mumbai

mumbai
Mumbai
mahanagar
samay mandal: aaiesati (yooteesi+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raajya Maharashtra
jila Mumbai shahar
Mumbai upanagar
nagar nigam aayukt jairaaj faatak
mahaapaur shobha raaval
janasankhya
ghanatv
mahanagar
13,922,125 (1st) (2008 tak )
• 21,880 /kimi2 (56,669 /varg meal)
• 2,08,70,764 (1st) (2008 tak )
kshetrafal
ooainchaai (AMSL)
603.4 ki.mee² (233 varg meal)
• 8 meter (26 fee॰)
aadhikaarik jaalasthal: www.mcgm.gov.in
vruhat Mumbai nagarapaalika ki muhar

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 18°a58′a30″aN 72°a49′a33″aE / 18.975°aN 72.82583°aE / 18.975; 72.82583

Bhaarat ke pashchimi tat par sthit mumbai (poorv naam Mumbai), bhaarateeya raajya Maharashtra ki rajdhani hai. iski anumaanit janasankhya 3 karod 29 lakh hai jo desh ki pehli sarvaadhik aabaadi waali nagari hai.[1] iska gathan laava nirmit saat chhote-chhote dveepon dvaara hua hai evam yeh pul dvaara pramukh bhoo-khand ke saath juda hua hai. mumbai bandaragaah bhaaratavarsh ka sarvashreshth saamudrik bandaragaah hai. mumbai ka tat kata-fata hai jiske kaaran iska potaashraya praakrutik evam surakshit hai. Europe, America, afreeka aadi pashchimi deshon se jalamaarg ya vaayumaarg se aanevaale jahaaj yaatri evam paryatak sarvapratham mumbai hi aate hain isliye mumbai ko Bhaarat ka praveshadvaar kaha jaata hai.

mumbai Bhaarat ka sarvavruhattam vaanijyik kendra hai. jiski Bhaarat ke sakal ghareloo utpaad mein 5% ki bhaageedaari hai.[2] yeh sampoorn Bhaarat ke audyogik utpaad ka 25%, nauvahan vyaapaar ka 40%, evam bhaarateeya arth vyavastha ke poonji lenaden ka 70% bhaageedaar hai.[3] Mumbai vishv ke sarvochch das vaanijyik kendron mein se ek hai.[4] Bhaarat ke adhikaansh bank evam saudaagari kaaryaalayon ke pramukh kaaryaalaya evam kai mahatvapoorn aarthik sansthaan jaise bhaarateeya rijrv bank, Mumbai stock ekscheinj, national staok ekscheinj evam anek bhaarateeya companyon ke nigmit mukhyaalaya tatha bahuraashtreeya companiyaan mumbai mein avasthit hain. isliye ise Bhaarat ki aarthik rajdhani bhi kehte hain. nagar mein Bhaarat ka hindi chalachitr evam dooradarshan udyog bhi hai, jo Bollywood naam se prasiddh hai. Mumbai ki vyavasaayik apॊrtyuniti, va uchch jeevan star poore bhaaratavarsh bhar ke logon ko aakarshit karti hai, jiske kaaran yeh nagar vibhinn samaajon va sanskrutiyon ka mishran ban gaya hai. Mumbai pattan Bhaarat ke lagbhag aadhe samudri maal ki aavaajaahi karta hai.[5]

anukram

udgam

"Mumbai" naam do shabdon se milkar bana hai, munba ya maha-anbahindu devi durga ka roop, jinka naam munba devi hai – aur I, "maan" ko maraathi mein kehte hain.[6] poorv naam baaainmbe ya Mumbai ka udgam solahaveen shataabdi se aaya hai, jab purtagaali log yahaan pehle-pahal aaye, va ise kai naamon se pukaara, jisne antat: Bombay ka roop likhit mein liya. yeh naam abhi bhi purtagaali prayog mein hai. satrahaveen shataabdi mein, british logon ne yahaan adhikaar karne ke baad, iske poorv naam ka aangleekaran kiya, jo Bombay bana. kintu maraathi log ise Mumbai ya manbai va hindi va bhaashi log ise Mumbai hi bulaate rahe.[7][8] iska naam aadhikaarik roop se san 1995 mein Mumbai bana.

Bombay naam moolat: purtagaali naam se nikla hai, jiska arth hai "achhi khaadi" (gud be)[9] yeh is tathya par aadhaarit hai, ki baum ka purtagaali mein arth hai achha, va angreji shabd be ka niktavarti purtagaali shabd hai baiaa. saamaanya purtagaali mein gud be (achhi khaadi) ka roop hai: boaa bahiya, jo ki galat shabd bom bahiya ka shuddh roop hai. haan solahaveen shataabdi ki purtagaali bhaasha mein chhoti khaadi ke liye baim shabd hai.

anya sootron ka purtagaali shabd baumbaim ke liye, bhinn mool hai. José Pedro Machado's Dicionáario Onomáastico Etimolóagico da Líangua Portuguesa ("etaayamolauji evam onomaistiks ka purtagaali shabdakosh") bataata hai, ki is sthaan ka 1516 se pratham purtagaali sandarbh kya hai, benamajambu ya ten-maaiyaambu,[10] maaiaambu ya "MAIAMBU"' munba devi se nikla hua lagta hai. ye vahi munba devi hain, jinke naam par Mumbai naam maraathi log lete hain. isi shataabdi mein mombaaiyen ki vartani badli (1525)[11] aur vah monbaiem bana (1563)[12] aur antat: solahaveen shataabdi mein bombaiem ubhara, jaisa gaispar korreiya ne leindaas the India ("leejeinds of India") mein likha hai.[13] [14]

itihaas

haaji Ali dargaah jo san 1431 mein bani thi, jab Mumbai islaami shaasan ke adheen tha.[15]

kaandivli ke nikat uttari Mumbai mein mile praacheen avashesh sanket karte hain, ki yeh dweep samooh paashaan yug se basa hua hai. maanav aabaadi ke likhit pramaan 250 E.poo tak milte haiain, jab ise haiptaanesiya kaha jaata tha. teesari shataabdi i.poo. meain ye dveepasamooh maurya saamraajya ka bhaag bane, jab bauddh samraat ashok mahaan ka shaasan tha. kuchh shuruaati shataabdiyon mein Mumbai ka niyantran saatavaahan saamraajya va indo-saaithiyn vaistarn saitraip ke beech vivaadit hai. baad mein hindu silhaara vansh ke raajaaon ne yahaan 1343 tak raajya kiya, jab tak ki Gujarat ke raaja ne unapar adhikaar naheen kar liya. kuchh puraatan namoone, jaise aileefainta gufaaen va baalakeshvar mandir mein is kaal ke milte hain.

