mukkebaaji

Boxing
Boxing080905 photoshop.jpg
Ricardo Dominguez (left) is throwing an uppercut on Rafael Ortiz (right).
anya naam Pugilism, English boxing, Western Boxing
focus Striking (Punching)
mool desh Greece (Ancient Boxing)
United Kingdom (Modern Boxing)
Creator Various fighters
Parenthood Unknown
olympic khel Since 688 B.C.

mukkebaaji ladaai ka ek khel aur ek maarshal kala hai, jismein do log apni mutthiyon ka prayog karke ladte hain. vishisht roop se mukkebaaji ka sanchaalan ek-se teen-minton ke antaraalon, jinhein chakr (Rounds) kaha jaata hai, ki ek shrrunkhala ke dauraan ek referee ke dvaara kiya jaata hai, tatha mukkebaaj saamaanyat: ek samaan bhaar vaale hote hain. jeetne ke teen tareeke hain; yadi virodhi ko gira diya jaae tatha vah referee dvaara das second ki ginti kiye jaane se poorv uth paane mein saksham na ho sake (ek knock-out ya KO) athva yadi yeh prateet ho ki virodhi itna adhik ghaayal ho chuka hai ki vah khel jaari rakh paane mein asamarth hai (ek takaneeki knock-out ya TKO). yadi aapasi sahamati se chakron ki poorv-nirdhaarit sankhya se poorv tak ladaai naheen rookati hai, to vijeta ka chunaav referee ke nirnaya dvaara athva nirnaayakon ki ank-taalikaaon ke dvaara kiya jaata hai.

anukram

praarambhik itihaas

meenoyan yooths boxing, akrotiri (sainatorini) fresko. jald se jald pralekhit mein 'dastaane' ka upayog.

teesari sahasraabdi isa poorv mili sumeriyaai nakkaashi mein pehli ladaai chitrit hai, jabki doosari sahasraabdi isa poorv ki praacheen misr ki nakkaashi mein praarambhik yoddha tatha darshak, donon hi chitrit hain.[1] donon hi chitran anaavrut mutthiyon vaale pratiyogiyon ko darshaate hain.[1] 1927 mein, dau॰ E. A. speesar (Dr. E. A. Speiser), ek puraatatvavetta, ne iraak ke bagdaad mein ek mesopotemiyaai shila-khand ki khoj ki, jismein ek inaami ladaai ke liye taiyaar ho rahe do purush chitrit the. aisa vishvaas hai ki yeh shila-khand 7,000 varsh puraana hai.[2] kisi bhi prakaar ke dastaanon ke saath ladi gayi pehli ladaai ka sabse pehla pramaan minoyaai kreet (Minoan Crete) (c. 1500-900 E.poo.) mein tatha saardeeniya (Sardinia), yadi ham praama parvaton ki mukkebaaji pratimaaon (c. 2000-1000 E.poo.) par vichaar karein, mein milta hai.[1]

praacheen yoonaani mukkebaaji

boxer of kvirinl resting aaftar kauntest (bronj skalpachar, 3rad sadi E.poo.)
chamade ki pattiyon ka vivran
daaen wala boxer apni uchch ungali badhaakar dene sanket karta hai (CA.500 E.poo.)

homar ke iliyd (Iliad) (ca. 675 E.poo.) mein kisi mukkebaaji pratiyogita ka pehla vistrut vivran praapt hota hai (pustak XXIII).[3] iliyd ke anusaar, maaiseeniyaai yoddhaaon ne pratispardhaaon mein mukkebaaji ko bhi shaamil kiya tha, jinmein paraast hone vaalon ko ek vishaal aayojan ke dvaara sammaan kiya jaata tha (ca. 1200 E.poo.), haalaanki yeh sambhav hai ki homar ke mahaakaavya baad ki sanskruti ko pratibinbit karte hon. ek anya katha ke anusaar veer shaasak theesiys (Theseus), jiska kaal naveen sadi E.poo. maana jaata hai, ne mukkebaaji ke ek prakaar ka aavishkaar kiya tha, jismein do log aamne-saamane baithakar apni mutthiyon se ek-doosare par tab tak prahaar kiya karte the, jab tak ki unamein se kisi ek ki mrutyu na ho jaae. samay ke saath, mukkebaajon ne khade hokar va dastaane (kaantedaar) pahanakar tatha apne haathon par kohaniyon ke neeche aavaran lapetakar ladna praarambh kar diya, haalaanki iske atirikt ve poornat: nagn raha karte the.

