naabhikeeya oorja

ikaata parmaanu oorja sanyantr, ek dabaavayukt jal reactor jo samudra ke saath maadhyamik sheetalak vinimay dvaara thanda karta hai.
susakyuhaana vaashp vidyut kendra, ek ubalata jal reactor. reactor, sheetalak taavaron ke saamane ki or aayataakaar rokathaam imaaraton ke andar sthit hain.
parmaanu oorja chaalit teen jahaaj, (oopar se neeche) parmaanu cruiser USS benabrij aur USS long brij, USS intarapraaij ke saath jo 1964 mein pehla parmaanu sanchaalit vimaan vaahak. chaalak dal ke sadasya, udaan dek par aainsteen ke dravyamaan-oorja tulyata sootr ko likh rahe hain E=mc².

parmaanu oorja vah oorja hai jise niyantrit (yaani, gair-visfotak) parmaanu abhikriya se utpann kiya jaata hai. vaanijyik sanyantr vartamaan mein bijli utpann karne ke liye parmaanu vikhandan abhikriya ka upayog karte hain. naabhikeeya reactor se praapt ushma paani ko garm karke bhaap banaane ke kaam aati hai, jise fir bijli utpann karne ke liye istemaal kiya jaata hai.

2009 mein, duniya ki bijli ka 15% parmaanu oorja se praapt hua. iske alaava, parmaanu pranodan ka upayog karne vaale 150 se adhik nausena poton ka nirmaan kiya gaya hai.

anukram

prayog

oorja srot ke aadhaar par aitihaasik aur anumaanit vaishvik oorja, 1980-2030, srot: intaranaishanal enarji outlook 2007, EIA
parmaanu oorja sthaapit kshamata aur utpaadan, 1980-2007 (EIA).
vishv star par parmaanu oorja ki sthiti. katha ke liye chhavi par klik karein.
inhein bhi dekhein: desh dvaara parmaanu shakti evam parmaanu riyektaron ki soochi

yatha 2005, parmaanu oorja ne vishv ki oorja ka 6.3% aur vishv ki kul bijli ka 15% pradaan kiya aur jismein France, America aur Japan ka parmaanu janit bijli mein, ek saath 56.5% ka yogadaan raha.[1] 2007 mein, IAEA ne khabar di ki vishv mein kul 439 parmaanu oorja reactor kaam kar rahe hain,[2] jo 31 deshon mein sanchaalit hain.[3]

sanyukt raajya America sabse adhik parmaanu oorja ka utpaadan karta hai, jiske tahat vah vidyut ki apni khapat ka 19% parmaanu oorja se praapt karta hai[4], jabki France parmaanu riyektaron se apni khapat ki vidyut oorja ke sabse uchch pratishat ka utpaadan karta hai - yatha 2006 80%.[5] Europeeya sangh mein samagr roop, parmaanu oorja bijli ka 30% pradaan karti hai.[6] Europeeya sangh ke deshon ke beech parmaanu oorja neeti bhinn hai aur kuchh deshon, jaise ostriya, estoniya aur Ireland, mein koi sakriya parmaanu oorja kendra naheen hai. iski tulana mein, France mein inke dheron sanyantr hain, jismein se 16 bahu-ikaai kendra, vartamaan mein upayog mein hain.

America mein, jabki koyala aur gas vidyut udyog ke 2013 tak $85 beeliyn moolya ke hone ka anumaan hai, parmaanu oorja generator ke $18 beeliyn moolya ke hone ka poorvaanumaan hai.[7]

kai sainya aur kuchh naagrik jahaaj (jaise kuchh aaisabrekar) parmaanu samudri pranodan ka upayog karte hain, parmaanu pranodan ka ek roop.[8] kuchh antariksh vimaanon ko poorn viksit parmaanu reactor ka upayog karte hue prakshepit kiya gaya: soviyt RORSAT shrrunkhala aur ameriki SNAP-10A.

antararaashtreeya anusandhaan, suraksha sudhaar ko aage badha raha hai, jaise nishkriya roop se surakshit sanyantr,[9] naabhikeeya sanlayan ka upayog aur prakriya taap ka atirikt upayog jaise haaidrojan utpaadan (haaidrojan arthavyavastha ke samarthan mein), samudri jal ko namakaviheen karna aur distrikt heeting pranaali mein istemaal karna.

naabhikeeya sanlayan

naabhikeeya sanlayan abhikriya apekshaakrut surakshit hoti hai aur vikhandan ki apeksha kam rediyodharmi kachara utpann karti hai. ye abhikriyaaen sambhaavit roop se vyavahaarya dikhaai deti hain, haalaanki takaneeki taur par kaafi mushkil hain aur inhein abhi bhi aise paimaane par nirmit kiya jaana hai jahaan ek kaaryaatmak bijli sanyantr mein inka istemaal kiya ja sake. sanlayan oorja 1950 ke baad se, gahan saiddhaantik aur praayogik jaanch se gujr rahi hai.

antariksh mein prayog

vikhandan aur sanlayan, donon antariksh pranodan anuprayogon ke liye sanbhaavanaapoorn dikhte hain, jo nyoon abhikriya raashi ke saath uchch abhiyaan veg srujit karte hain. aisa, parmaanu abhikriya ke bahut adhik oorja ghanatv ke kaaran hai: parimaan ke kuchh 7 kram (10,000,000 guna) rocket ki vartamaan peedhi ko oorja pradaan karne waali raasaayanik abhikriyaaon se adhik oorjaavaan.

rediyodharmi kshaya ko apekshaakrut chhote paimaane (kuchh kW) par istemaal kiya gaya hai, jyaadaatar antariksh abhiyaanon aur prayogon ko oorja pradaan karne ke liye.

itihaas

inhein bhi dekhein: Atomic Age evam Nuclear renaissance

utpatti

parmaanu bhautiki ke pita ke roop mein,[10] arnest radaraford ko 1919 mein parmaanu vikhandan ke liye shreya diya jaata hai.[11] England mein unke dal ne naaitrojan par rediyodharmi padaarth se praakrutik roop se nikalne vaale alfa kan se bamabaari ki aur alfa kan se bhi adhik oorja yukt ek protaun ko utsarjit hote dekha. 1932 mein unke do chhaatr John kaukroft aur arnest vaaltan ne, jo radaraford ke disha-nirdesh mein kaam kar rahe the, poori tarah krutrim tareeke se parmaanu naabhik ko vikhandit karne ki koshish ki, unhonne lithiym par protaunon ki bamabaari karne ke liye ek kan tvarak ka upayog kiya, jisse do heeliym naabhik ki utpatti hui.[12]

James chaidavik dvaara 1932 mein nyootraun ki khoj ke baad, parmaanu vikhandan ko sarvapratham enariko farmi ne prayogaatmak roop se 1934 mein rom mein haasil kiya, jab unke dal ne Uranium par nyootraun se bamabaari ki.[13] 1938 mein, jarman rasaayanashaastri otto haan[14] aur fritj straasaman aur saath mein ostriyaai bhautikvid lise metnar[15] aur metnar ke bhateeje otto Robert frish[16] ne nyootraun se bamabaari kiye gaye Uranium utpaadon par prayog kiye. unhonne nirdhaarit kiya ki apekshaakrut chhota nyootraun, mahaakaaya Uranium paramaanuon ke naabhik ko lagbhag do baraabar tukadon mein vibhaajit karta hai, jo ek aashcharyajanak parinaam tha. liyo shilaard sahit jo ek aguaa the, anekon vaigyaaniko ne yeh paaya ki agar vikhandan abhikriyaaen atirikt nyootraun chhodti hain to ek sv-chaalit parmaanu shrrunkhala abhikriya falit ho sakti hai. is baat ne kai deshon mein vaigyaaniko ko (America, United Kingdom, France, Germany aur soviyt sangh sahit) parmaanu vikhandan anusandhaan ke samarthan ke liye apni sarkaaron ko yaachika dene ke liye prerit kiya.

