naadir shaah

naadir shaah
faaras ka shaah
Nader Shah’s portrait from the collection of the Smithsonian Institution
raajakaal 1736–1747
janm 6 August, 1698
khoraasaan
mrutyu 19 June, 1747
dafn mashahad
poorvaadhikaari Abbas truteeya
uttaraadhikaari aadil shaah

naadir shaah afshaar (ya naadir kuli beg) (1688 - 1747) faaras ka shaah tha (1736 - 1747) aur usane sadiyon ke baad kshetr mein Irani prabhuta sthaapit ki thi. usane apna jeevan daasata se aarambh kiya tha aur faaras ka shaah hi naheen bana balki usane us samay Irani saamraajya ke sabal shatru usmaani saamraajya aur roosi saamraajya ko Irani kshetron se baahar nikaala.

usane afshari vansh ki sthaapana ki thi aur usaka udaya us samay hua jab Iran mein pashchim se usmaani saamraajya (otoman) ka aakraman ho raha tha aur poorab se afgaanon ne safaavi rajdhani isfhaan par adhikaar kar liya tha. uttar se roos bhi faaras mein saamraajya vistaar ki yojana bana raha tha. is paristhiti mein bhi usane apni sena sangathit ki aur apne sainya abhiyaanon ki vajh se use faaras ka nepoliyn ya Asia ka antim mahaan senaanaayak jaisi upaadhiyon se sammaanit kiya jaata hai.

vo Bhaarat vijay ke abhiyaan par bhi nikla tha. Delhi ki satta par aaseen mugl baadshah muhammad shaah aalam ko haraane ke baad usane vahaaain se apaar sampatti arjit ki jismein kohinoor heera bhi shaamil tha. iske baad vo apaar shaktishaali ban gaya aur usaka svaasthya bhi bigdta gaya. apne jeevan ke uttaraardh mein vo bahut atyaachaari ban gaya tha. san 1747 mein usaki hatya ke baad usaka saamraajya jald hi titr-bitr ho gaya.

anukram

gumanaami se aagaaj

naadir ka janm khoraasaan (uttar poorvi Iran) mein afshaar kjlabas kabeele mein ek saadhaaran parivaar mein hua tha. uske pita ek saadhaaran kisaan the jinki mrutyu naadir ke baalyakaal mein hi ho gayi thi. naadir ke baare mein kaha jaata hai ki usaki maaain ko uske saath ujbekon ne das (gulaam) bana liya tha. par naadir bhaag sakane mein safl raha aur vo ek afshaar kabeele mein shaamil ho gaya aur kuchh hi dinon mein uske ek tabake ka pramukh ban baitha. jald hi vo ek safal sainik ke roop mein ubhara aur usane ek sthaaneeya pradhaan Baba Ali beg ki do betiyon se shaadi kar li.

naadir ek lamba, sajeela aur shokh kaali aaainkhon wala naujavaan tha. vo apne shatruon ke prati nirdaya tha lekin apne anucharon aur sainikon ke prati udaar. use ghudsavaari bahut pasand thi aur ghodon ka bahut shauk tha. usaki aavaaj bahut gambheer thi aur ye bhi usaki safalta ki kai vajhon mein se ek maana jaata hai. vah ek turkamen tha aur uske kabeele ne shaah ismaail pratham ke samay se hi saafviyon ki bahut madad ki thi.

saafaviyon ka ant

us samay faaras ki gaddi par saafviyon ka shaasan tha. lekin naadir shaah ka bhavishya shaah ke takhtaapalat ke kaaran naheen bana jo ki praay: kai safal senaanaayakon ke saath hota hai. usane saafaviyon ka saath diya. us samay saafvi apne patanonmukh saamraajya mein naadir shaah ko paakar bahut prasann hue. ek taraf se usmaani saamraajya (otoman turk) to doosari taraf se afgaanon ke vidroh ne saafaviyon ki naak mein dam kar rakha tha. iske alaava uttar se roosi saamraajya bhi nigaahein gadaae baitha tha. shaah sultaan husain ke bete tahamaasya (tahamaashp) ko naadir ka saath mila. uske saath milkar usane uttari Iran mein mashahad (khoraasaan ki rajdhani) se Afghaanon ko bhagaakar apne adhikaar mein le liya. usaki is seva se prabhaavit hokar use tahamaasya kuli Khan ('tahamaasp ka sevak' ya 'gulaam-A-tahamaasya') ki upaadhi mili. yeh ek sammaan tha kyonki isse use shaahi naam mila tha. par naadir itne par santusht ho jaane wala senaanaayak naheen tha.