deriyn vismayakaari hai! 688 E.poo. mein pehli baar mukkebaaji ko olimpik khelon mein sammilit kiya gaya, jise paaigem (Pygme) athva pigmaashiya (Pygmachia) kaha jaata tha. pratibhaagiyon ko panching bag, (jise korikos (Korykos) kaha jaata tha, par prashikshan diya jaata tha. yoddha apne haathon, kalaaiyon aur kabhi-kabhi seene, par chamade ke patte (jinhein haaimeintas (himantes) kehte the, pahana karte the, taaki unki suraksha ki ja sake. ye patte unki anguliyon ko khula rakhate the. ek kinvadanti ke anusaar talavaar aur dhaal se ladaai ki taiyaari karne ke liye mukkebaaji ka prayog sabse pehle spaartan logon ne kiya tha.

praacheen roman mukkebaaji

praacheen rom mein, mukkebaaji ke do prakaar the aur donon hi etruskain (Etruscan) se aaye the. mukkebaaji ka ethaletik roop poore roman vishv mein lokapriya bana raha. mukkebaaji ke anya roop yoddhaaon se sambandhit the. saamaanyat: ye yoddha aparaadhi va gulaam hua karte the, jinhein vijeta banane aur apni svatantrata praapt kar paane ki aasha hoti thi; haalaanki, svatantr purush, mahilaaen aur yahaan tak ki abhijaat varg ke log bhi lada karte the. aakramanon se bachane ke liye yoddha apni anguliyon ko jodon par "sesti (cestae)" tatha apni agr-bhujaaon par chamade ke bhaari-bharakam patte pahana karte the. foolagobhi jaise kaanon vaale va buri tarah jakhmi kvireenaal (Quirinal) ke mukkebaaj ka chitr darshaata hai ki yeh khel kitna adhik nrushans ho sakta tha (mukaabale aksar ek virodhi ki mrutyu ya viklaangata ke baad khatm hote the).

antat: mushti-yuddh itna adhik lokapriya ho gaya ki shaasakon tak ne ladna praarambh kar diya aur is paddhati ko seejr neronis ne protsaahit kiya. rom ke raashtreeya mahaakaavya eneed (Aeneid) (pehli sadi isa poorv) mein furteele deras (Dares) va mahaakaaya entelas (Entellus) ke beech ek ladaai ka vistaar se varnan kiya gaya hai.[4]

393 isavi mein, isaai shaasak thiyodausiys (Theodosius) dvaara olimpik par paabandi laga di gayi aur 400 isavi mein, thiyodausiys mahaan ne mukkebaaji ko yeh kehkar poori tarah pratibandhit kar diya ki yeh ishvar ka apamaan hai kyonki yeh chehare ko bigaad deti hai, jo ki ishvar ka pratibinb hota hai. haalaanki, poorvi saamraajya ke pramukh nagaron ke baahar is fatwe ka prabhaav bahut hi kam tha.[5] is samay tak, pashchimi Europe roman saamraajya ka bhaag naheen rah gaya tha. poore madhya yug aur uske baad bhi mukkebaaji sampoorn Europe mein lokapriya bani rahi. kushti, talavaarabaaji aur daud (rathon ki daud va paidal daud donon) par baad ke romanon dvaara kabhi paabandi naheen lagaai gayi kyonki inse kisi vyakti ka roop naheen bigdta tha.