is khoj ne America mein, jahaan farmi aur sheelaard, donon ne pravaas kiya tha, maanav nirmit pratham reactor ko prerit kiya, jo Chicago paail-1 kahalaaya aur jisne 2 December 1942 ko kritikliti haasil ki. yeh kaarya mainahattan project ka hissa ban gaya, jisne hainaford saait (poorv mein hainaford shahar, Washington) par vishaal reactor banaae, taaki pratham parmaanu hathiyaaron mein prayog ke liye Plutonium paida kiya ja sake, jinhein hiroshima aur naagaasaaki ke shaharon par istemaal kiya gaya. Uranium sanvardhan ka ek samaanaantar prayaas bhi jaari raha.

dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad, yeh dar ki reactor anusandhaan, parmaanu hathiyaaron aur praudyogiki ke teevr prasaar ko protsaahit karega[vague] aur is dar ke saath sanyukt kai vaigyaaniko[kaun?] ki yeh soch ki yeh vikaas ki ek lambi yaatra hogi, aisi paristhiti utpannan hui jismein sarkaar ne reactor anusandhaan ko kade sarkaari niyantran aur vargeekaran ke tahat rakhane ka prayaas kiya. iske alaava, adhikaansh[which?] reactor anusandhaan, vishuddh roop se sainya prayojanon par keindrit the. ek tatkaal[kab?] hathiyaar aur vikaas ki daud shuroo ho gayi jab ameriki sena[kaun?] ne jaankaari saajha karne aur parmaanu saamagri ko niyantrit karne ke apne hi vaigyaanik samudaaya ki salaah ka paalan karne se inkaar kar diya.[krupaya uddharan jodein] 2006 tak, ek chakr poora karte hue baatein, vaishvik parmaanu oorja bhaageedaari ke saath vaheen pahunchi hain (neeche dekhein).[krupaya uddharan jodein]

20 December 1951 ko pehli baar ek parmaanu reactor dvaara bijli utpann ki gayi, aarko, aaidaho ke najdeek EBR-I prayogaatmak station mein, jisne shuruaat mein 100 kW ka utpaadan kiya (aarko reactor hi pehla tha jisne 1955 mein aanshik meltadaaun ka anubhav kiya). 1952 mein, raashtrapati Harry troomain ke liye paale aayog (the presideints metirials paulisi commission) ki ek report ne parmaanu oorja ka "apekshaakrut niraashaavaadi" moolyaankan kiya aur "saur oorja ke sampoorn kshetr mein aakraamak anusandhaan ki maang ki."[17] raashtrapati dvaait aaijnahaavar dvaara December 1953 ko diye gaye bhaashan "shaanti ke liye parmaanu" ne parmaanu ke upayogi dohan par bal diya aur parmaanu oorja ke antararaashtreeya prayog ke liye America ko majaboot sarkaari samarthan ke maarg par aage badhaaya.

praarambhik varsh

chitr:Calderhall.jpeg
United Kingdom mein kaaldar hall parmaanu oorja kendra, duniya ka pehla parmaanu oorja kendra tha jisne vyaavasaayik maatra mein bijli ka utpaadan kiya[18]
shipingaport, peinsilveniya mein shipingaport parmaanu oorja kendra, sanyukt raajya America mein 1957 mein khola gaya pehla vyaavasaayik reactor tha.

27 June 1954 ko USSR ke obaninsk nyookliyr power plant, vidyut grid ke liye bijli utpaadit karne wala duniya ka pehla parmaanu oorja sanyantr bana aur isne kareeb 5 megawatt bijli ka utpaadan kiya.[19][20]

baad mein 1954 mein, ameriki parmaanu oorja aayog (U.S. AEC, ameriki parmaanu niyaamak aayog aur ameriki oorja vibhaag ka agradoot) ke us vakt ke adhyaksh, luis straas ne bhavishya mein bijli ke baare mein kaha ki yeh "itni sasti hogi ki meter se naapane ki aavashyakta naheen hogi".[21] straas, haaidrojan sanlayan ka jikr kar rahe the[22][23] - jise gupt roop se us vakt sheravud pariyojana ke hisse ke roop mein viksit kiya ja raha tha - lekin straas ke bayaan ko parmaanu vikhandan se milne waali atyant sasti oorja ke ek vaade ke roop mein samjha gaya. U.S. AEC ne kuchh maheene pehle ameriki Congress mein, parmaanu vikhandan ke baare mein kaheen adhik roodhivaadi gavaahi jaari ki, yeh darshaate hue ki "laagat ko neeche laaya ja sakta hai... paramparaagat sroton se milne waali bijli ki laagat ke baraabar hi.. " mahatvapoorn niraasha baad mein tab panapi jab nae parmaanu oorja sanyantron ne "atyant sasti" oorja pradaan naheen ki.

1955 mein, sanyukt raashtra sangh ke "pratham jineva sammelan", us vakt vaigyaaniko aur injeeniyron ka duniya ka sabse bada jamaavada, ne praudyogiki ko aur khangaalane ke liye mulaakaat ki. 1957 mein EURATOM ko Europeeya aarthik samudaaya (jo ab Europeeya sangh hai) ke saath shuroo kiya gaya. usi varsh antarraashtreeya parmaanu oorja agency (IAEA) ka bhi gathan kiya gaya.

selaafeeld, England mein sthit vishv ka pehla vaanijyik parmaanu oorja kendra, kaaldar hall, ko 1956 mein 50 megawatt ki aaranbhik kshamata ke saath khola gaya (baad mein 200 megawatt).[18][24] parichaalan shuroo karne wala America ka pehla vaanijyik parmaanu generator tha shipingaport reactor (peinsilveniya December, 1957).

parmaanu oorja ko viksit karne vaale pehle sangathanon mein se ek tha ameriki nausena, jisne iska upayog panadubbi aur vimaan vaahakon ko chalaane ke liye kiya. parmaanu suraksha mein iska rikaard daag rahit hai,[krupaya uddharan jodein] shaayad Admiral haiman ji. rikovar ki kadi maangon ki vajah se, jo parmaanu samudri pranodan aur saath hi saath shipingaport reactor ke praneta the (elvin raadoski ameriki nausena ke parmaanu pranodan anubhaag ke mukhya vaigyaanik the aur haiman ke saath jude hue the). ameriki nausena ne kisi bhi anya sanstha ki tulana mein, jismein soviyt nausena[krupaya uddharan jodein][sandigdh ] bhi shaamil hai, saarvajanik roop se gyaat, bina kisi pramukh ghatna ke adhik parmaanu riyektaron ko sanchaalit kiya hai. pehli parmaanu sanchaalit panadubbi, USS nauteelas (SSN-571) ko December 1954 mein samudra mein chhoda gaya.[25] do ameriki parmaanu panadubbi, USS skorpiyn aur USS threshar, samudra mein kho gaye. ye donon jahaaj, pranaali mein aisi kharaabi ke kaaran kho gaye jo reactor sanyantr se sambandhit naheen tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein] saaiton ki nigraani ki jaati hai aur jahaaj par riyektaron se koi gyaat risaav naheen hua hai.