1534 mein, purtagaaliyon ne Gujarat ke bahaadur shaah se yeh dweep samooh hathiya liya. jo ki baad mein Charles dviteeya, England ko dahej svaroop de diye gaye.[16] Charles ka vivaah Cathrine de bargainja se hua tha. yeh dveepasamooh 1668 mein, british East India company ko maatr das paaund prati varsh ki dar par patte par de diye gaye. company ko dweep ke poorvi chhor par gahra haarbar mila, jo ki upamahaadveep mein pratham pattan sthaapan karne ke liye atyottam tha. yahaan ki janasankhya 1661 ki maatr das hajaar thi, jo 1675 mein badhkar saath hajaar ho gayi. 1687 mein East India company ne apne mukhyaalaya soorat se sthaanaantarit kar yahaan Mumbai mein sthaapit kiye. aur antat: nagar Mumbai preseedeinsi ka mukhyaalaya ban gaya.

getave of India ko 2 December,1911 ko Bhaarat mein samraat George pancham va mahaaraani mairi ke aagaman par svaagat hetu banaaya gaya, jo ki 4 December, 1924 ko poora hua.

san 1817 ke baad, nagar ko vruhat paimaane par civil kaaryon dvaara punaroddhaar kiya gaya. ismein sabhi dveepon ko ek jude hue dweep mein jodane ki pariyojana mukhya thi. is pariyojana ko haurnabaaya vellaard kaha gaya, jo 1845 mein poorn hua, tatha poora 438bsp;ki॰amee॰aa² nikla. san 1853 mein, Bhaarat ki pratham yaatri railway line sthaapit hui, jisne Mumbai ko thaane se joda. Amreeki naagar yuddh ke dauraan, yeh nagar vishv ka pramukh sooti vyavasaaya baajaar bana, jisse iski arth vyavastha majaboot hui, saath hi nagar ka star kai guna utha.

1869 mein svej nahar ke khulne ke baad se, yeh arab saagar ka sabse bada pattan ban gaya.[17] agale tees varshon mein, nagar ek pradhaan naagrik kendra ke rup mein viksit hua. yeh vikaas sanrachana ke vikaas evam vibhinn sansthaanon ke nirmaan se paripoorn tha. 1906 tak nagar ki janasankhya das lakh billion ke lagbhag ho gayi thi. ab yeh Bhaarat ki tatkaaleen rajdhani Calcutta ke baad Bhaarat mein, doosare sthaan sabse bada shahar tha. Mumbai preseedeinsi ki rajdhani ke roop mein, yeh bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ka aadhaar bana raha. Mumbai mein is sangraam ki pramukh ghatna 1942 mein mahaatma gaaaindhi dvaara chheda gaya Bhaarat chhodo aandolan tha. 1947 mein bhaarateeya svatantrata ke uparaant, yeh Bombay raajya ki rajdhani bana. 1950 mein uttari or sthit sailset dweep ke bhaagon ko milaate hue, yeh nagar apni vartamaan seemaaon tak pahuncha.

1955 ke baad, jab Bombay raajya ko punarvyavasthit kiya gaya aur bhaasha ke aadhaar par ise Maharashtra aur Gujarat raajyon mein baanta gaya, ek maang uthi, ki nagar ko ek svaayatt nagar-raajya ka darja diya jaaye. haalaanki sanyukt Maharashtra samiti ke aandolan mein iska bharpoor virodh hua, va Mumbai ko Maharashtra ki rajdhani banaane par jor diya gaya. in virodhon ke chalte, 105 log police goleebaari mein maare bhi gaye aur antat: 1 May, 1960 ko Maharashtra raajya sthaapit hua, jiski rajdhani Mumbai ko banaaya gaya.

flora faaunten ka punarnaamakaran hutaatma chauk kiya gaya, jo ki sanyukt Maharashtra aandolan ke shaheedon ka smaarak bana

1970 ke dashak ke ant tak, yahaan ke nirmaan mein ek sahasaavruddhi hui, jisne yahaan aavak pravaasiyon ki sankhya ko ek bade ank tak pahunchaaya. isse Mumbai ne Calcutta ko janasankhya mein pachhaad diya, va pratham sthaan liya. is ant:pravaah ne sthaaneeya maraathi logon ke andar ek chinta jaga di, jo ki apni sanskruti, vyavasaaya, bhaasha ke khone se aashankit the.[18] baala saaheb Thackeray dvaara Shiv sena party banaayi gayi, jo maraathiyon ke hit ki raksha karne hetu bani thi.[19] nagar ka dharm-nirpeksh sootr 1992-93 ke dangon ke kaaran chhinn-bhinn ho gaya, jismein bade paimaane par jaan va maal ka nuksaan hua. iske kuchh hi maheenon baad 12 March,1993 ko shrunkhalaabaddh bam visfoton ne nagar ko dahala diya. inmein pure Mumbai mein sainkadon log maare gaye. 1995 mein nagar ka punarnaamakaran Mumbai ke roop mein hua. yeh shivsena sarkaar ki british kaaleen naamon ke aitihaasik va sthaaneeya aadhaar par punarnaamakaran neeti ke tahat hua. yahaan haal ke varshon mein bhi islaami ugravaadiyon dvaara aatankvaadi hamle hue. 2006 mein yahaan train visfot hue, jinmein do sau se adhik log maare gaye, jab kai bam Mumbai ki lokal trainon mein fate.[20]

inhein bhi dekhein: Mumbai ki ghatnaaon ki samay rekha

bhoogol

yeh mahanagar Mumbai shahar, Mumbai upanagar jilon evam navi Mumbai tatha thaane shaharon ko milaakar banta hai.

Mumbai shahar Bhaarat ke pashchimi tat par konkan tateeya kshetr mein ulhaas nadi ke muhaane par sthit hai. ismein sailaset dweep ka aanshik bhaag hai aur shesh bhaag thaane jile mein aate hain. adhikaansh nagar samudratal se jara hi ooncha hai, jiski ausat oonchaai 10 mi (33 fut) se 15 mi (49 fut) ke beech hai. uttari Mumbai ka kshetr pahaadi hai, jiska sarvochch sthaan 450 mi (1,476 fut) par hai.[21] nagar ka kul kshetrafal 603 ki.mee² (233 sq mi) hai.

sanjaya gaaaindhi raashtreeya udyaan nagar ke sameep hi sthit hai. yeh kul shahari kshetr ke lagbhag chhathavein bhaag mein bana hua hai. is udyaan mein teindue ityaadi pashu abhi bhi mil jaate hain,[22][23] jabki jaatiyon ka vilupteekaran tatha nagar mein aavaas ki samasya sar uthaaye khadi hai.

bhaatasa baandh ke alaava, 6 mukhya jheelein nagar ki jalaapoorti karateen hain: vihaar jheel, vaitarna, upper vaitarna, tulasi, tans va povai. tulasi evam vihaar jheel borivli raashtreeya udyaan mein shahar ki nagarapaalika seema ke bheetar sthit hain. povai jheel se keval audyogik jalaapurti ki jaati hai. teen chhoti nadiyaan dahisr, poisar evam ohivaada (ya osheevaada) udyaan ke bheetar se niklateen hain, jabki meethi nadi, tulasi jheel se niklati hai aur vihaar va povai jheelon ka badha hua jal le leti hai. nagar ki tatarekha bahut adhik niveshikaaon (sankari khaadiyon) se bhari hai. sailaset dweep ki poorvi or daladali ilaaka hai, jo jaivabhinnataaon se paripoorn hai. pashchimi chhor adhiktar reteela ya pathareela hai.