naadir ne iske baad heraat ke abdaali afgaanon ko paraast kiya. tahamaashp ke darbaar mein apni sthiti sudrudh karne ke baad usane 1729 mein rajdhani isfhaan par kabja kar chuke afgaanon par aakraman karne ki yojana banaai. is samay ek yoonaani vyaapaari aur paryatak besaail vataatjes ne naadir ke sainya abhyaason ko aaainkhon se dekha tha. usane bayaaain kiya - naadir abhyaas kshetr mein ghusne ke baad apne senaapatiyon ke abhivaadan ki sveekruti mein apna sar jhukaata tha. uske baad vo apna ghoda rokata tha aur kuchh der tak sena ka nireekshan ekdam chup rahakar karta tha. vo abhyaas aarambh hone ki anumati deta tha. iske baad abhyaas aarambh hota tha - chakr, vyooh rachana aur ghudsavaari ityaadi.. naadir khud teen ghante tak ghode par abhyaas karta tha.

san 1729 ke ant tak usane afgaanon ko teen baar haraaya aur isfhaan vaapas apne niyantran mein le liya. usane afgaanon ko mahafooj (surakshit) tareeke se bhaagane de diya. iske baad usane bhaari sainya abhiyaan ki yojana banaai. jiske liye usane shaah tahamaashp ko kar vasoolane par majaboor kiya. pashchim ki disha se usmaani turk (otoman) prabhutv mein the. abhi tak naadir ke abhiyaan uttari, kendreeya tatha poorvi Iran aur usase sate afgaanistaan tak seemit rahe the. usane usmaaniyon ko pashchim se maar bhagaaya aur uske turant baad vah poorab mein heraat ki taraf badha jahaaain par usane heraat par niyantran kar liya.

usaki sainya safalta tahamaashp se dekhi naheen gayi. use takhtaapalat ka dar hone laga. usane apni sainya yogyata saabit karne ke maksad se usmaanon ke saath fir se yuddh shuroo kar diya jiska ant uske liye sharmanaak raha aur use naadir dvaara jeete hue kuchh pradesh usmaanon ko lautaane pade. naadir jab heraat se lauta to yeh dekhkar kshubdh hua. usane janta se apna samarthan maaainga. isi samay usane isfhaan mein ek din tahamaashp (tahamaasya) ko nashe ki haalat mein ye samajhaaya ki vo shaasan ke liye ayogya hai aur uske ye ishaare par darabaariyon ne tahamaashp ke nanhein bete Abbas ko gaddi par bitha diya. uske raajyaabhishek ke samay naadir ne ghoshana ki ki vo kandahaar, Delhi, bukhaara aur istaambul ke shaasakon ko haraaega. darbaar mein upasthit logon ko laga ki yeh charam aatmapravanchana ke atirikt kuchh naheen hai. par aane vaale samay mein unako pata chala ki aisa naheen tha. usane pashchim ki disha mein usmaanon par aakraman ke liye sena taiyaar ki. par apne pehle aakraman mein use paraajaya mili. usmaanon ne bagdaad ki raksha ke liye ek bhaari sena bhej di jiska naadir koi jabaab naheen de paaya. lekin kuchh maheenon ke bheetar usane sena fir se sangathit ki. is baar usane kirkuk ke paas usmaaniyon ko hara diya. yeraavan ke paas June 1735 mein usane roosiyon ki madad se usmaaniyon ko ek baar fir se hara diya. is samjhaute ke tahat roosi bhi faarasi pradeshon se vaapas kooch kar gaye.

naadir shaah

naadir ne 1736 mein apne senaapatiyon, praantapaalon tatha kai samarthakon ke samaksh khud ko shaah ghoshit kar diya.