aadhunik mukkebaaji

brautan ke niyam (1743)

chitr:Blow2.jpg
edamand price par ek seedhe sahi tareeke se pradarshan the science of self defence: a triteej on spairing end resaling, 1867

roman saamraajya ke patan ke baad mukkebaaji ki praacheen gatividhiyon ke record lupt ho gaye. haalaanki mutthiyon se lade jaane vaale vibhinn khelon ke record upalabdh hain, jo ki baarahaveen tatha satrahaveen sadiyon ke beech Italy ke vibhinn shaharon aur raajyon mein anurakshit karke rakhe gaye the. praacheen rus mein bhi ek khel tha, jise mushti-yuddh kaha jaata tha. baad mein athaarahaveen sadi ke praarambh mein yeh khel England mein khuli anguliyon waali mukkebaaji, jise aksar praaijfaaiting (prizefighting) bhi kaha jaata hai, ke roop mein pun: ubhara. England mein khuli-anguliyon waali ladaai ka pehla lekhabaddh vivran 1681 mein landan protestant markyuri mein pradarshit hua aur 1719 mein James fig khuli-anguliyon vaale khel ka pehla vijeta bana.[6] yahi vah samay hai, jab "mukkebaaji (boxin)" shabd ka pehli baar prayog shuru hua. is baat par dhyaan diya jaana chaahiye yeh ki aadhunik mukkebaaji ka yeh shuruaat roop bahut adhik bhinn tha. shri fig ke kaal ki pratiyogitaaon, mushti-yuddh ke saath hi, mein talavaarabaaji va laathiyon se ladaai bhi shaamil hua karti thi.

praarambhik mukaabalon ke koi likhit niyam naheen the. un dinon koi bhaar-vibhaajan athva chakr seemaaen naheen theen aur na hi koi referee hote the. saamaanya roop se, yeh atyadhik ast-vyast thi. uchch bhaar samooh ki mukkebaaji ke vijeta Jack brautan dvaara 1743 mein pehli baar mukkebaaji ke niyam, jinhein brautan ke niyam kaha jaata hai, prastut kiye gaye taaki ring mein khilaadiyon ko sanrakshan diya ja sake, jahaan kabhi-kabhi maut bhi ho jaati thi.[7] in niyamon ke tahat, yadi koi vyakti neeche gir jaata hai aur 30 second ki ginti ke baad bhi khel jaari rakh paane mein saksham na ho, to ladaai samaapt ho jaati thi. kisi gire hue yoddha ko maarana athva kamar ke neeche prahaar karna pratibandhit tha. brautan ne "mafalaron", gaddedaar dastaanon ka ek prakaar, jiska prayog prashikshan va pradarshanon ke liye kiya jaata tha, ka bhi aavishkaar kiya va prachaar kiya. mukkebaaji par pehle shodh-patra ka prakaashan athaarahaveen sadi ke ant mein Birmingham ke safal mukkebaaj 'William fyutrel' dvaara kiya gaya tha, jo 9 July 1788 ko smithhaim bautam, kroyadaun mein ek bahut kam aayu vaale "sajjan" John Jackson ke saath ek ghante aur satrah minton tak chale mukaabale, jise dekhne ke liye prince of vels bhi upasthit the, se poorv tak aparaajit rahe the.

haiveevet championship ke liye ek baar fir se Tom molineks banaam Tom kreeb, England, 1811

in niyamon ne mukkebaajon ko aisa laabh bhi pradaan kiya, jo vartamaan samay ke mukkebaajon ke paas upalabdh naheen hai: unhonne kisi bhi samay 30 second ki ginti shuru karne ke liye yoddha ko ek ghutne par baith jaane ki anumati pradaan ki. is prakaar, yeh niyam pareshaani mein ghir jaane ka ehsaas hone par yoddha ko usase ubarane ka ek avsar pradaan karta tha. haalaank, ise "apaurusheya" maana jaata tha[8] aur sekands of the bauksars dvaara jode gaye atirikt niyamon ke dvaara ise aksar asveekrut kar diya jaata tha.[9] aadhunik mukkebaaji ki ankeeya pranaali mein ubarane ke prayaas mein jaanboojhkar neeche jaane par khilaadi ko ank ganvaane padeinge. iske alaava, choonki pratiyogiyon ke paas apne haathon ko bachaane ke liye chamade ke bhaari dastaane tatha kalaaiyon par lapete jaane vaale patte naheen hote, at: sir par vaar karte samay sanyam ki ek vishisht maatra ki aavashyakta thi.