Mumbai ki arab saagar se sameepata ke khaaran shahari kshetr mein mukhyat: reteeli baaloo hi milti hai. upanagareeya kshetron mein, mitti adhiktar alyuviyl evam dheledaar hai. is kshetr ke neeche ke patthar kaale dakkhin besaalt va unke kshaareeya va amleeya parivartan hain. ye antim kreteshiys evam aaranbhik iyoseen kaal ke hain. Mumbai seejmik ektiv (bhookamp sakriya) jon hai.[24] jiske kaaran is kshetr mein teen sakriya fault laainein hain. is kshetr ko truteeya shreni mein vargeekrut kiya gaya hai, jiska arth hai, ki richter paimaane par 6.5 teevrata ke bhookamp aa sakte hain.

jalavaayu

Mumbai mein ausat taapamaan evam varshan (praisipiteshan) ki saarani

ushnakatibandheeya kshetr mein arab saagar ke nikat sthit Mumbai ki jalavaayu mein do mukhya rituen hain: shushk evam aardr ritu. aardr ritu March evam October ke beech aati hai. iska mukhya lakshan hai uchch aardrata va taapaman lagbhag 30 °ase (86 °afai) se bhi adhik. June se September ke beech monsoon varshaaen nagar bhigoteen hain, jisse Mumbai ka vaarshik varsha star 2,200 mileemeetar (86.6 inch) tak pahunchata hai. adhiktam ankit vaarshik varsha 1954 mein 3,452 mileemeetar (135.9 inch) thi.[25] Mumbai mein darj ek din mein sarvochch varsha 944 mileemeetar (37.17 inch) 26 July,2005 ko huyi thi.[26] November se February tak shushk mausam rahata hai, jismein madhyam aardrata star bana rahata hai, va halka garm se halka thanda mausam rahata hai. January se February tak halki thand padti hai, jo yahaan aane waali thandi uttari havaaon ke kaaran hoti hai.

Mumbai ka vaarshik taapamaan uchchatam 38 °ase (100 °afai) se nyoonatam 11 °ase (52 °afai)tak rahata hai. ab tak ka record sarvochch taapamaan 43.3 °ase (109.9 °afai) tatha 22 January,1962 ko nayoonatam 7.4 °ase (45.3 °afai) raha.[27]. haalaanki 7.4 °ase (45.3 °afai) yahaan ke mausam vibhaag ke do mein se ek station dvaara ankit nyoonatam taapamaan kanheri gufaaen ke nikat nagar ki seemaaon ke bheetar sthit station dvaara nyoonatam taapamaan 8 February,2008 ko 6.5 °ase (43.7 °afai) ankit kiya gaya.[28]

arth-vyavastha

kafe parade Mumbai ka mahatvapoorn vyavasaayik kendra hai, jahaan vishv vyaapaar kendra sthit hai, va anya kai mahatvapoorn aarthik sansthaan bhi hain.
Mumbai stock ekscheinj Asia ka puraatanatam stock ekscheinj hai

Mumbai Bhaarat ki sabse badi nagari hai. yeh desh ki ek mahatvapoorn aarthik kendra bhi hai, jo sabhi factory rojagaaron ka 10%, sabhi aayakar sangrah ka 40%, sabhi seema shulk ka 60%, kendreeya raajasv ka 20% va Bhaarat ke videsh vyaapaar evam भारतीय रुपया40 billion (US$580 million) nigmit karon se yogadaan deti hai.[29] Mumbai ki prati-vyakti aay भारतीय रुपया48,954 (US$710) hai, jo raashtreeya ausat aay ki lagbhag teen guna hai.[30] Bhaarat ke kai bade udyog (bhaarateeya state bank, tata group, Godrej evam Reliance sahit) tatha chaar faurchyoon global 500 companiyaan bhi Mumbai mein sthit hain. kai videshi bank tatha sansthaanon ki bhi shaakhaaen yahaan ke vishv vyaapaar kendra kshetr mein sthit hain.[31] san 1980 tak, Mumbai apne kapda udyog va pattan ke kaaran sampannta arjit karta tha, kintu sthaaneeya arth-vyavastha tab se ab tak kai guna sudhar gayi hai, jismein ab abhiyaantriki, ratn vyavasaaya, hailth-keyar evam soochana praudyogiki bhi sammilit hain. Mumbai mein hi bhaabha aanvik anusandhaan kendra bhi sthit hai. yaheen Bhaarat ke adhikaansh vishisht takaneeki udyog sthit hain, jinke paas aadhunik audyogik aadhaar sanrachana ke saath hi apaar maatra mein kushal maanav sansaadhan bhi hain. aarthik companiyon ke ubharate sitaare, aiyarospes, optikl engineering, sabhi prakaar ke computer evam electronic upakaran, jalapot udyog tatha punarnaveeneekrut oorja srot tatha shakti-udyog yahaan apna alag sthaan rakhate hain.

nagar ke kaaryakshetr ka ek bada bhaag kendra evam raajya sarkaari karmachaari banaate hain. Mumbai mein ek badi maatra mein kushal tatha akushal va ardh-kushal shramikon ki shakti hai, jo praathamikta se apna jeevan yaapan taxi-chaalak, fereevaale, yaantrik va anya blue kaular kaaryon se karte hain. pattan va jahaajaraani udyog bhi pratyaksh va apratyaksh roop se dheron karmachaariyon ko rojagaar deta hai. nagar ke dhaaraavi kshetr mein, yahaan ka kooda punarchakran udyog sthaapit hai. is jile mein anumaanit 15,000 ek-kamara faiktriyaan hain.[32]

media udyog bhi yahaan ka ek bada niyokta hai. Bhaarat ke pradhaan dooradarshan va upagrah tantrajaal (network), va mukhya prakaashan gruh yaheen se chalte hain. hindi chalachitr udyog ka kendra bhi yaheen sthit hai, jisse prati varsh vishv ki sarvaadhik filmein release hoti hain. Bollywood shabd baaainmbe va Hollywood ko milaakar nirmit hai. maraathi dooradarshan evam maraathi film udyog bhi Mumbai mein hi sthit hai.