ameriki sena ke paas bhi ek parmaanu oorja kaaryakram hai, jo 1954 mein shuru hua. Ft. belvoir, Va. mein sthit SM-1 parmaanu oorja sanyantr, April 1957 mein, vaanijyik grid (VEPCO) ko vidyut oorja ki aapoorti karne wala US ka pehla oorja reactor tha, shipingaport se pehle .

enariko farmi aur liyo sheelaard ne 1955 mein parmaanu reactor ke liye ameriki peteint 27,08,656 saajha kiya, us kaam ke liye der se pradaan kiya gaya jo unhonne mainahattan pariyojana ke dauraan kiya tha.

vikaas

parmaanu (oopar) shakti aur sakriya parmaanu oorja sanyantron (neeche) ki sankhya ke upayog ka itihaas.

sansthaapit parmaanu kshamata shuroo mein apekshaakrut jaldi badhi, 1960 mein 1 geegaavaat (GW) se bhi kam se lekar 1970 ke dashak ke uttaraardh mein 100 GW aur 1980 ke dashak ke uttaraardh mein 300 GW. 1980 ke dashak ke uttaraardh ke baad se, duniya bhar mein kshamata apekshaakrut dheere-dheere badhi hai, jo 2005 mein 366 GW tak pahunchi. 1970 aur 1990 ke beech, 50 GW se adhik ki kshamata nirmaanaadheen thi (jo 1970 ke dashak ke uttaraardh aur 1980 ke dashak ke poorvaardh mein 150 GW ke saath charam par thi) - 2005 mein kareeb 25 GW ki nai kshamata ki yojana banaai gayi. January 1970 ke baad se aadesh diye gaye kul parmaanu sanyantron mein se do tihaai se adhik ko antat: radd kar diya gaya.[25] 1975 se 1980 ke beech America mein kul 63 parmaanu unit ko radd kar diya gaya.[26]

Washington saarvajanik vidyut aapoorti pranaali parmaanu oorja sanyantr 3 aur 5 kabhi poore naheen kiye gaye.

1970 aur 1980 ke dashak mein badhti aarthik laagat ke dauraan (viniyaamak parivrtanon aur dabaav-samooh ki mukadamebaaji ki vajah se vardhit nirmaan avadhi ke kaaran)[27] aur jeevaashm indhan ki keematon mein giraavat ne us vakt ke nirmaanaadheen parmaanu oorja sanyantron ko anaakarshak bana diya. 1980 ke dashak mein (America) aur 1990 ke dashak mein (Europe), sapaat bhaar vikaas aur vidyut udaareekaran ne bhi vishaal nai besalod kshamata ke judaav ko aruchikr bana diya.

1973 ke tel sankat ka deshon par mahatvapoorn prabhaav pada, jaise France aur Japan, jo bijli utpaadan ke liye tel par atyadhik nirbhar the (kramash: 39% aur 73%) ne parmaanu oorja mein nivesh ki yojana banaai.[28][29] aaj, parmaanu oorja in deshon mein kramash: kareeb 80% aur 30% ki vidyut aapoorti karti hai.

parmaanu oorja ke khilaaf aandolan 20veen sadi ke aakhiri teesare bhaag mein ubhara, jo sambhaavit parmaanu durghatana ke dar ke saath hi saath durghatanaaon ka itihaas, vikirn ki aashanka ke saath hi saath saarvajanik vikirn ke itihaas, parmaanu aprasaar aur parmaanu kachare ke utpaadan, parivhan aur sangrahan ki kisi antim yojana ki kami par aadhaarit tha. naagrikon ke svaasthya aur suraksha par kathit khatra, three maail aailaind par 1979 ki durghatana aur 1986 ki cheranobil aapada ne kai deshon mein nae sanyantron ke nirmaan ko rokane mein bhoomika ada ki,[30] haalaanki saarvajanik neeti sangathan brookings insteetyooshan ka sujhaav hai ki America mein nai parmaanu ikaaiyon ka aadesh naheen diya gaya hai, jiski vajah hai bijli ki halaki maang aur nirmaan mein deri aur viniyaamak muddon ke kaaran parmaanu sanyantron ki badhti laagat.[31]

three maail aailaind durghatana ke vipreet, adhik gambhir cheranobil durghatana ne western reactor ko prabhaavit karne vaale niyamon ko naheen badhaaya kyonki cheranobil reactor samasyaagrast RBMK dijaain vaale the jise sirf soviyt sangh mein istemaal kiya jaata tha, udaaharan ke liye "majboot" rokathaam bilding ki kami.[32] inmein se kai reactor aaj bhi prayog mein hain. haalaanki, ek nakali durghatana ki sambhaavana ko kam karne ke liye, riyektaron (kam sanvardhit Uranium ka istemaal) aur niyantran pranaali (suraksha pranaali ko aksham karne ki rokathaam), donon mein parivartan kiye gaye.

parmaanu suvidhaaon mein oparetaron par suraksha jaagrukta aur peshevar vikaas ko badhaava dene ke liye ek antararaashtreeya sangathan banaaya gaya: WANO; world association of nyookliar oparetars.

Ireland aur Poland mein vipaksh ne parmaanu kaaryakramon ko roka, jabki aastriya (1978), sveedan (1980) aur Italy (1987) (cheranobil se prabhaavit) ne janamat-sangrah mein parmaanu oorja ka virodh karne ya samaapt karne ke liye matadaan kiya. July 2009 mein, itaalavi sansad ne ek kaanoon paarit kiya jisne poorv ke ek janamat sangrah ke parinaam ko radd kar diya aur itaalavi parmaanu kaaryakram ko turant shuroo karne ki anumati di.[33]

udyog ka bhavishya

sain luis obispo County, California, mein sanyukt raajya America mein diyaablo kainyan power plant
inhein bhi dekhein: List of prospective nuclear units in the United States, Nuclear energy policy, Nuclear renaissance, evam Mitigation of global warming

yatha 2007, vaats baar 1, 7 fravari 1996 ko on-line aaya, vah aakhiri ameriki vaanijyik parmaanu riyektar tha jo on-line gaya. ise aksar, parmaanu oorja ko samaapt karne ke liye ek safal vaishvik abhiyaan ke saakshya ke roop mein uddhrut kiya jaata hai. haalaanki, America aur poore Europe mein, anusandhaan aur parmaanu indhan chakr mein nivesh jaari hai aur parmaanu udyog ke kuchh visheshagyon[34] ne bijli ki kami, jeevaashm indhan ki keematon mein badhotri, global vaarming aur jeevaashm indhan ke upayog se bhaari dhaatu utsarjan hone ka poorvaanumaan lagaaya hai, nai praudyogiki jaise nishkriya roop se surakshit sanyantr aur raashtreeya oorja suraksha, parmaanu oorja sanyantron ki maang ko naveeneekrut karegi.

vishv parmaanu sangh ke anusaar, 1980 ke dashak ke dauraan vaishvik star par har 17 dinon mein ek naya parmaanu reactor ausat roop se shuroo hua aur 2015 tak yeh dar pratyek 5 dinon mein ek tak badh sakta hai.[35]

braaunashvik parmaanu sanyantr mukti nahar.