London puraskaar ring ke niyam (1838)

1838 mein, London puraskaar ring ke niyam sanhitaabaddh kiye gaye. baad mein 1853 mein sanshodhit ye niyam nimnalikhit baaton ko sunishchit karte hain:[10]

  • mukaabale rassiyon se ghiri hui ek 24 fut (7.3 mi)-varg ring mein hote the.
  • yadi kisi ek khilaadi ko gira diye jaae, to khel aage jaari rakhane ki anumati praapt karne ke liye 30 second ke bheetar apni swayam ki shakti ke dvaara uthana uske liye anivaarya tha.
  • kaatna, sir se maarana tatha belt ke neeche maarana niymollanghan ghoshit kiya gaya.

unnisveen sadi ke antim bhaag tak, mukkebaaji athva praaijfaaiting mukhyat: ek sandigdh vaidhata wala khel tha. England tatha sanyukt raajya amareeka ke adhikaansh bhaag mein gair-kaanooni ghoshit ki ja chuki praaijfaait aksar jue ke addon par aayojit ki jaati thi, jise police dvaara beech mein hi rok diya jaata tha. upadrav tatha kushti ki tarakeebein jaari raheen aur praaijfaaiton ke dauraan dange ho jaana ek aam baat thi. iske baavajood, is poore kaal mein, khuli-anguliyon waali mukkebaaji ke kuchh ullekhaneeya vijeta ubhare, jinhonne ladaai ke kaafi parishkrut tareeke viksit kiye.

maarkves of kveensaberi ke niyam (1867)

1867 mein lili brij (Lillie Bridge), London mein kam-bhaar (Lightweights), madhyam-bhaar (Middleweights) tatha uchch-bhaar (Heavyweight) vaale shaukiya khilaadiyon ke liye aayojit shaukiya pratiyogitaaon ke liye John cheinbars dvaara maarkves of kveensaberi niyam taiyaar kiye gaye. ye niyam maarkves of kveensaberi ke sanrakshan mein prakaashit hue, jinka naam sadaiv hi in niyamon ke saath joda jaata raha hai.

June 1894 mein aayojit lionaard-kushing mukkebaaji pratiyogita.

kul milaakar baarah chakr hue aur unhonne yeh spasht kar diya ki ladaaiyaan ek 24-foot-varg ya samaan ring mein "ek nyaayasangat khadi mukkebaaji ke mukaabalon" ke roop mein honi chaahiye. chakr teen minute lambe the, jinke beech vishraam ke liye ek minute ka antaraal hua karta tha. yadi kisi khilaadi ko neeche gira diya gaya ho, to use das-second ka samay diya jaata tha aur kushti pratibandhit thi.

"nyaayasangat aakaar" ke dastaanon ki prastuti ne bhi mukkebaaji ke mukaabalon ke svaroop ko badal diya. mukkebaaji ke dastaanon ka ek ausat joda foole hue dastaanon ke ek jode ke samaan dikhaai deta hai aur ise kalaaiyon par baandha jaata hai.[12] dastaane ka prayog pratidvandvi ke hamlon ko rokane mein kiya ja sakta hai. inka prayog shuru kiye jaane ke kaaran, mukkebaaji ke mukaabale jyaada lambe aur adhik rananeetipoorn ho gaye hain, tatha fislane, jhaansa dene, pratyuttar dene aur jakadne jaisi pratirkshaatmak chaalon ka mahatva adhik badh gaya hai. choonki agr-bhujaaon ke prayog par kam tatha dastaanon par adhik pratirkshaatmak jor diya gaya tha, at: khuli-anguliyon vaale mukkebaaj dvaara paaramparik roop se agr-bhujaaon ko baahar ki or rakhate hue, dhad ko peechhe ki or jhukaane ki mudra ek jyaada aadhunik mudra mein badal gayi, jismein dhad ko aage ki or jhukaaya jaata hai aur haath apne munh ke paas rakhe jaate hain.