shesh Bhaarat ki tarah, iski vaanijyik rajdhani Mumbai ne bhi 1991 ke sarkaari udaareekaran neeti ke chalte aarthik uchhaal (sahasaavruddhi) ko dekha hai. iske saath hi 1990 ke madhya dashak mein soochana praudyogiki, niryaat, sevaaen va bi pi O udyogon mein bhi utthaan dekha hai. Mumbai ka madhyam-vargeeya naagrik jahaan is uchhaal se sarvaadhik prabhaavit hua hai vaheen vo iski pratikriya svaroop upabhokta uchhaal ka karta bhi hai. in logon ki ooparaavarti gatisheelata ne upabhoktaon ke jeevan star va vyaya kshamata ko bhi uchhaala hai. Mumbai ko vitteeya bahaav ke aadhaar par maastarakaard varldavaaid ke ek sarvekshan mein; vishv ke das sarvochch vaanijya kendron mein se ek gina gaya hai.[4]

naagar prashaasan

Mumbai mein do pruthak kshetr hain: nagar evam upanagar, yahi Maharashtra ke do jile bhi banaate hain. shahari kshetr ko praay: dweep nagar ya aailaind city kaha jaata hai.[33] nagar ka prashaasan bruhanmunbai nagar nigam (bi M si) (poorv Mumbai nagar nigam) ke adheen hai, jiski kaaryapaalak adhikaar nagar nigam aayukt, raajya sarkaar dvaara niyukt ek I A S adhikaari ko diye gaye hain. nigam mein 227 paarshad hain, jo 24 nagar nigam wardon ka pratinidhitv karte hain, paaainch naamaankit paarshad va ek mahaapaur hain. nigam naagrik suvidhaaon evam shahar ki avasanrachana aavashyakataaon ke liye prabhaari hai. ek sahaayak nigam aayukt pratyek ward ka prashaasan dekhta hai. paarshadon ke chunaav hetu, lagbhag sabhi raajaneetik paartiyaan apne pratyaashi khade karateen hain. Mumbai mahaanagareeya kshetr mein 7 nagar nigam va 13 nagar parishad hain. bi M si ke alaava, yahaan thaane, kalyaan-donbheevali, navi Mumbai, meera bhayandar, bhivandi-nijaamapur evam ulhaasanagar ki nagaramahaapaalikaaen va nagarapaalikaaen hain.[34]

greater Mumbai mein Maharashtra ke do jile bante hain, pratyek ka ek jilaadhyaksh hai. jilaadhyaksh jile ki sampatti lekh, kendra sarkaar ke raajasv sangrahan ke liye uttaradaayi hota hai. iske saath hi vah shahar mein hone vaale chunaavon par bhi nazar rakhata hai.

Mumbai police ka adhyaksh police aayukt hota hai, jo I pi S adhikaari hota hai. Mumbai police raajya gruh mantraalaya ke adheen aati hai. nagar saat police jon va satrah yaataayaat police jon mein banta hua hai, jinmein se pratyek ka ek police upaayukt hai. yaataayaat police Mumbai police ke adheen ek svaayatt sanstha hai.[35] Mumbai agnishaman dal vibhaag ka adhyaksh ek mukhya fire adhikaari hota hai, jiske adheen chaar up mukhya fire adhikaari va chh: mandaleeya adhikaari hote hain.

Mumbai mein hi Mumbai uchch nyaayaalaya sthit hai, jiske adhikaar-kshetr mein Maharashtra, goaa raajya evam daman evam deev tatha daadara evam naagar haveli ke kendra shaasit pradesh bhi aate hain. Mumbai mein do nimn nyaayaalaya bhi hain, smaul kaujej court –naagarik maamalon hetu, va vishesh taada (terarist end disraptiv ektiviteej) nyaayaalaya –jahaan aatankvaadiyon va failaane vaalon va vidhvansak pravrutti va gatividhiyon mein pahade gaye logon par mukadamein chalaae jaate hain.

shahar mein lok sabha ki chh: va Maharashtra vidhaan sabha ki chauntees seatein hain. Mumbai ki mahaapaur shubha raaval hain, nagar nigam aayukt hain jayaraaj faataak evam sherrif hain indu saahani.

yaataayaat

Mumbai ke adhikaansh nivaasi apne aavaas va kaaryaakshetr ke beech aavaagaman ke liye kol yaataayaat par nirbhar hain. Mumbai ke yaataayaat mein Mumbai upanagareeya railway, bi E S ti (best) ki basein, taxi autorickshaw, feri seva aateen hain. yeh shahar bhaarateeya rel ke do mandalon ka mukhyaalaya hai: madhya railway (central railway), jiska mukhyaalaya chhatrapati shivaaji tarmins hai, evam pashchim railway, jiska mukhyaalaya charchaget ke nikat sthit hai. nagar yaataayaat ki reedh hai Mumbai upanagareeya rel, jo teen bhinn netavrkon se bani hai, jinke root shahar ki lambaai mein uttar-dakshin disha mein daudte hain. Mumbai maitro, ek bhoomigat evam utthit stareeya railway pranaali, jo filhaal nirmaanaadheen hai, varsova se andheri hokar ghaatakopar tak pratham charan mein 2009 tak chaaloo hogi.

Mumbai Bhaarat ke anya bhaagon se bhaarateeya rel dvaara vyavasthit dhang se juda hai. railgaadiyaan chhatrapati shivaaji tarmins, daadar, lokamaanya tilk tarmins, Mumbai central, Bandra tarmins evam andheri se aarambh ya samaapt hoti hain. Mumbai upanagareeya rel pranaali 6.3 million yaatriyon ko pratidin laati le jaati hai.[36]

bi E S ti dvaara chaalit basein, lagbhag nagar ke harek bhaag ko yaataayaat upalabdh karaateen hain. saath hi navi Mumbai evam thaane ke bhi bhaag tak jaateen hain. basein chhoti se madhyam doori tak ke safar ke liye prayoganeeya hain, jabki trainein lambi dooriyon ke liye sasta yaataayaat upalabdh karaateen hain. best ke adheen lagbhag 3,408 basein chalateen hain,[37] jo pratidin lagbhag 4.5 million yaatriyon ko 340 bas-rooton par laati le jaateen hain. iske bede mein singal-dekar, double-dekar, vesteebyool, lo-flor, disebald freindli, vaataanukoolit evam haal hi mein judeen Euro-teen sammat si N ji chaalit basein sammilit hain. Maharashtra raajya sadak parivhan nigam (M S aar ti si) ki antarshahareeya yaataayaat seva hai, jo Mumbai ko raajya va anya raajyon ke shaharon se jodteen hain. Mumbai darshan seva ke dvaara paryatak yahaan ke sthaaneeya paryatan sthalon ka ek divseeya daura kar sakte hain.