kai desh parmaanu oorja viksit karne mein sakriya hain, jismein cheen, Bhaarat, Japan aur Pakistan shaamil hai. sabhi sakriya roop se tej aur taapeeya praudyogiki ka vikaas kar rahe hain, dakshin Korea aur America, keval taapeeya praudyogiki ka vikaas kar rahe hain aur dakshin Africa aur cheen pebal bed maudyoolar reactor (PBMR) ke sanskaranon ka vikaas kar rahe hain. Europeeya sangh ke kai sadasya, sakriya roop se parmaanu kaaryakram ko aage badha rahe hain, jabki kuchh anya sadasya raajyon mein parmaanu oorja ke istemaal par pratibandh jaari hai. Japan mein ek sakriya parmaanu utpaadan kaaryakram hai jiske tahat 2005 mein nai ikaaiyon ko chaaloo kiya gaya. America mein, 2010 parmaanu oorja kaaryakram ke antargat ameriki oorja vibhaag ke anurodh ka teen bhaageedaaron ne 2004 mein javaab diya aur unhein Milan nidhi pradaan ki gayi - 2005 ke oorja neeti adhiniyam ne chh: nae riyektaron ke liye rin guaranty adhikrut ki aur oorja vibhaag ko bijli aur haaidrojan, donon ka utpaadan karne ke liye chaturth peedhi ati uchch taapamaan reactor avadhaarana par aadhaarit ek reactor banaane ke liye adhikrut kiya. yatha 21veen sadi ke poorvaardh, cheen aur Bhaarat, donon ke liye teji se ubharati unki arthavyavastha ko samarthan dene ke liye parmaanu oorja vishesh roochi ka hai - donon hi fast breedar reactor ka vikaas kar rahe hain. (oorja vikaas bhi dekhein) United Kingdom ki oorja neeti mein, yeh maana gaya hai ki bhavishya ki oorja aapoorti mein kami ki sambhaavana hai, jiski bharpaai ya to nae parmaanu sanyantron ke nirmaan se ya maujooda sanyantron ko unke nirdhaarit jeevan se adhik samay tak banaae rakhane ke dvaara ki ja sakti hai.

parmaanu bijli sanyantron ke utpaadan mein kuchh sambhaavit rukaavatein hain kyonki vishv bhar mein kuchh hi companiyon ke paas singal-pees reactor dabaav vaahikaaon ko gadhne ki kshamata hai,[36] jo adhikaansh reactor dijaain mein aavashyak hai. duniya bhar mein suvidha companiyaan in jahaajon ke liye kisi vaastavik jaroorat ke liye agrim aadesh prastut kar rahi hain. anya nirmaata vibhinn vikalpon ka pareekshan kar rahe hain, jismein shaamil hai ghatak ko swayam banaana, ya vaikalpik vidhi ka upayog karke samaan cheej banaane ke tareeke ko khojana.[37] anya samaadhaan mein shaamil hai aise dijaain prayog karna jismein singal-pees forjd preshar vesal ki zaroorat naheen hai, jaise Canada ka adavaansd CANDU reactor ya sodiym koold fast reactor.

yeh graaf CO2 utsarjan mein sambhaavit vruddhi ko darshaata hai yadi America mein parmaanu oorja ke dvaara vartamaan mein utpaadit base lod bijli ki jagah koyale aur praakrutik gas le lete hain jab vartamaan reactor apne 60 varsh ke license ke samaapt hone par oflaain ho jaate hain. not: graaf yeh maan kar chalta hai ki sabhi 104 ameriki parmaanu oorja sanyantron ko 60 saal ke liye license eksateinshan praapt hua hai.

cheen ki 100 se jyaada sanyantr banaane ki yojana hai,[38] jabki America mein iske aadhe riyektaron ke license ko lagbhag 60 varshon ke liye pehle hi vistaarit kar diya gaya hai[39] aur 30 nae reactor banaane ki yojana vichaaraadheen hai.[40] iske alaava, US NRC aur ameriki oorja vibhaag ne halake paani ke reactor ki sthirta mein anusandhaan shuroo kiya hai jisse reactor license ko 60 saal se adhik ke vistaar ki anumati milne ki aasha hai, 20 saal ki vruddhi ke saath, basharte ki suraksha ko banaae rakha jaae, kyonki riyektaron ko vaapas karne ke dvaara gair-CO2-utsarjan utpaadan kshamata "ameriki oorja suraksha ko chunauti de sakti hai, jisse sambhaavit roop se greenahaaus gas utsarjan mein vruddhi ho sakti hai aur bijli ki maang aur aapoorti ke beech asantulan paida ho sakta hai".[41] 2008 mein, antararaashtreeya parmaanu oorja agency (IAEA) ka poorvaanumaan hai ki 2030 tak parmaanu oorja kshamata duguni ho sakti hai, haalaanki bijli utpaadan ke parmaanu hisse ko badhaane ke liye yeh paryaapt naheen hoga.[42]

parmaanu reactor praudyogiki

kaitenom parmaanu oorja sanyantr.

jis prakaar kai paramparaagat taapeeya oorja kendra, jeevaashm indhan ke jalne se nikalne waali taap oorja ke dohan se bijli utpann karte hain, vaise hi parmaanu oorja sanyantr, aam taur par parmaanu vikhandan ke maadhyam se ek parmaanu ke naabhik se nikli oorja ko parivrtit karte hain.

jab ek apekshaakrut bada vikhandaneeya parmaanu naabhik (aamtaur par Uranium 235 ya Plutonium-239) ek nyootraun ko avashoshit karta hai to us parmaanu ka vikhandan aksar falit hota hai. vikhandan, parmaanu ko gatij oorja (vikhandan utpaadon ke roop mein gyaat) ke saath do ya do se adhik chhote naabhik mein vibhaajit karta hai aur gaama vikirn aur mukt nyootraun ko bhi chhodta hai.[43] in nyootraunon ke ek hisse ko anya vikhandaneeya parmaanu dvaara baad mein avashoshit kiya ja sakta hai tatha aur adhik vikhandan janm le sakte hain, jo aur adhik nyootraun ko chhodeinge aur isi prakaar aage hota rahega.[44]

is parmaanu shrrunkhala abhikriya ko niyantrit karne ke liye nyootraun vish aur nyootraun mandak ka prayog kiya ja sakta hai, jo nyootraun ke us bhaag ko parivrtit kar deta hai jo vikhandan ko aage badhaata hai.[44] asurakshit sthitiyon ka pata chalne par, vikhandan abhikriya ko band karne ke liye, parmaanu riyektaron mein aamtaur par svachaalit aur hastachaalit pranaali hoti hai.[45]

ek sheetalan pranaali, reactor ke kendra se taap ko hataati hai aur use sanyantr ke anya kshetr mein bhejati hai, jahaan taapeeya oorja ka dohan bijli utpaadan ke liye ya anya upayogi kaamon ke liye istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. aam taur par garm sheetalak ko bauyalar ke liye ek taap srot ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaaega aur bauyalar ki daabaavayukt bhaap, ek ya adhik bhaap tarabaain dvaara sanchaalit vidyut generator ko oorja dega.[46]

