naabhik

naabhik parmaanu ke madhya sthit dhanaatmak vaidyut aavesh yukt atyant thos kshetr hota hai. naabhik, naabhikeeya kanon protaun tatha nyootraun se bane hote hai. is kan ko nookliyaans kehte hai. protaun va nyootraun dono ka dravyamaan lagbhag baraabar hota hai aur donon ka aantarik koneeya sanveg (spin) 1/2 hota hai. protaun ikaai vidyut aaveshayukt hota hai jabki nyootraun anaaveshit hota hai. protaun aur nyootraun dono nyooklion kahalaate hai. naabhik ka vyaas (10−15 meter)(haaidrojan-naabhik) se (10−14 meter)(yureniym) ke daayare mein hota hai. parmaanu ka lagbhag saara dravyamaan naabhik ke kaaran hi hota hai, ilektraan ka yogadaan lagbhag naganya hota hai. saamaanyat: naabhik ki pehchaan parmaanu sankhya Z (protaun ki sankhya), nyootraun sankhya N aur dravyamaan sankhya A(protaun ki sankhya + nyootraun sankhya) se hoti hai jahaaain A = Z + N. naabhik ke vyaas ki paraas "farmi" ke koti ki hoti hai.

inke alaava naabhik ke kai gun hote hain jaise aakaar, aakruti, bandhan oorja, koneeya sanveg aur arddh-aayu ityaadi.

anukram

aakaar

naabhik mein protauno ke vitran se naabhik ka ausat vyaas nirdhaarit hota hai jo ki 1-10 se 10-15 meter seema mein hota hai.

naabhik ka vyaas parmaanu ke vyaas 10-10 meter ki apeksha bahut kam hota hai, isliye parmaanu ke bheetar naabhik bahut hi kam aayatan gherata hai.

aakruti

kuchh naabhikon ki aakruti golaakaar hoti hai jabki kuchh ki aakruti thodi dabi hui vikrut hoti hai.

bandhan oorja

bandhan oorja vo oorja hoti hai jo naabhik ko baandhakar rakhati hai. is oorja ka star bhinn bhinn nabhikon mein bhinn bhinn hota hai. naabhik ka dravyamaan jitna adhik hoga usaka oorja star utana hi adhik hoga. bandhan oorja ki vividhta ke kaaran naabhik asthir hote hai. naabhik ki prakruti asthirta se sthirta ki or jaane ki hoti hai. isliye asthir naabhik kshaya ke baad sthir naabhik mein parivrtit hote hai. naabhik ke kshaya hone ki dar usaki ausat aayu par nirbhar hoti hai.

koneeya sanveg ya spin

naabhik, bosaun aur farmion dono tarah ke hote hai. jin naabhikon mein nyooklion ki sankhya sam hoti hai, bosaun hote hain aur jinmein sankhya visham hoti hai vo farmion hote hain.

itihaas

naabhik ki aadhunik avadhaarana sabse pehle radaraford ne san 1912 mein pratipaadit ki.