kaali va peeli, meter-yukt taisi seva poore shahar mein upalabdh hai. Mumbai ke upanagareeya kshetron mein autorickshaw upalabdh hain, jo si N ji chaalit hain, va bhaade par chalte hain. ye tiphiya savaari jaane aane ka upayukt saadhan hain. ye bhaade ke yaataayaat ka sabse sasta jariya hain, va inmein teen savaariyaan baith sakateen hain.

chhatrapati shivaaji antarraashtreeya vimaanakshetr dakshin Asia ka vyastatam havaai adda hai.[38]

Mumbai ka chhatrapati shivaaji antarraashtreeya vimaanakshetr (poorv sahar antarraashtreeya vimaanakshetr) dakshin Asia ka vyastatam havaai adda hai.[38] joohoo vimaanakshetr Bhaarat ka pratham vimaanakshetr hai, jismein flaaing club va ek haileeport bhi hain. prastaavit navi Mumbai antarraashtreeya vimaanakshetr, jo kopara-panvel kshetr mein banana hai, ko sarkaar ki manjoori mil chuki hai, poora hone par, vartamaan havaai adde ka bhaar kaafi had tak kam kar dega. Mumbai mein desh ke 25% antardesheeya va 38% antarraashtreeya yaatri yaataayaat sampann hota hai. apni bhaugolik sthiti ke kaaran, Mumbai mein vishv ke sarvashreshth praakrutik pattan upalabdh hain. yahaan se hi desh ke yaatri va kaargo ka 50% aavaagaman hota hai.[5] yeh bhaarateeya nausena ka ek mahatvapoorn base bhi hai, kyonki yahaan pashchimi nausainik kamaan bhi sthit hai.[39] fairi bhi dveepon aadi ke liye upalabdh hain, jo ki dveepon va tateeya sthalon par jaane ka ek sasta jariya hain.

upayogita sevaaen

beeemasi mukhyaalaya
inhein bhi dekhein: Mumbai ke jal srot

bi M si shahar ki peya jalaapoorti karta hai. is jal ka adhikaansh bhaag tulasi evam vihaar jheel se tatha kuchh anya uttari jheelon se aata hai. yeh jal bhaandup Asia ke sabse bade jal-shodhan sanyantr mein mein shodhit kar aapoorti ke liye upalabdh karaaya jaata hai. Bhaarat ki pratham bhoomigat jal-surang bhi Mumbai mein hi banane waali hai.[40] bi M si hi shahar ki sadak rakharakhaav aur kooda prabandhan bhi dekhta hai. pratidin shahar ka lagbhag 7800 meetrik tan kooda uttar-poorvi kshetr mein mulund, uttar-pashchim mein goraai aur poorv mein devanaar mein damp kiya jaata hai. seevej treetameint worli aur Bandra mein kar saagar mein nishkaasit kiya jaata hai.

Mumbai shahar mein vidyut aapoorti best, Reliance enarji, tata power aur mahaavitran (Maharashtra raajya vidyut vitran company li.) karte hain. yahaan ki adhikaansh aapoorti jal-vidyut aur naabhikeeya shakti se hoti hai. shahar ki vidyut khapat utpaadan kshamata ko pachhaadti ja rahi hai. shahar ka sabse bada doorabhaash seva pradaata M ti N L hai. iski 2000 tak laindalaain aur selyular seva par monopauli thi. aaj yahaan mobile seva pradaataaon mein Airtel, vodaafon, M ti N L, bi pi L, Reliance kamyunikeshans aur tata indikaum hain. shahar mein ji S M aur si di M A sevaaen, donon hi upalabdh hain. M ti N L evam tata yahaan braudabaind seva bhi upalabdh karaate hain.

janasaankhyiki

inhein bhi dekhein: Mumbai ki janasaankhyiki evam Mumbai saankhyiki
Skyscrapers under construction dotted by maller buildings and trees. A beach is in front of them
Since the 1970s, Mumbai has witnessed a construction boom and a significant influx of migrants, making it India's largest city

2001 ki janaganana anusaar Mumbai ki janasankhya 11,914,398 thi.[42] world gaijetiyr dvaara 2008 mein kiye gaye ganana kaaryakram ke anusaar Mumbai ki janasankhya 13,662,885 thi.[43] tabhi Mumbai mahaanagareeya kshetr ki janasankhya 21,347,412 thi.[44] yahaan ki janasankhya ghanatv 22,000 vyakti prati varg kilometer tha. 2001 ki janaganana anusaar bi.M.si ke prashaasanaadheen greater Mumbai kshetr ki saaksharata dar 77.45% thi,[45] jo raashtreeya ausat 64.8% se adhik thi.[46] yahaan ka ling anupaat 774 striyaan prati 1000 purush dveepeeya kshetr mein, 826 upanagareeya kshetr aur 811 greater Mumbai mein,[45] jo aankade sabhi raashtreeya ausat anupaat 933 se neeche hain.[47] yeh nimnatar ling anupaat badi sankhya mein rojagaar hetu aaye pravaasi purushon ke kaaran hai, jo apne parivaar ko apne mool sthaan mein hi chhodkar aate hain.[48]

Mumbai mein 67.39% hindu, 18.56% muslim, 3.99% jain aur 3.72% isaai log hain. inmein shesh janta sikh aur paaraseeyon ki hai.[49][50] Mumbai mein puraatanatam, muslim sanpradaaya mein daaudi bohare, khoje aur konkani muslim hain.[51] sthaaneeya isaaiyon mein East Indian kaitholiks hain, jinka dharmaantaran purtagaaliyon ne 16veen shataabdi mein kiya tha.[52] shahar ki janasankhya ka ek chhota ansh ijraaili bene yahoodi aur paaraseeyon ka bhi hai, jo lagbhag 1600 varsh poorv yahaan faaras ki khaadi ya yaman se aaye the.[53]

Mumbai mein Bhaarat ke kisi bhi mahanagar ki apeksha sabse adhik bahubhaashiyon ki sankhya hai.Maharashtra raajya ki aadhikaarik raajabhaasha maraathi hai. anya boli jaane waali bhaashaaon mein hindi aur angreji hain.[54] ek sarvasaadhaaran ki bolachaal ki nimn-stareeya bhaasha hai banbaiya hindi jismein adhikaansh shabd aur vyaakaran to hindi ka hi hai, kintu iske alaava maraathi aur angreji ke shabd bhi hain. iske alaava kuchh shabd yahi avishkrut hain. Mumbai ke log apne of ko munbaikar ya munbaiyaaits kahalaate hain. uchchastareeya vyaavasaaya mein sanlagn logon dvaara angreji ko vareeyata di jaati hai.