reactor ke kai alag-alag dijaain hain, jo vibhinn indhan aur sheetalak ka prayog karte hain aur inki niyantran vidhi vibhinn hoti hai. in dijaainon mein se kuchh ko kisi kisi vishisht jaroorat ko poora karne ke liye parivrtit kiya gaya hai. parmaanu panadubbi aur vishaal nausena jahaajon ke liye prayukt reactor, udaaharan ke liye, indhan ke roop mein atyadhik sanvardhit Uranium ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. indhan ka yeh vikalp reactor ke oorja ghanatv ko badhaata hai aur parmaanu indhan lod ke prayog kiye jaane ki avadhi ko lamba karta hai, lekin anya parmaanu indhanon ki tulana mein yeh adhik mahanga hai aur isse parmaanu prasaar ka adhik khatra hai.[47]

parmaanu oorja utpaadan ke liye dheron nae dijaain sakriya anusandhaan ke adheen hain, jinhein saamoohik roop se chaturth peedhi reactor kaha jaata hai aur bhavishya mein vyaavahaarik oorja utpaadan ke liye inka istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. inmein se kai nae dijaain, vikhandan riyektaron ko vishesh roop se svachh, surakshit aur/ya ek parmaanu hathiyaaron ke prasaar ke khatre ko kam karne ka prayaas karte hain. nishkriya roop se surakshit sanyantr (jaise ESBWR) banaae jaane ke liye upalabdh hain[48] aur anya dijaain jinke bhool-rakshit hone ka vishvaas hai un par kaam aage badhaaya ja raha hai.[49] sanlayan reactor, jo bhavishya mein vyavahaarya ho sakte hain, parmaanu vikhandan ke saath jude kai jokhimon ko kam ya samaapt kar deinge.[50]

jeevan chakr

parmaanu indhan chakr Uranium ke khanan, samruddh aur parmaanu indhan mein nirmit hone se shuroo hota hai, (1) jo ki ek parmaanu oorja sanyantr ke liye diya jaata hai. bijli sanyantr mein upayog ke baad, prayukt indhan ko ek punarsansaadhan sanyantr (2) mein bheja jaata hai ya bhoovaijnyaaanik jamaav ke liye ek antim ripojitri mein (3) bheja jaata hai. punarsansaadhan mein prayukt indhan ka 95% punarnaveeneekaran kar ke ek bijli sanyantr (4) mein vaapas upayog kiya ja sakta hai.

ek parmaanu reactor, parmaanu oorja ke liye jeevan chakr ka hi hissa hai. yeh prakriya khanan ke saath shuroo hoti hai (Uranium khanan dekhein). Uranium khaanein bhoomigat, khule-gaddhe ki, ya svasthaani leech khaanein hoti hain. kisi bhi haalat mein, Uranium ayask ko nikaala jaata hai, aamtaur par ek sthir aur thos roop mein parivrtit kiya jaata hai, jaise yallokek aur fir use kisi prasanskaran suvidha mein bheja jaata hai. yahaan, yallokek ko Uranium heksaafloraaid mein parivrtit kiya jaata hai, jise fir vibhinn takaneekon ka upayog karte sanvardhit kiya jaata hai. is bindu par, sanvardhit Uranium, jismein praakrutik 0.7% U-235 se adhik hai, usaka prayog uchit sanrachana aur jyaamiti ki chhadein banaane ke liye istemaal kiya jaata hai, us vishesh reactor ke liye jiske liye indhan niyat hai. indhan chhadein reactor ke andar kareeb teen parichaalan chakr poora karti hain (aam taur par ab kul 6 saal), saamaanyat: jab tak ki unka kareeb 3% Uranium vikhandit na ho jaae, tab unhein ek kharchit indhan pool mein bheja jaata hai jahaan vikhandan dvaara utpann alp-jeevit aaisotop nasht ho jaate hain. ek sheetalak taalaab mein lagbhag 5 saal ke baad, kharchit indhan rediodharmi aur taapeeya aadhaar par sambhaalne ke liye paryaapt thanda ho chuka hota hai aur use shushk bhandaaran peepon mein rakha ja sakta hai ya pun: sanvardhit kiya ja sakta hai.

paramparaagat indhan sansaadhan

Uranium, bhoo-parpati mein paaya jaane wala kaafi aam tatv hai. Uranium lagbhag utana hi aam hai jitna bhoo-parpati mein tin ya jarmeniym ka paaya jaana aur rajat ki tulana mein yeh 35 guna aam hai. Uranium adhikaansh chattaanon, dhool aur mahaasaagaron ka ek ghatak hai. yeh tathya ki Uranium itna bikhra hua hai, ek samasya hai, kyonki Uranium khanan aarthik roop se keval vaheen vyavahaarya hai jahaan badi maatra mein iska sankendran ho. fir bhi, vartamaan mein naape gaye duniya ke Uranium sansaadhan, jo aarthik roop se 130 USD/kg ki keemat par vasoole ja sakte hain, khapat ki vartamaan dar ke anusaar "kam se kam ek sadi" tak chalne ke liye paryaapt hain.[51][52] adhikaansh khanijon ki saamaanya tulana mein, yeh nishchit sansaadhanon ke ek uchch star ko darshaata hai. anya dhaatu khanij ke saath anuroopata ke aadhaar par, keemat mein vartamaan star se duguni vruddhi karne se maapan kiye gaye sansaadhanon mein, samay ke saath das guna vruddhi hone ki ummeed ki ja sakti hai. haalaanki, parmaanu oorja ki laagat, mukhyat: vidyut kendra ke nirmaan mein nihit hai. isliye, utpaadit bijli ki kul laagat mein indhan ka yogadaan apekshaakrut thoda hai, at: ek atyadhik indhan moolya vruddhi ka antim keemat par apekshaakrut kam asar hoga. udaaharan ke liye, aam taur par Uranium ki baajaar keemat ka ek dohareekaran, halke jal ke reactor ke liye indhan ki keemat mein 26% ki vruddhi karega aur bijli ki laagat mein kareeb 7%, jabki praakrutik gas ki keemat mein duguni vruddhi, aam taur par bijli ki keemat mein us srot se 70% ki badhotri karegi. paryaapt uchch keematon par, sroton se antat: nikaasi, jaise grenaait aur samudri jal aarthik roop se sambhav ho jaate hain.[53][54]

vartamaan ke halke jal reactor, parmaanu indhan ka apekshaakrut akushal prayog karte hain aur keval bahut durlabh Uranium-235 aaisotop ka vikhandan karte hain. parmaanu punarsansaadhan is kachare ko pun: upayog ke laayak bana sakta hai aur adhik kushal reactor dijaain, upalabdh sansaadhanon ke behtar prayog ki anumati dete hain.[55]

prajanan

vartamaan halke jal ke riyektaron ke vipreet, jo Uranium-235 (saare praakrutik Uranium ka 0.7%) ka prayog karte hain, fast breedar reactor Uranium- 238 (saare praakrutik Uranium ka 99.3%) ka upayog karte hain. yeh anumaan lagaaya gaya hai ki in sanyantron mein 5 beeliyn varshon tak prayog ke laayak Uranium-238 maujood hain.[56]

breedar praudyogiki ka kai riyektaron mein istemaal kiya gaya hai, lekin indhan ko surakshit tareeke se punarsansaadhit karne ki uchch laagat ko, aarthik roop se uchit banane se pehle 200 USD/kg se adhik ki Uranium keematon ki aavashyakta hai.[57] yatha December 2005, oorja utpaadan karne wala ekamaatr breedar reactor beloyaarsk, roos mein BN-600 hai. BN-600 ka bijli utpaadan 600 megawatt hai - roos ne beloyaarsk parmaanu oorja sanyantr mein ek aur ikaai, BN-800, ke nirmaan ki yojana banaai hai. iske alaava, Japan ke monjoo reactor ko pun: aarambh karne ki yojana hai (1995 se band hone ke baad) aur cheen aur Bhaarat, donon breedar reactor banaane ka iraada rakhate hain.