1882 mein aar vi. kone (R v. Coney) ke angrej maamale ne paaya ki pratibhaagi ki sammati ke baavajood khuli-anguliyon waali ladaai ek hamle ke samaan thi, jismein kabhi-kabhi shareer par sachmuch chot lag jaaya karti thi. yeh England mein vyaapak roop se prachalit khuli-anguliyon waali ladaai ka ant tha.

kveensaberi niyamon ke antargat pehle uchch-bhaar vijeta "jeintalamain jim" kaurbet the, jinhonne 1893 mein new orliyaans ke pelikn ethaletik club mein John L. sulivn ko maat di. [13]

beesaveen sadi ke praarambhik kaal ke dauraan, mukkebaajon ne vaidhata praapt karne ke liye sangharsh kiya aur teks rikaard jaise praayojakon tatha John L. sulivn se lekar Jack dempsi tak ke mahaan vijetaaon ka prabhaav bhi ismein sahaayak siddh hua. is yug ke sheegra baad, is khel par niyantran rakhane tatha vaishvik roop se sveekrut vijetaaon ko sthaapit karne ke liye boxing commission tatha anumodak sansthaaon ki sthaapana ki gayi.

niyam

1867 mein unke prakaashan ke samay se hi maarkves of kveensaberi niyam aadhunik mukkebaaji ke sanchaalak niyam rahe hain.

mukkebaaji ke mukaabale mein vishisht roop se teen-minton ke chakron ki ek nirdhaarit sankhya hoti hai, jo adhiktam 12 chakron (poorv mein 15) tak ho sakti hai. vishisht roop se pratyek chakr ke beech ek minute ka antaraal hota hai, jiske dauraan khilaadi unhein aavantit konon mein apne prashikshak tatha karmachaariyon se salaah aur sahaayata praapt karte hain. ladaai ka niyantran ek referee dvaara kiya jaata hai, jo ring ke bheetar khilaadiyon ke vyavahaar ko parakhane tatha us par niyantran rakhane, surakshit roop se ladne ki unki kshamata ka niyman karne, knock-daaun kiye gaye khilaadiyon ko uthane ka avsar dene ke liye ginti karne tatha foul ka niyman karne ka kaarya karta hai. mukkebaaji ke mukaabale mein ank dene tatha sampark, pratirksha, naukadaaun, tatha anya, adhik vyaktigat, maapanon ke aadhaar par khilaadiyon ko ank aavantit karne ke liye ring ke paas vishisht roop se adhiktam teen nirnaayak upasthit hote hain. mukkebaaji ke nirnayan ki mukt-shaili ke kaaran, anek mukaabalon ke parinaam vivaadaaspad hote hain, jinmein ek (ya donon) khilaadiyon ka yeh vishvaas hota hai ki unhein "loot" liya gaya hai athva anyaayapoorn dhng se jeet se vanchit rakha gaya hai. pratyek khilaadi ko ring ka ek kona aavantit kiya jaata hai, jahaan uske prashikshak tatha saath hi ek ya adhik "sahaayak" khel ki shuruaat mein va chakron ke beech khilaadi ka sanchaalan kar sakte hain. pratyek chakr ki shuruaat hone par pratyek mukkebaaj uske liye aavantit kone se ring mein pravesh karta hai aur pratyek chakr ki samaapti ka sanket milte hi ladaai rok dena aur apne kone mein vaapas laut jaana uske liye anivaarya hota hai.