Mumbai mein bhi teevr gati se shahareekaran ko agrasar viksit deshon ke shaharon dvaara dekhi jaarahi pradhaan shahareekaran samasya ka saamana karna pad raha hai. inmein gareebi, berojgaari, girta jan-svaasthya aur ashiksha/asaaksharata pramukh hain. yahaan ki bhoomi ke moolya itne oonche ho gaye hain, ki logon ko nimnastareeya kshetron mein apne vyavasaaya sthal se bahut door rahana padta hai. is kaaran sadkon par yaataayaat jaam aur lok-parivhan aadi mein atyadhik bheed badhti hi ja rahi hain. Mumbai ki kul janasankhya ka lagbhag 60% ansh gandi bastiyon aur jhuggiyon mein basata hai.[55] dhaaraavi, Asia ki doosari sabse badi slam-bastti[56] madhya Mumbai mein sthit hai, jismein 8 lakh log rahate hain.[57] ye slam bhi Mumbai ke paryatak aakarshan bante ja rahe hain.[58][59][60] Mumbai mein pravaariyon ki sankhya 1991-2001 mein 11.2 lakh thi, jo Mumbai ki janasankhya mein kul badhat ka 54.8% hai.[61] 2007 mein Mumbai ki aparaadh dar (bhaarateeya dand sanhita ke antargat darj aparaadh) 186.2 prati 1 lakh vyakti thi, jo raashtreeya ausat 175.1 se kuchh hi adhik hai, kintu Bhaarat ke das lakh se adhik janasankhya vaale shahar soochi ke anya shaharon ki ausat dar 312.3 se bahut neeche hai.[62] shahar ki mukhya jail arthar road jail hai.

sanskruti

Mumbai eshiyaatik society shahar ki puraatanatam purtakaalayon mein se ek hai.

Mumbai ki sanskruti paramparaagat utsavon, khaanapaan, sangeet, nrutya aur rangamanch ka sammishran hai. is shahar mein vishv ki anya raajadhaaniyon ki apeksha bahubhaashi aur bahuaayaami jeevanashaili dekhne ko milti hai, jismein vistrut khaanapaan, manoranjan aur raatri ki raunak bhi shaamil hai.[63] Mumbai ke itihaas mein yeh mukhyat: ek pradhaan vyaapaarik kendra raha hai. is khaaran vibhinn kshetron ke log yahaan aate rahe, jisse bahut si sanskrutiyaan, dharm, aadi yahaan ekasaath miljulakar rahate hain.[50]

Mumbai bhaarateeya chalachitr ka janmasthaan hai.[64]daada saaheb faalke ne yahaan mook chalachitr ke dvaara is udyog ki sthaapana ki thi. iske bhaad hi yahaan maraathi chalachitr ka bhi shreeganesh hua tha. tab aaranbhik beesaveen shataabdi mein yahaan sabse puraani film prasaarit huyi thi.[65] Mumbai mein badi sankhya mein cinema hall bhi hain, jo hindi, maraathi aur angreji filmein dikhaate hain. vishv mein sabse bada IMAX dom rangamanch bhi Mumbai mein vadaala mein hi sthit hai.[66] Mumbai antarraashtreeya film utsav[67] aur filmafeyar puraskaar ki vitran kaaryakram sabha munbaai mein hi aayojit hoti hain.[68] haalaanki Mumbai ke british kaal mein sthaapit adhikaansh rangamanch samooh 1950 ke baad bhang ho chuke hain, fir bhi Mumbai mein ek samruddh rangamanch sanskruti viksit huyi hui hai. ye maraathi aur angreji, teenon bhaashaaon ke alaava anya kshetreeya bhaashaaon mein bhi viksit hai.[69][70]

yahaan kala-premiyon ki kami bhi naheen hai. anek niji vyaavasaayik evam sarkaari kala-deerghaaen khuli hui hain. inmein jahaangeer kala deergha aur raashtreeya aadhunik kala deergha pramukh hain. 1833 mein bani Mumbai eshiyaatik society mein shahar ka puraatanatam pustakaalaya sthit hai.[71] chhatrapati shivaaji mahaaraaj vaastu sangrahaalaya (poorv prince of vels myoojiym) dakshin Mumbai ka prasiddh sangrahaalaya hai, jahaan bhaarateeya itihaas ke anek sangrah surakshit hain.[72] Mumbai ke chidiyaaghar ka naam jeejaamaata udyaan hai (poorv naam: Victoria gardens), jismein ek hara bhara udyaan bhi hai.[73] nagar ki saahitya mein sampannta ko antarraashtreeya star par khyaati tab mili jab salmaan rashdi aur Arvind adig ko bukar sammaan mile the.[74] yahi ke nivaasi rudayaard kipling ko 1907 mein Nobel puraskaar bhi mila tha.[75] maraathi saahitya bhi samay ki gati k saath saath aadhunik ho chuka hai. yeh Mumbai ke lekhakon jaise mohan aapte, anant kaanekar aur baal gangaadhar tilk ke kaaryon mein sada drushtigochar raha hai. isko vaarshik saahitya academy puraskaar se aur protsaahan mila hai.[76]

eleefeinta ki gufaaen vishv dharohar sth ghoshit hain.

Mumbai shahar ki imaaraton mein jhalakta sthaapatya gothik, indo renenik, Art deko aur anya samakaaleen sthaapatya shailiyon ka sangam hai.[77] british kaal ki adhikaansh imaaratein, jaise Victoria tarmins aur Mumbai vishvavidyaalaya, gothik shaili mein nirmit hain.[78] inke vaastu ghatakon mein Europeeya prabhaav saaf dikhaai deta hai, jaise jarman gebal, dach shaili ki chhatein, Swiss shaili mein kaashth kala, roman meharaab saath hi paramparaagat bhaarateeya ghatak bhi dikhte hain.[79] kuchh indo serenik shaili ki imaaratein bhi hain, jaise getave of India.[80] Art deko shaili ke nirmaan maireen drive aur oval maidaan ke kinaare dikhaai dete hain.[81] Mumbai mein maayaami ke baad vishv mein sabse adhik Art deko shaili ki imaaratein milti hain.[82] naye upanagareeya kshetron mein aadhunik imaaratein adhik dikhti hain. Mumbai mein ab tak Bhaarat mein sabse adhik gaganachumbi imaaratein hain. inmein 956 bani hui hain aur 272 nirmaanaadheen hain. (2009 ke anusaar)[83] 1995 mein sthaapit, Mumbai dharohar sanrakshan samiti (M.H.si.si) shahar mein sthit dharohar sthalon ke sanrakshan ka dhyaan rakhati hai.[77] Mumbai mein do yoonesko vishv dharohar sthal hain – chhatrapati shivaaji tarmins aur eleefeinta ki gufaaen[84] shahar ke prasiddh paryatan sthalon mein Nariman paaint, girgaum chaupaati, joohoo beech aur maireen drive aate hain. esel world yahaan ka theem park hai, jo gorai beech ke nikat sthit hai.[85] yaheen Asia ka sabse bada theem vaatar park, vautar kingadam bhi hai.[86]

