni aabaadi tak hi seemit rakahate hain, iske dvaara ve naagrik varg ko raajanaitik adhikaar dete hain, jinhein aabaadi ke anya vargon se behtar maana jaata hai, lekin ve ek doosare ke saamaan hote hain. seemit naagarikta ka ek udaaharan Athens hai jahaan gulaam, mahilaaen aur aavaasi videshiyon (jo metik kahalaate hain) ko raajanaitik adhikaaron se vanchit rakha jaata hai. roman ganaraajya ek anya udaaharan prastut karta hai (dekhein roman naagarikta) aur haal hi mein, polish-lithuniyn raashtramandal ke abhijaat varg mein kuchh aisi hi visheshataaen paayi gayi.

saaaincha:Honorary Citizenship

school vishay

inglaind mein naagarikta 11-16 aayu varg ke sabhi vidyaarthiyon ke liye raajya ke schoolon mein raashtreeya paathyakram ka ek anivaarya vishay hai. kuchh school ek vishay mein GCSE aur A star par ek yogyata pradaan karte hain. raajya ke sabhi schoolon ke liye is vishay par shiksha dena anivaarya hai aur school vidyaarthi ke dvaara is vishay mein praapt kiye gaye gyaan ka moolyaaङakan karte hain tatha vidyaarthi ki pragati ki report uske abhibhaavakon ko dete hain.[4]

kai schoolon mein naagarikta ko general certificate of sekandari education (GCSE) course ke roop mein upalabdh karaaya jaata hai. lokatantr, sansad, sarkaar, nyaaya pranaali, maanav adhikaaron aur vyaapak duniya ke saath sanyukt raashtra ke sambandhon ke baare mein gyaan praapt karne ke saath, vidyaarthi sakriya naagarikta mein hissa lete hain, aksar apne sthaaneeya samudaaya mein saamaajik gatividhiyon ya saamaajik udyamon mein shaamil hote hain.

vels mein is model ka upayog niji aur saamaajik shiksha mein kiya jaata hai.[6][7]

naagarikta, ko Scotland ke schoolon mein ek vishay ke roop mein naheen padhaaya jaata, haalaanki vahaan "aadhunik adhyayan" namak ek vishay padhaaya jaata hai, jismein sthaaneeya, raashtreeya aur antarraashtreeya muddon ke saamaajik, raajanaitik aur aarthik adhyayan ko kavar kiya jaata hai.[8]

ise Ireland ganaraajya mein junior certificate ke liye ek pareeksha vishay ke roop mein padhaaya jaata hai. ise sivik, saamaajik aur raajaneetik shiksha (CSPE) ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.

nova skotiya mein naagarikta ko gred 8 saamaajik adhyayan mein paathyakram ke hisse ke roop mein padhaaya jaata hai.

naagarikta ki jimmedaariyaan ya kartavya

kaanooni roop se naagarikta ke kartavya desh ke anusaar bhinnata rakhate hain aur ismein nimnalikhit item shaamil ho sakte hain:[9]

  • anivaarik sainik seva
  • karon ka bhugataan
  • ek joori mein kam karna.
  • matadaan
  • kisi sarkaar ke dvaara adhiniymit aaparaadhik kaanoonon ka paalan karna, chaahe videsh mein bhi hon.[10]

yeh bhi dekhein

tippaniyaan

  1. Virginia Leary (2000). "Citizenship. Human rights, and Diversity". In Alan C. Cairns, John C. Courtney, Peter MacKinnon, Hans J. Michelmann, David E. Smith. Citizenship, Diversity, and Pluralism: Canadian and Comparative Perspectives. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. pp. 247–264. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780773518933. http://books.google.com/books?id=HIKz0oJxGSgC&pg=PA247. "Since the time of the Greek and Roman civilizations, the concept of 'citizenship' has defined rights and obligations in the Western world ... The concept of 'citizenship' has long acquired the connotation of a bundle of rights -- primarily, political participation in the life of the community, the right to vote, and the right to receive certain protection from the community - as well as obligations."
  2. Daniel aarchibugi, "the global kauman velth of siteejans "."cosmopolitan lokatantr ki or" , prinsatan university press, prinsatan, 2008
  3. a aa rom ki sandhi (samekit sanskaran)
  4. a aa " Chapter II of the Constitution of the Republic of Cuba". Embassy of Cuba to Lebanon. http://www.embacubalebanon.com/constite.html#Cap2. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-22. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "dfes" defined multiple times with different content
  5. "Che's Farewell Letter". History of Cuba (historyofcuba.com). 1965. http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/cheltr.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-22.
  6. "NAFWC 13/2003 Personal and Social Education (PSE) and Work-Related Education (WRE) in the Basic Curriculum. Education (WRE) in the Basic Curriculum.". Welsh Assembly Government. 15 June 2003. http://new.wales.gov.uk/publications/circular/circulars03/NAFWC132003?lang=en. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-09.
  7. "Personal and Social Education Framework: Key Stages 1 to 4 in Wales". Welsh Assembly Government. Archived from the original on 2012-12-24. http://archive.is/5cH6. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-09.
  8. "Modern Studies Association". http://www.msa-scotland.co.uk/. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-09.
  9. Patrick, John J. "The Concept of Citizenship in Education for Democracy". ERICDigests.org. http://www.ericdigests.org/2000-1/democracy.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-09.
  10. keneth ofagaang, amerikiyon ke dvaara videshi baal sex ki khareed par court ne pratibndh lagaaya, metropolitan news-entarapraaij, 26 January 2006. viyeshi baal sex par mukadama chalaaya ja sakta hai , the siyetal times, (associated press se), 26 January 2006.

sandarbh

  • Archibugi, Daniele (2008). The Global Commonwealth of Citizens. Toward Cosmopolitan Democracy. Princeton University Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-1400829767.
  • Carens, Joseph (2000). Culture, Citizenship, and Community: A Contextual Exploration of Justice as Evenhandedness. Oxford University Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0198297680.
  • Heater, Derek (2004). A Brief History of Citizenship. NYU Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0814736722.
  • Kymlicka, Will (1995). Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford University Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0198290919.
  • Maas, Willem (2007). Creating European Citizens. Rowman & Littlefield. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0742554863.
  • Marshall, T.H. (1950). Citizenship and Social Class and Other Essays. Cambridge University Press.
  • Shue, Henry (1950). Basic Rights.
  • Smith, Rogers (2003). Stories of Peoplehood: The Politics and Morals of Political Membership. Cambridge University Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0521520034.
  • Somers, Margaret (2008). Genealogies of Citizenship: Markets, Statelessness, and the Right to Have Rights. Cambridge University Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-521-79394-0.
  • Soysal, Yasemin (1994). Limits of Citizenship. Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe. University of Chicago Press.
  • Turner, Bryan S. (1994). Citizenship and Social Theory. Sage. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0803986114.

baahari kadiyaan

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naagarikta ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.