jis mukaabale mein chakron ki poorv nirdhaarit sankhya poori ho chuki ho, usaka nirdhaaran nirnaayakon dvaara kiya jaata hai aur use "doori tak jaata hua (go the distance)" kaha jaata hai. ladaai ke ant mein jis khilaadi ka score uchchatar ho, use vijeta ghoshit kiya jaata hai. teen nirnaayakon ke saath, sarvasammat tatha vibhaajit nirnaya va saath hi mukaabale baraabari par samaapt ho jaana bhi sambhav hai. kisi nirnaya par pahunch paane se poorv koi mukkebaaj ek naukaaaaut ke dvaara mukaabale ko jeet sakta hai; aise mukaabalon ko "doori ke bheetar (inside the distance)" kaha jaata hai. yadi ladaai ke dauraan kisi khilaadi ko neeche gira diya jaata hai, jiska nirdhaaran is baat se hota hai ki kya khilaadi ne vipakshi ke mukke ke kaaran apne pairon ke atirikt shareer ke kisi bhi anya bhaag se kainavaas ke farsh ko sparsh kiya hai, na ki fisl jaane par, jaisa ki referee ke dvaara nirdhaarit kiya jaata hai, to referee tab tak ginti ginna shuru karta hai, jab tak ki khilaadi apne pairon par pun: khada na ho jaae aur khel aage na badhne lage. yadi referee das tak ki ginti poori kar le, to neeche gire hue mukkebaaj ko "knock-out ho chuka" karaar diya jaata hai (chaahe vah behosh hua ho ya na hua ho) aur doosare mukkebaaj ko knockout (KO) ke dvaara vijeta ghoshit kar diya jaata hai. ek "takaneeki knockout (TKO) bhi sambhav hai aur iska nirnaya referee, ladaai ke dauraan upasthit chikitsak, athva yadi khilaadi surakshit roop se khel jaari rakh paane mein saksham na ho, to uske kone dvaara, choton ke aadhaar par athva prabhaavi roop se swayam ki raksha kar paane mein aksham paae jaane par liya jaata hai. anek nyaayaadhikaar-kshetron tatha anumodan abhikranon mein bhi ek "teen-naukadaaun niyam" hota hai, jiske antargat kisi ek chakr mein teen naukadaaun ho jaane par ise ek teekeo (TKO) ghoshit kar diya jaata hai. ek teekeo (TKO) ko us khilaadi ke record mein ek knockout maana jaata hai. ek "khade aath" ki ginti ka niyam bhi prabhaavi ho sakta hai. yadi referee ko yeh mahasoos ho ki koi khilaadi khatre mein hai, to yeh niyam referee ko beech mein dakhal dene va us khilaadi ke liye aath tak ki ginti ginne ka adhikaar deta hai, bhale hi koi naukadaaun na hua ho. ginti ginne ke baad referee us khilaadi ka avlokan karke yeh nirnaya lega ki vah khel paane yogya hai ya naheen. scoring ke uddeshya se, khade aath ki ginti ko ek naukadaaun maana jaata hai.

saamaanya taur par, mukkebaajon ko belt se neeche vaar karne, pakadne, thokar maarane, kaatne, thookane athva kushti ladne se pratibindhit kiya gaya hai. mukkebaaj ki jaanghiya uthi hui hoti hai, taaki pratidvandvi ko pet va jaangh ke beech vaale kshetr mein maarane ki anumati na mil sake. unhein laat maarane, sir se thokar lagaane, athva bandhi hui mutthi ke jodon ke atirikt baanh ke kisi bhi anya bhaag (kohani, kandhe ya agr-baahu tatha saath hi khule dastaanon, kalaai, haath ke bheetari, pichhle ya bagal vaale hisse sahit) se maarane se bhi roka gaya hai. peeth par, garadan athva sir ke pichhle hisse (jise ek "raibit-panch" kaha jaata hai) athva kidniyon par prahaar karna bhi nishiddh hai. unhein mukka maarate samay sahaare ke liye rassiyon ko pakadne, mukka maarate samay pratidvandvi ko pakadkar rakhane, athva pratidvandvi ke belt se neeche jhukane (pratidvandvi ki kamar se neeche jhukna, bhale hi doori kitni bhi kyon na ho) ki bhi anumati naheen hoti. yadi ek "pakad"- ek rakshaatmak chaal, jismein mukkebaaj apne pratidvandvi ki bhujaaon ko lapet leta hai aur ek viraam nirmit kar deta hai-ko referee dvaara toda jaata hai, to pun: khel shuru karne se poorv pratyek khilaadi ke liye ek poora kadam peechhe ki or hatna anivaarya hota hai (vaikalpik roop se, referee khilaadiyon ko pakad se "panch out" karne ka nirdesh bhi de sakta hai). jab ek mukkebaaj ko neeche gira diya jaata hai, to doosare mukkebaaj ke liye turant ladaai ko rok dena tatha jab tak referee ek knock-out ki ghoshana na kar de ya khel ko jaari rakhane ka aadesh na de, tab tak ke ring ke doorasth nishpaksh chhor ki or jaana anivaarya hota hai.