ek anya vikalp hoga Uranium-233 ka prayog jise thoriam indhan chakr mein thoriym se vikhandan indhan ke roop mein paida kiya jaata hai. thoriym, bhoo-parpati mein Uranium se 3.5 guna adhik aam hai aur iska bhaugolik lakshan bhinn hai. yeh kul vyaavahaarik vikhandan-yogya sansaadhan aadhaar ko 450% tak badha dega.[58] Plutonium ke roop mein U-238 ke utpaadan ke vipreet, fast breedar reactor aavashyak naheen hain - ise aur adhik paaramparik sanyantron mein santoshajanak roop mein sanpaadit kiya ja sakta hai. Bhaarat ne is takaneek mein jhaankane ki koshish ki hai, kyonki iske paas prachur maatra mein thoriym bhandaar hain lekin Uranium thoda hi hai.

vilay

sanlayan oorja ke pairokaar indhan ke roop mein saamaanyat: dyooteriam ya tritiym ke upayog ka prastaav karte hain, donon hi haaidrojan ke aaisotop hain aur kai maujooda dijaainon mein boraan aur lithiym ka bhi. ek sanlayan oorja utpaadan ko maujooda vaishvik utpaadan ke baraabar maan kar aur yeh maankar ki ismein bhavishya mein vruddhi naheen hogi, to gyaat vartamaan lithiym bhandaar 3000 saal tak chaleinge, samudri jal ka lithiym 60 million varsh chalega aur ek adhik jatil sanlayan prakriya jo samudri jal se keval dyooteriam ka upayog karti hai uske paas agale 150 beeliyn varshon tak ke liye indhan hoga.[59] yadyapi is prakriya ko abhi bhi siddh kiya jaana hai, kai visheshagya aur naagrik sanlayan ko bhavishya ki ek aashaajanak oorja ke roop mein dekhte hain jiski vajah hai uske dvaara utpaadit apashisht ki alpakaalik rediyodharmita, iska nimn kaarban utsarjan aur iska bhaavi bijli utpaadan.

thos apashisht

For more details on this topic, see Radioactive waste.
inhein bhi dekhein: List of nuclear waste treatment technologies

parmaanu oorja sanyantron se sabse mahatvapoorn apashisht dhaara hai kharchit parmaanu indhan. yeh mukhyat: aparivrtit Uranium se bana hai aur saath hi traansasuraanik ektinaaids ki mahatvapoorn maatra (adhikaanshat: Plutonium aur kyooriam). iske alaava, iska kareeb 3%, parmaanu abhikriya se nikla vikhandan utpaad hai. ektinaaids (Uranium, Plutonium aur kyooriam) lambi avadhi ki rediyodharmita ke bade hisse ke liye jimmedaar hain, jabki vikhandan utpaad, alpaavadhi ki rediyodharmita ke bade hisse ke liye jimmedaar hain.[60]

uchch-stareeya rediyodharmi apashisht

inhein bhi dekhein: High-level waste

parmaanu reactor ke andar ek parmaanu indhan chhad ke 5 pratishat abhikriya kar lene ke baad, vah chhad indhan ke roop mein prayog kiye jaane ke laayak naheen rahati (vikhandan utpaadon ki badhne ke kaaran). aaj, vaigyaanik is baat ka pata laga rahe hain ki kaise in chhadon ko dubaara prayog karne laayak banaaya jaae taaki kachare ko kam kiya ja sake aur bache hue ektinaaids ko indhan ke roop mein istemaal kiya ja sake (kai deshon mein bade paimaane ke punarsansaadhan ka istemaal kiya ja raha hai).

ek theth 1000-megawatt parmaanu reactor, prati varsh kareeb 20 kyoobik meter (kareeb 27 tan) kharchit parmaanu indhan ko utpann karta hai (agar punarsansaadhit kiya jaae to 3 kyoobik meter sheeshaakrut maatra).[61][62] America mein sabhi vaanijyik parmaanu oorja sanyantr dvaara aaj ki taareekh tak utpann kharchit indhan, ek football maidaan ko ek meter tak bhar sakta hai.[63]

kharchit parmaanu indhan shuroo mein bahut uchch rediyodharmi hota aur isliye ise atyant saavadhaani aur poorvavichaarit tareeke se sanbhaalana chaahiye. haalaanki, hajaaron varshon ki avadhi ke dauraan yeh kaafi kam rediyodharmi ho jaata hai. 40 varshon ke baad, vikirn pravaah 99.9% hai, jo sanchaalan se kharchit indhan ko hataae jaane ke kshan ki tulana mein kam hai, haalaanki kharchit indhan abhi bhi khatarnaak roop se rediyodharmi hai.[55] rediyodharmi kshaya ke 10,000 varshon ke baad, ameriki paryaavaran sanrakshan agency ke maanakon ke anusaar, kharchit parmaanu indhan se saarvajanik svaasthya aur suraksha ko koi khatra naheen hoga.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

jab pehli baar nikaala jaata hai to kharchit indhan chhadon ko paani ke parirkshit besinon mein sangraheet kiya jaata hai (kharchit indhan pool), jo aamtaur par site par hote hain. yeh paani donon pradaan karta hai, ab bhi nasht hote vikhandan utpaadon ke liye sheetalan aur jaari rahane waali rediyodharmita se parirkshan. ek avadhi ke baad (ameriki sanyantron ke liye aamtaur par paanch saal), ab sheetalak, kam rediyodharmi indhan ko aam taur par ek shushk bhandaaran suvidha ya shushk peepa bhandaaran mein bheja jaata hai, jahaan indhan ko steel aur kankreet ke kantenaron mein rakha jaata hai. vartamaan mein jyaadaatar ameriki parmaanu kachare ko site par hi jama kiya jaata hai jahaan yeh utpann hota hai, jabki upayukt sthaayi niptaan ke tareekon par charcha ho rahi hai.

yatha 2007, sanyukt raajya America, parmaanu riyektaron se nikle 50,000 meetrik tan se adhik kharchit parmaanu indhan ko jama kar chuka hai.[64] ameriki mein sthaayi bhoomigat bhandaaran ko yukka parvat parmaanu apashisht bhandaar mein prastaavit kiya gaya tha, lekin us pariyojana ko ab prabhaavi dhang se radd kar diya gaya hai - America ke uchch-stareeya apashisht ka sthaayi niptaan abhi tak anasulajhi raajanaitik samasya bana hua hai.[65]

uchch-stareeya kachare ki maatra ko vibhinn tareekon se kam kiya ja sakta hai, vishesh roop se parmaanu punarsansaadhan dvaara. fir bhi, ektinaaids ko hata dene ke baavajood bacha hua apashisht, kam se kam 300 varshon tak ke liye kaafi rediyodharmi hoga aur yadi ektinaaids ko andar hi chhod diya jaata hai to hajaaron saal tak ke liye.[krupaya uddharan jodein] saare ektinaaids ko hata dene ke baad bhi aur fast breedar riyektaron ka upayog karte hue roopaantaran dvaara deergh-jeevit gair-ektinaaids ko nasht kar dene ke baavajood, kachare ko ek sau varshon se kuchh sau varshon tak vaataavaran se alag rakhana aavashyak hai aur isliye ise uchit roop se ek deerghakaalik samasya ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya jaata hai. up-jokhim reactor ya sanlayan reactor bhi kachare ko jama kiye jaane ki avadhi ko kam kar sakte hain.[66] yeh tark diya gaya hai[kaun?] ki parmaanu kachare ke liye sabse achha upaaya hai bhoomi ke oopar asthaayi bhandaaran, kyonki takaneek teji se badal rahi hai. kuchh logon ka maanana hai ki maujooda apashisht bhavishya mein ek moolyavaan sansaadhan ho sakta hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