Mumbai ke nivaasi bhaarateeya tyauhaar manaane ke saath-saath anya tyauhaar bhi manaate hain. divaali, holi, Eid, christmas, navaraatri, dashahara, durga pooja, mahaashivraatri, muharram aadi pramukh tyauhaar hain. inke alaava ganesh chaturthi aur janmaashtami kuchh adhik dhoom-dhaam ke sang manaaye jaate hain.[87] ganesh-utsav mein shahar mein jagah jagah bahut vishaal evam bhavya pandaal lagaaye jaate hain, jinmein Bhagwan ganapati ki vishaal moortiyon ki sthaapana ki jaati hai. ye moortiyaan das din baad anant chaudas ke din saagar mein visrjit kar di jaati hain. janmaashtami ke din sabhi muhallon mein samitiyon dvaara bahut ooncha maakhaan ka mataka baandha jaata hai. ise muhalle ke bachche aur ladke mulakar jugat lagaakar fodte hain. kaala ghoda kala utsav kala ki ek pradarshani hoti hai, jismein vibhinn kala-kshetron jaise sangeet, nrutya, rangamanch aur chalachitr aadi ke kshetr se kaaryon ka pradarshan hota hai.[88] saptaah bhar lamba Bandra utsav sthaaneeya logon dvaara manaaya jaata hai.[89] baanaaganga utsav do-divseeya vaarshik sangeet utsav hota hai, jo January maah mein aayojit hota hai. ye utsav Maharashtra paryatan vikaas nigam (M.ti.di.si) dvaara aitihaashik baanaganga sarovar ke nikat aayojit kiya jaata hai.[90] eleefeinta utsava—aapratyek February maah mein eleefeinta dweep par aayojit kiya jaata hai. yeh bhaarateeya shaastreeya sangeet evam shaastreeya nrutya ka kaaryakram dheron bhaarateeya aur videshi paryatak aakarshit karta hai.[91] shahar aur pradesh ka khaas saarvajanik avakaash 1 May ko Maharashtra diwas ke roop mein Maharashtra raajya ke gathan ki 1 May, 1960 ki varshaagaanth manaane ke liye hota hai.[92][93]

Mumbai ke bhagini shahar samjhaute nimn shaharon se hain:[94]

media

inhein bhi dekhein: Mumbai ke radio stationon ki soochi
mumbai mein hi hindi chalachitr udyog- Bollywood basa hua hai.

Mumbai mein bahut se samaachaar-patra, prakaashan gruh, dooradarshan aur radio station hain. maraathi patron mein navakaal, Maharashtra times, lokasatta, lokamat, sakaal aadi pramukh hain. Mumbai mein pramukh angreji akhbaaron mein times of India, mid de, Hindustan times, daily news anaalisis evam Indian ekspres aate hain. hindi ka sabse puraana aur saarvaadhik prasaar sankhya wala samaachaar patra times samooh ka hindi ka akhbaar navabhaarat times bhi Mumbai ka pramukh hindi bhaashi samaachaar patra hai. [99] Mumbai mein hi Asia ka sabse puraana samaachaar-patra Bombay samaachaar bhi niklata hai.[100] Bombay darpan pratham maraathi samaachaar-patra tha, jise baalashaastri jaambhekar ne 1832 mein aarambh kiya tha.[101]

yahaan bahut se bhaarateeya evam antarraashtreeya TV chainals upalabdh hain. yeh mahanagar bahut se antarraashtreeya media nigmon aur mudrakon evam prakaashakon ka kendra bhi hai. raashtreeya teleeveejr prasaarak dooradarshan, do terestriyl channel prasaarit karta hai,[102] aur teen mukhya kebal network anya sabhi channel upalabdh karaate hain.[103] kebal channelon ki vistrut soochi mein ESPN, star sports, ji maraathi, iteevi maraathi, deedi sahyaadri, mi maraathi, ji taakeej, ji TV, star plas, soni TV aur naye channel jaise star maanjha aai kai maraathi va anya bhaashaaon ke channel shaamil hain. Mumbai ke liye poorn samarpit channelon mein sahaara samay Mumbai aadi channel hain. inke alaava di.ti.H pranaali apni oonchi laagat ke kaaran abhi adhik parimaan naheen bana paayi hai.[104] pramukh DTH seva pradaataaon mein dish TV, big TV, tata skaai aur san TV hain.[105] Mumbai mein baarah radio channel hain, jinmein se nau ef M evam teen all India radio ke station hain jo A M prasaaran karte hain.[106] Mumbai mein kamarshiyl radio prasaaran pradaata bhi upalabdh hain, jinmein world space, Cyrus tatha ex M pramukh hain.[107]

Bollywood, hindi chalachitr udyog bhi Mumbai mein hi sthit hai. is udyog mein prativrsh: 150-200 filmein banti hain.[108] Bollywood ka naam Amreeki chalachitr udyog ke shahar Hollywood ke aage Mumbai ka b laga kar nikla hua hai.[109] 21veen shataabdi ne Bollywood ki saagarapaar prasiddhi ke naye aayaam dekhe hain. is kaaran film nirmaan ki gunavatta, sinemaitograafi aadi mein nayi oonchaaiyaan dikhaayi di hain.[110] goregaanv aur fil city sthit studio mein hi adhikaansh filmon ki shooting hoteen hain.[111] maraathi chalachitr udyog bhi Mumbai mein hi sthit hai.[112]

shiksha

inhein bhi dekhein: Mumbai mein shiksha
raajaabaai ghantaaghar, Mumbai vishvavidyaalaya ke nikat