in niyamon ke ullanghanon ko referee dvaara "foul" karaar diya ja sakta hai, jo ki ullanghan ki gambheerta va iraade ke aadhaar par chetaavaniyaan jaari kar sakta hai, ank kaat sakta hai, ya kisi niyamon ka ullanghan karne vaale mukkebaaj ko ayogya ghoshit kar sakta hai, jisse khilaadi svat: hi mukaabala ganva deta hai. yadi jaanboojhkar kiye gaye foul ke kaaran aisi chot lag jaae, jisse khel ko aage jaari rakh paana sambhav na ho, to aisi sthiti mein foul karne vaale khilaadi ko ayogya ghoshit kar diya jaata hai. yadi kisi khilaadi ko galati se halki-si thokar lagi ho, to use ubarane ke liye paanch minute tak ka samay diya ja sakta hai aur yadi ve iske baad bhi khel jaari rakh paane mein aksham hon, to unhein knock-out ghoshit kiya ja sakta hai. yadi durghatanaavash hue kisi foul ke karan aisi chot lag jaae ki mukaabale ko rok dena pade, to iska parinaam "koi spardha naheen" ke roop mein milta hai athva yadi paryaapt chakr (vishishtat: chaar ya adhik, ya chaar chakron vaale mukaabale mein kam se kam teen) poorn ho chuke hon, to mukaabale ke parinaam ke baare mein nirnaya ke roop mein milta hai.

vyaavasaayik banaam shaukiya mukkebaaji

satrahaveen sadi se lekar unneesaveen sadi ke dauraan, mukkebaaji ke mukaabalon ko dhan ke dvaara prerana milti thi kyonki mukkebaaj inaam ki raashi ke liye pratispardha kiya karte the, praayojak dwaar ka niyantran karte the tatha darshak parinaamon par satta lagaaya karte the. aadhunik olimpik aandolan ne shaukiya khelon mein ruchi ko dobaara prachalit kiya aur 1908 mein shaukiya mukkebaaji ek olimpik khel ban gayi. iske vartamaan svaroop mein, olimpik aur anya shaukiya mukaabale vishishtat: teen ya chaar chakron tak seemit hote hain, ankon ki ganana mukkon ke prabhaav ke prati nirpeksh rahate hue, inki sankhya ke aadhaar par ki jaati hai aur khilaadi sir par rakshaatmak kavach pahanate hain, jisse choton, knock-daaun aur knock-out ki sankhya mein kami aati hai. vartavaan samay mein, shaukiya mukkebaaji mein scoring mukke ring ke baahar sthit nirnaayakon dvaara vyaktigat roop se gine jaate hain, lekin Australian Institute for sports (Australian Institute for Sports) ne ek otomaited boxing scoring system (Automated Boxing Scoring System) ka ek pratimaan prastut kiya hai, jo scoring nishpakshata ko pradarshit karta hai, suraksha ko badhaata hai aur vivaadaaspad roop se khel ko darshakon ke liye adhik manoranjak banaata hai. vyaavasaayik mukkebaaji abhi tak duniya ka sarvaadhik lokapriya khel bana hua hai, haalaanki kyuba tatha kuchh bhootapoorv soviyt ganaraajyon mein shaukiya mukkebaaji ka varchasv hai. adhikaansh khilaadiyon ke liye, ek shaukiya kairiyr, vishesh roop se olimpik mein, vyaavasaayik mukkebaaji ki taiyaari ke liye apne kaushal ko viksit karne tatha anubhav praapt karne mein sahaayak hota hai.