60 minute mein prasaarit 2007 ki ek kahaani ke anusaar, kisi bhi anya audyogik desh ki tulana mein, parmaanu oorja, France ko sabse svachh hava deti hai aur sampoorn Europe mein sabse sasti bijli.[67] France apne parmaanu kachare ko, usaka dravyamaan kam karne ke liye aur adhik oorja utpann karne ke liye pun: sanvardhit karta hai.[68] haalaanki lekh jaari rahata hai, "aaj ham kachare ke kantenaron ko jama rakhate hain kyonki vartamaan mein vaigyaaniko ko yeh naheen pata hai ki vishaaktata ko kaise kam ya samaapt kiya jaae, lekin shaayad 100 varshon baad vaigyaaniko ko pata hoga ... parmaanu kachara, ek atyadhik kathin raajaneetik samasya hai jise aaj tak koi bhi desh sulajha naheen paaya hai. ek arth mein, yeh parmaanu udyog ki kamzor kadi hai... mandil ka kehna hai ki, "agar France yeh mudda hal karne mein asamarth hai, to mujhe naheen samajh mein aata ki ham apna parmaanu kaaryakram kaise jaari rakh sakte hain".[68][68] iske alaava, khud punarsansaadhan ke bhi aalochak hain, jaise chintit vaigyaaniko ka sangh.[69]

nimn-stareeya rediyodharmi apashisht

inhein bhi dekhein: Low-level waste

parmaanu udyog, dooshit vastuon ke roop mein nimn-stareeya rediyodharmi kachare ka bhi bhaari maatra mein utpaadan karta hai, jaise kapda, hast-upakaran, jal shuddhak rejin aur (chaalu hone par) ve saamagriyaan jinse reactor khud bana hai. sanyukt raajya America mein, parmaanu niyaamak aayog ne nimn-stareeya kachare ko saamaanya kachare ke roop mein vyavahaar kiye jaane ki anumati dene ki baar-baar koshish ki hai: kisi ek jagah jama kar, upabhokta vastu ke roop mein punarnaveeneekaran ke dvaara.[krupaya uddharan jodein] adhikaansh nimn-stareeya kachare, nimn star ki rediyodharmita chhodte hain aur sirf apne itihaas ki vajah se rediyodharmi kachara maane jaate hain.[70]

rediyodharmi apashisht ki audyogik vishaakt apashisht se tulana

parmaanu oorja vaale deshon mein, kul audyogik vishaakt kachare mein rediyodharmi kachare ka yogadaan 1% se bhi kam hai, jismein se adhikaansh bhaag anishchit kaal tak ke liye khatarnaak bana rahata hai.[55] kul milaakar, jeevaashm-indhan aadhaarit vidyut sanyantron ki tulana mein parmaanu oorja dvaara utpann apashisht padaarthon ki maatra kaafi kam hoti hai. koyala chaalit sanyantron ko vishaakt aur halki rediyodharmi raakh utpann karne ke liye vishesh roop se jaana jaata hai jiski vajah hai svaabhaavik roop se hone vaale dhaatuon ka sankendran aur koyale se nikalne waali mand rediyodharmi vastu. ok rij national leboretari ki ek taaja report ne nishkarsh nikaala hai ki koyala oorja se vaataavaran mein, parmaanu oorja sankriya ki tulana mein vaastav mein adhik rediyodharmita pahunchati hai aur ki koyale ke sanyantr ke vikirn ke baraabar janasankhya prabhaavi khuraak, parmaanu sanyantr ke aadarsh sanchaalan se 100 guna jyaada hai.[71] beshak, koyale ki raakh, parmaanu kachare se kaafi kam rediyodharmi hai, lekin raakh vaataavaran mein seedhe jaati hai, jabki parmaanu sanyantr, vikirnit reactor pot, indhan chhadein aur site par kisi bhi rediyodharmi apashisht se paryaavaran ki suraksha ke liye parirkshan ka upayog karte hain.[72]

punarsansaadhan

For more details on this topic, see Nuclear reprocessing.

punarsansaadhan se, kharchit parmaanu indhan se Plutonium aur Uranium ke sambhaavit roop se 95% ko, ise mishrit oksaaid indhan mein daal kar pun: praapt kiya ja sakta hai. isse bache hue kachare ke bheetar deerghakaalik rediyodharmita mein kami hoti hai, kyonki yeh kaafi had tak ek alpakaalik vikhandan utpaad hai aur 90% se adhik ek apni maatra kam kar leta hai. oorja riyektaron se naagrik indhan ka punarsansaadhan, vartamaan mein bade paimaane par Britain, France aur (poorv) roos mein kiya jaata hai aur sheegra hi cheen mein aur shaayad Bhaarat mein bhi kiya jaaega aur Japan mein yeh ek bruhat paimaane par kiya ja raha hai. punarsansaadhan ki poorn kshamata ko haasil naheen kiya gaya hai kyonki iske liye 0}breedar reactor ki aavashyakta hoti hai, jo abhi tak vaanijyik roop se upalabdh naheen hai. . France ko sabse safal punarsansaadhan karne vaale ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, lekin vah vartamaan mein prayog kiye jaane vaale vaarshik indhan ka keval 28% (dravyamaan ke aadhaar par) ko punarsansaadhit karta hai, France ke andar 7% ko aur shesh 21% ko roos mein.[73]

anya deshon ke vipreet, America ne 1976 se 1981 tak, ameriki aprasaar neeti ke ek hisse ke roop mein naagrik punarsansaadhan ko rok diya, kyonki punarsansaadhit saamagri jaise Plutonium ko parmaanu hathiyaaron mein istemaal kiya ja sakta hai: haalaanki, America mein punarsansaadhan ki ab anumati hai.[74] fir bhi, America mein sabhi kharchit parmaanu indhan ko vartamaan mein apashisht ke roop mein samjha jaata hai.[75]