Mumbai ke vidyaalaya ya to nagarapaalika vidyaalaya hote hain,[113] ya niji vidyaalaya hote hain, jo kisi nyaas ya vyakti dvaara chalaaye ja rahe hote hain. inmein se kuchh niji vidyaalayon ko sarkaari sahaayata bhi praapt hoti hai.[114] ye vidyaalaya Maharashtra state board, akhil bhaarateeya kaaunsil of Indian school certificate egjaamineshans (I.si.S.E) ya seebeeesi board dvaara sambaddh hote hain.[115] yahaan maraathi ya angreji shiksha ka maadhyam hota hai.[116] sarkaari saarvajanik vidyaalayon mein vitteeya abhaav ke chalte bahut si kamiyaan hoti hain, kintu gareeb logon ka yahi sahaara hai, kyonki ve mahange niji vidyaalaya ka bhaar vahan naheen kar sakte hain.[117]

10+2+3/4 yojana ke antargat, vidyaarthi das varsh ka vidyaalaya samaapt kar do varsh kanishth kaalij (gyaarahaveen aur baarahaveen kaksha) mein bharti hote hain. yahaan unhein teen kshetron mein se ek chunana hota hai: kala, vigyaan ya vaanijya.[118] iske bhaad unhein saamaanyataya ek 3-varsheeya snaatak paathyakram apne chune kshetr mein kar na hota hai, jaise vidhi, abhiyaantriki ya chikitsa ityaadi.[119] shahar ke adhikaansh mahaavidyaalaya Mumbai vishvavidyaalaya se sambaddh hain, jo snaataon ki sankhyaanusaar vishv ke sabse bade vishvavidyaalayon mein se ek hai.[120] bhaarateeya praudyogiki sansthaan (Mumbai),[121] veeramaata jeejaabaai praudyogiki sansthaan (vi.J.ti.I),[122] aur yunivrsiti Institute of kemikl technology (you.I.si.ti),[123] Bhaarat ke pradhaan abhiyaantriki aur praudyogiki sansthaanon mein aate hain aur [[S N di ti mahila vishvavidyaalaya Mumbai ke svaayatt vishvavidyaalaya hain.[124] Mumbai mein jamanaalaal Bajaj prabandhan shiksha sansthaan, S pi jain prabandhan evam shodh sansthaan evam bahut se anya prabandhan mahaavidyaalaya hain.[125] Mumbai sthit gavarnameint law kaalij tatha sidnahaim kaalij, Bhaarat ke puraatanatam kramash: vidhi evam vaanijya mahaavidyaalaya hain.[126][127] sar J J school of Arts Mumbai ka puraatanatam kala mahaavidyaalaya hai.[128]

Mumbai mein do pradhaan anusandhaan sansthaan bhi hain: tata Institute of fandaameintal research (ti.I.ef.aar), tatha bhaabha aanvik anusandhaan kendra (bi.A.aar.si).[129] bhaabha sansthaan hi si I aar you S, 40 megawatt naabhikeeya bhatti chalaata hai, jo unke traaainbe sthit sansthaan mein sthaapit hai.[130]

kreeda

Brabourne stadium, shahar ke sabse puraane cricket stediymon mein se ek hai

cricket shahar aur desh ke sabse chahete khelon mein se ek hai..[131] mahaanagaron mein maidaanon ki kami ke chalte galiyon ka cricket sabse prachalit hai. Mumbai mein hi bhaarateeya cricket niyantran board (BCCI) sthit hai.[132] Mumbai cricket team Ranji trophy mein shahar ka pratinidhitv karti hai. isko ab tak 38 khitaab mile hain, jo kisi bhi team ko milne vaale khitaabon se adhik hain.[133] shahar ki ek aur team Mumbai Indians bhi hai, jo Indian Premier league mein shahar ki team hai. shahar mein do antarraashtreeya cricket maidaan hain- vaankhede stadium aur Brabourne stadium[134] shahar mein aayojit hue sabse bade cricket kaaryakram mein ICC champions trophy ka 2006 ka final tha. yeh Brabourne stadium mein hua tha.[135] Mumbai se prasiddh cricket khilaadiyon mein vishv-prasiddh sachin tendulakar[136] aur suneel Gavaskar hain.[137]

cricket ki prasiddh ke chalte hockey kuchh neeche dab gaya hai.[138] Mumbai ki maraatha warriors Premier hockey league mein shahar ki team hai.[139] pratyek February mein Mumbai mein darbi race ghuddaud hoti hai. yeh mahaalakshmi resakors mein aayojit ki jaati hai. maik-dauvals darbi bhi tarf club mein fravari mein maah mein hi aayojit ki jaati hai.[140] formula van car race ke premi bhi yahaan badhte hi ja rahe hain,[141] 2008 mein, fors India (ef 1) team car Mumbai mein anaavrut hui thi.[142] March 2004 mein yahaan Mumbai grand priks ef 1 paavarabot race ki vishv pratiyogita ka bhaag aayojit hua tha.[143]

chitr deergha


inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. vishv gaijetiyr anumaan 2008-01-01
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  69. Chaudhuri 2005, prushth 4-6
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  104. "What is CAS? What is DTH?". Rediff News. Rediff. 2006-09-05. http://www.rediff.com/money/2006/sep/05iycu.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-10.
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  112. Gupta 2006, prushth 70
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  114. Altbach 1968, prushth 30
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  116. "Now, schools can teach in 2 languages". the times of indiya . 2006-05-05. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1516877.cms. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-09.
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  124. "About University". SNDT Women's University. http://sndt.digitaluniversity.ac/Content.aspx?ID=7&ParentMenuID=7. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-09.
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  126. "Sydenham College: Our Profile". Sydenham College. http://www.sydenham.edu/our_profile.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-04-26.
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  130. "CIRUS reactor". Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). http://www.barc.ernet.in/webpages/reactors/cirus.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-05-12.
  131. Frommer's India 2008, prushth 97
  132. "About BCCI". Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI). http://www.bcci.tv/about-bcci.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-05-16.
  133. Makarand, Waingankar (2009-01-18). "Attacking pattern of play has delivered". the hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2009/01/18/stories/2009011856451500.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-08.
  134. Seth, Ramesh (2006-12-01). "Brabourne — the stadium with a difference". the hindu. http://www.hindu.com/yw/2006/12/01/stories/2006120100150200.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-08.
  135. "Aussies claim elusive trophy". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/cricket/aussies-claim-elusive-trophy/2006/11/06/1162661575823.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-18.
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  138. India 2005, prushth 73
  139. "Stage set for Premier Hockey League". Rediff News (Rediff). 2004-11-17. http://www.rediff.com/sports/2004/nov/17hock.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-09.
  140. Pal, Abir (2007-01-17). "Mallya, Diageo fight for McDowell Derby". the times of indiya . http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1233374.cms. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-08.
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  143. Jore, Dharmendra (2004-11-14). "Formula 1 powerboating swooshes into Mumbai, tourism hope for city". Mumbai Newsline (The Indian Express). http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=68125. abhigman tithi: 2009-05-14.

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