dhaarmik neeti

Iran ke dhaarmik itihaas mein shiya islaam aur sunniyon dvaara unapar dhaae julm ka bahut mahattv hai. safvi shiya the aur unke tahat shiya logon ko arabon (sunniyon) ke julm se chhutakaara mila tha. aaj Iran ki janta shiya hai aur vahaaain shuruaati teen khaleefaaon ko gaali dene ki parampara hai. naadir shaah ne apni gaddi samhaalane vakt ye shart rakhi ki log un khaleefaaon ke prati yeh anaadar bhaav chhod deinge. isse use faayda bhi mila. Iran mein shiya sunni tanaav to kam hua hi saath hi Iran ko islaam ke doosare kendra ke roop mein dekha jaane laga.

naadir armeniyon ke saath bhi udaar dhaarmik sambandh rakhata tha. usaka shaasan yahoodiyon ko liye bhi ek sukoon ka samay tha. apne saamraajya ke andar (faaras mein) usane sunni majhab ko janta par laadne ki koi koshish naheen ki lekin saamraajya ke baahar vo sunni parivrtit raajya ke shaah ke roop mein jaana jaane laga. usaki tulana usmaani saamraajya se ki jaane lagi jo us samay islaam ka sarvesarva the. makka us samay usmaaniyon ke hi adheen tha.

Bhaarat par aakraman

pashchim ki disha mein santusht hone ke baad naadir shaah ne poorab ki or apna dhyaan keindrit kiya. sainya kharch ka bhaar janta par pada. usane kandahaar par adhikaar kar liya. is baat ka bahaana bana kar ki mugalon ne afgaan bhagodon ko sharan de rakhi hai usane mugal saamraajya ki or kooch kiya. Kabul par kabjaa karne ke baad usane Delhi par aakraman kiya. karanaal mein mugal raaja mohammad shaah aur naadir ki sena ke beech ladaai hui. ismein naadir ki sena muglon ke mukaabale chhoti thi par apne baaroodi astron ke kaaran faarasi sena jeet gayi. uske March 1739 mein Delhi pahuainchane par yeh afvaah faili ki naadir shaah maara gaya. isse Delhi mein bhagadad mach gayi aur faarasi sena ka katl shuroo ho gaya. usane iska badla lene ke liye Delhi mein bhayaanak khoonakharaaba kiya aur ek din mein koi 20,000 - 22,000 log maar diye. iske alaava usane shaah se vipul dhanaraashi bhi li. mohammad shaah ne sindhu nadi ke pashchim ki saari bhoomi bhi naadir shaah ko daan mein de di. heere javaaharaat ka ek jkheera bhi use bheint kiya gaya jismein kohenoor (kooh - A - noor), dariya - noor aur taaj - A - mah shaamil the jinki ek apni khooni kahaani hai. naadir ko jo sampada mili vo kareeb 70 karod rupayon ki thi. yeh raashi apne tatkaaleen saatavarsheeya yuddh (1756-1763) ke tulya tha jismein France ki sarkaar ne ostriya ki sarkaar ko diya tha. naadir ne Delhi mein saamraajya vistaar ka lakshya naheen rakha. usaka uddeshya apni sena ke liye aavashyak dhanaraashi ikaththa karni thi jo use mil gayi thi. kaha jaata hai ki Delhi se lautane par uske paas itna dhan ho gaya tha ki agale teen varshon tak usane janta se kar naheen liya tha.