February, 2006 mein, ek nai ameriki pahal, vaishvik parmaanu oorja bhaageedaari ki ghoshana ki gayi. yeh ek antararaashtreeya prayaas hoga jo indhan ke punarsansaadhan ko is tareeke se karega ki jisse parmaanu prasaar avyavahaarya ho jaaega, jabki vikaasasheel deshon ko parmaanu oorja upalabdh rahegi.[76]

rikt Uranium

Uranium sanvardhan, kai tan ke rikt Uranium (DU) ko utpann karta hai, jo U-238 se bana hota hai jismein se, aasaani se vikhandaneeya U-235 aaisotop ko hata diya gaya hota hai. U-238 ek kathor dhaatu hai jiske kai vaanijyik upayog hain - udaaharan ke liye, vimaan utpaadan, vikirn parirkshan aur kavach - kyonki leed ki tulana mein iska ghanatv uchch hai. rikt Uranium, hathiyaaron mein bhi upayogi hai jaise DU peneetretar (goliyaan ya APFSDS tip) ka "self shaarpen", jiski vajah hai katarani band ke saath fracture ki Uranium ki pravrutti.[77][78]

kuchh aisi bhi chintaaen hain ki U-238, un samoohon ke liye svaasthya khatra utpann kar sakta hai jo is saamagri ke sampark mein jaroorat se jyaada rahate hain, jaise tank ke karmachaari dal aur ve naagrik jo aise kshetron mein rahate hain jahaan DU gola baarood ki ek badi maatra ka prayog parirkshan, bam, misaail, sfotak sheersh aur goliyon mein kiya gaya ho. January 2003 mein vishv svaasthya sangathan ne ek report khoj ko jaari kiya ki DU yuddh saamagri se sandooshan sthaaneeya kshetr mein prabhaav sthal se kuchh dasiyon meter tak tha aur sthaaneeya vanaspati aur jal ka sandooshan 'behad kam' tha. report mein yeh bhi kaha gaya hai ki kha li gayi lagbhag 70% DU chaubees ghante baad shareer se nikal jaaegi aur kuchh dinon ke baad 90%.[79]

arthashaastr

inhein bhi dekhein: Relative cost of electricity generated by different sources

parmaanu oorja sanyantron ka arthashaastr, mukhya roop se vishaal praarambhik nivesh se prabhaavit hota hai jo ek sanyantr ka nirmaan karne ke liye aavashyak hai. 2009 mein, America mein ek nae sanyantr ki laagat anumaanit roop se $6 se $10 beeliyn ke beech hoti hai. isliye yeh aamtaur par adhik kifaayati hota hai ki unhein jitna lamba ho sake chalaaya jaae ya ya maujooda suvidhaaon mein hi atirikt reactor blaukon ka nirmaan kiya jaae. 2008 mein, nae parmaanu oorja sanyantr ke nirmaan ki laagat anya prakaar ke oorja sanyantron ki laagat ki tulana mein teji se badh rahe the.[80][81]. 2003 MIT ke liye is udyog ka adhyayan karne ke liye gathit ek pratishthit panel ne nimnalikhit paaya:

In deregulated markets, nuclear power is not now cost competitive with coal and natural gas. However, plausible reductions by industry in capital cost, operation and maintenance costs, and construction time could reduce the gap. Carbon emission credits, if enacted by government, can give nuclear power a cost advantage.
—aThe Future of Nuclear Power[82]

MIT adhyayan ne parmaanu reactor ke jeevan ke liye ek 40 varsh ki aadhaar-rekha ka istemaal kiya. kai maujooda sanyantron ko achhi tarah se sanchaalit karne ke liye is avadhi se aage badhaaya gaya hai aur adhyayanon se pata chala hai ki sanyantr ke jeevan ko 60 varshon tak badhaane se usaki samagr laagat naatakeeya roop se kam ho jaati hai.[83]

anya oorja sroton ke saath tulanaatmak arthashaastr ki oopar mukhya lekh mein aur parmaanu oorja bahas mein charcha ki gayi hai.

parmaanu oorja sanyantron ka lacheelaapan

aksar yeh daava kiya gaya hai ki parmaanu kendra apne utpaadan mein lacheele naheen hote hain, jiska arth hai ki charam maang ko poora karne ke liye oorja ke anya roopon ki aavashyakta hogi. haalaanki yeh kuchh riyektaron ke maamale mein sach hai, yeh ab kam se kam kuchh aadhunik dijaain vaalon par laagoo naheen hota.[84]

parmaanu sanyantron ko France mein bade paimaane par niyamit taur par lod paalan mod mein istemaal kiya jaata hai.[85]

ubalate jal ke riyektaron mein saamaanya roop se lod paalan kshamata hoti hai, jise jal ke pravaah ko badalne ke dvaara kaaryaanvit kiya jaata hai.

suraksha

inhein bhi dekhein: Nuclear safety in the United States, Nuclear safety systems, Design Basis Accident, SOARCA, evam Nuclear and radiation accidents

parmaanu oorja ke paryaavaraneeya prabhaav

greenahaaus gas utsarjan jeevan-chakr ki tulana

kaarban daaioksaaid utsarjan ke jeevan chakr vishleshan (LCA) ki adhikaansh tulana, parmaanu oorja ko naveekaraneeya oorja sroton ki tulana mein darshaati hai.[86][87]

parmaanu oorja par bahas

parmaanu oorja bahas us vivaad ke baare mein hai[88][89][90] jo parmaanu indhan se bijli paida karne ke asainik uddeshyon ke liye parmaanu vikhandan riyektaron ki tainaati aur upayog ke ird-gird chalta hai. parmaanu oorja se sambandhit vivaad 1970 aur 1980 ke dashak ke dauraan charam par tha, jab yeh kuchh deshon mein, "itna bheeshan ho gaya jo praudyogiki itihaas mein abhootapoorv tha".[91][92]

parmaanu oorja ke samarthakon ka tark hai ki parmaanu oorja ek sanposhaneeya oorja srot hai jo videshi tel par nirbharata ko kam karte hue kaarban utsarjan ko kam karta hai aur oorja suraksha ko badhaata hai.[93] samarthakon ka daava hai ki parmaanu oorja, jeevaashm indhan ke pramukh vyavahaarya vikalp ke vipreet, vaastav mein koi paaramparik vaayu pradooshan naheen failaati hai, jaise green house gas aur kala dhuaan. samarthakon ka yeh bhi maanana hai ki parmaanu oorja hi adhikaansh pashchimi deshon ke liye oorja mein nirbharata praapt karne ka ekamaatr vyavahaarya raasta hai. samarthakon ka daava hai ki kachare ke bhandaaran ka jokhim chhota hai aur jise nae riyektaron mein naveenatam praudyogiki ke upayog dvaara aage kam kiya ja sakta hai aur pashchimi vishv mein anya prakaar ke pramukh oorja sanyantron ki tulana mein, parichaalan suraksha itihaas utkrusht raha hai.[94]

virodhiyon ka maanana hai ki parmaanu oorja logon aur paryaavaran ke liye khatra utpann karti hai.[95][96][97]. in khataron mein shaamil hai rediyodharmi parmaanu apashisht ke prasanskaran, parivhan aur bhandaaran ki samasya, parmaanu hathiyaar prasaar aur aatankvaad aur saath hi saath Uranium khanan se hone vaale svaasthya khatre aur paryaavaran nuksaan.[98][99] unka yeh bhi tark hai ki reactor khud atyadhik jatil masheenein hain jahaan bahut si baatein galat ho sakti hain ya kar sakti hain aur kai gambhir parmaanu durghatanaaen ho chuki hain.[100][101] aalochak is baat par vishvaas naheen karte hain ki oorja ke srot ke roop mein parmaanu vikhandan ke upayog ke jokhim ko nai praudyogiki ke vikaas ke maadhyam samaayojit kiya ja sakta hai. unka yeh bhi tark hai ki jab parmaanu indhan shrrunkhala ke sabhi oorja-gahan charanon par dhyaan diya jaata hai, Uranium khanan se lekar parmaanu kaaryamukti tak, parmaanu oorja, ek nimn-kaarban vidyut srot naheen hai.[102][103][104]

suraksha aur arthashaastr ke tarkon ka, bahas ke donon pakshon dvaara istemaal kiya jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

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