Delhi ke baad

naadir shaah ke afshari vansh (1736-1802) ka saamraajya

Delhi se lautane par use pata chala ki uske bete raja kuli, jise ki usane apni anupasthiti mein vauyasaraaya bana diya tha, ne saafvi shaah tahaamaashp aur Abbas ki hatya kar di hai. isse usako bhanak mili ki raja uske khilaaf bhi shadayantr rach raha hai. isi dar se usane raja ko vaayasaraaya se padachyut kar diya. iske baad vo turkestaan ke abhiyaan par gaya aur uske baad daagestaan ke vidroh ko daman karne nikla. par yahaaain par use safalta naheen mili. lejgon ne khandak yuddh neeti apnaai aur rashad ke kaaravaaain par aakraman kar naadir ko pareshaan kar daala. jab vo daagestaan (1742) mein tha to naadir ko khabar mili ki raja usako maarane ki yojana bana raha hai. isse vo kshubdh hua aur usane raja ko andha kar diya. raja ne kaha ki vo nirdosh hai par naadir ne usaki ek na suni. lekin kuchh hi din baad naadir ko apni glati par khed hua. is samay naadir beemaar ho chala tha aur apne bete ko andha karne ke kaaran bahut kshubdh. naadir shaah ne aadesh diya ki un saradaaron ke sir uda diye jaayein jinhonne uske bete raja kuli ki aaainkhein fodi jaate dekha hai. naadir shaah ne un saradaaron ki glati yeh thaharaai ki unamein se kisi ne yeh kyon naheen kaha ki raja kuli ke bajaaye usaki aaainkhein fod di jaayein. daagestaan ki asafalata bhi use khaae ja rahi thi. dheere-dheere vah aur atyaachaari banta gaya. usane daagestaan se khaali haath vaapas lautane ke baad usane apni sena ek bahut puraane lakshya ke liye fir se sangathit ki - pashchim ka usmaani saamraajya. us samay jab sena sangathit hui to usaki ginti thi - 3,75,000 sainik. itni badi sena us samay shaayad hi kisi saamraajya ke paas ho. Iran ki khud ki sena itni badi 1980 - 1988 ke Iran - Iraq yuddh se pehle fir kabhi naheen hui.

san 1743 mein usane usmaani saamraajya Iraq par hamla kiya. shaharon ko chhod kar kaheen bhi use bahut virodh ka saamana naheen karna pada. kirkuk par usaka adhikaar ho gaya lekin bagdaad aur basara mein use safalta naheen mili. mosool mein uske mahattvaakaanksha ka ant hua aur use usmaanon ke saath samjhauta karna pada. naadir ko ye samajh mein aaya ki usmaani uske niyantran mein naheen aa sakte. idhar nae usmaani sainik uske khilaaf bheje gaye. naadir shaah ke bete nasirullaah ne inmein se ek ko haraaya jabki naadir ne yeraavan ke nikat 1745 mein ek doosare jatthe ko haraaya. par yeh usaki aakhiri badi jeet thi. ismein usmaanon ne use najf par shaasan ka adhikaar diya.

ant aur charit

mashahad mein naadir shaah ka makabara - ek paryatak sthal

naadir ka ant usaki beemaariyon se ghira raha. vah dinaanudin beemaar, atyaachaari aur kattar ho chala tha. apne aakhiri dinon mein usane janta par bhaari kar lagaae aur yahaaain tak ki apne kareebi rishtedaaron se bhi dhan ki maaaing karne laga tha. usaka sainya kharch kaafi badh gaya tha. uske bhateeje Ali kuli ne uske aadeshon ko maanane se mana kar diya. 19 June 1747 mein mashahad ke nikat uske apne hi angarakshakon ne usaki hatya kar daali.

naadir shaah ki upalabdhiyaaain adhik dinon tak tik naheen sakeen. uske marne ke baad Ali kuli ne swayam ko shaah ghoshit kar diya. usane apna naam aadil shaah rakh liya. naadir ke marne ke baad sena titr bitr ho gayi aur saamraajya ko kshatrapon ne svatantr roop se shaasan karna shuroo kar diya. Europeeya prabhaav bhi badhta hi gaya.

naadir ko Europe mein ek vijeta ke roop mein khyaati mili thi. san 1768 mein Denmark ke krishchiyn saptam ne sar William jons ko naadir ke itihaasakaar mantri mirja mahadi astaraabdaali dvaara likhi usaki jeevani ko faarasi se French mein anuvaad karne ka aadesh diya. 1739 mein usaki Bhaarat vijay ke baad angrejon ko muglon ki kamajori ka pata chala aur unhonne Bhaarat mein saamraajya vistaar ko ek mauka samajh kar damakham lagaakar koshish ki. agar naadir shaah Bhaarat par aakraman naheen karta to british shaayad is tarah se Bhaarat mein adhikaar karne ke baare mein shaayad soch bhi naheen paate ya itne bade paimaane par bhaarateeya shaasan ko chunauti naheen dete.

inhein bhi dekhein