shaukiya mukkebaaji

aadhunik shaukiya mukkebaaji mein sir ki topi anivaarya hai
Boxing pictogram.svg

shaukiya mukkebaaji mahaavidyaalayeen star par, olimpik khelon mein, Commonwealth khelon mein tatha shaukiya mukkebaaji sanghathanon dvaara sveekrut anek anya sthalon par dekhi ja sakti hai. shaukiya mukkebaaji mein ek ank scoring pranaali hoti hai, jo shaareerik haani ke bajaay safal mukkon ki sankhya ka maapan karti hai. olimpik tatha Commonwealth khelon mein hone vaale mukaabalon mein teen minute ke teen chakr hote hain aur raashtreeya ebeee (ABA) (emechyor boxing esosiyeshan (Ameteur Boxing Association)) mein hone vaale mukaabalon mein teen minute ke teen chakr hote hain, jinmein se pratyek mein chakro ke beech ek-minute ka ek antaraal hota hai.

pratiyogi sir par rakshaatmak kavach aur haathon mein dastaane pahanate hain, jinmein anguliyon ko jodon par ek safed patti hoti hai. kisi bhi mukke ke liye ank keval tabhi milte hain, jab mukkebaaj ne dastaane ke safed bhaag ke dvaara sampark kiya ho. paryaapt bal ke saath sir athva dhad par spasht roop se padne vaale pratyek ghoonse ke liye ek ank diya jaata hai. mukaabale ka nireekshan ek referee dvaara kiya jaata hai, taaki yeh sunishchit kiya ja sake ki pratiyogi keval vaidh mukkon ka prayog kar rahe hain. shareer par pahana gaya ek belt mukkon ki nichli seema ko darshaata hai- yadi koi mukkebaaj baar-baar nichle ghoonse (belt ke neeche) maar raha ho, to use ayogya ghoshit kar diya jaata hai. referee is baat ko bhi sunishchit karta hai ki pratidvandvi ko dolan se rokane ke liye mukkebaaj use pakadne ka tareeka na apna rahe hon. yadi aisa hota hai, to referee pratidvandviyon ko ek-doosare se alag karta hai aur mukkebaaji jaari rakhane ka aadesh deta hai. ek-doosare ko baar-baar pakadne ke parinaamasvaroop ek mukkebaaj ko dandit aur antat: ayogya ghoshit bhi kiya ja sakta hai. yadi koi mukkebaaj gambhir roop se ghaayal ho jaae, ek mukkebaaj doosare par bahut adhik haavi ho raha ho, ya yadi score bahut adhik asantulit ho gaya ho, to referee mukaabale ko rok dega. [14] is prakaar samaapt hone vaale shaukiya mukaabalon ko ek behtar pratidvandvi (RSCO), adhik ank lekar haraane vaale pratidvandvi (RSCOS), chot (RSCI) athva sir ki chot (RSCH) ke sanketon ke saath "aar S si (RSC)" (referee dvaara roki gayi pratiyogita) ke roop mein darj kiya jaata hai.

vyaavasaayik mukkebaaji

saamaanyat: vyaavasaayik mukaabalon ki avadhi shaukiya mukaabalon ki tulana mein bahut adhik, vishishtat: das se baarah chakron tak, hoti hai, haalaanki kam anubhavi khilaadiyon athva club ke khilaadiyon ke liye chaar chakron ke mukaabale aam hain. kaheen-kaheen, visheshat: Australia mein, do-[15] tatha teen-chakron vaale vyaavasaayik mukaabale[16] bhi hote hain. beesaveen sadi ke shuruaati daur mein, mukaabalon mein aseemit chakr hona ek aam baat thi, jismein mukaabale keval tabhi samaapt hote the, jab koi ek khilaadi khel chhod de, jo ki Jack deinpse (Jack Dempsey) jaise uchch-oorjaayukt khilaadiyon ke liye laabhadaayak the. 1980 ke dashak ki shuruaat mein mukkebaaj duk koo kim (Duk Koo Kim) ki mrutyu ke baad chakron ki sankhya ko ghataakar baarah kiye jaane se poorv, beesaveen sadi ke adhikaansh kaal ke dauraan pandrah chakron ki seema hi championship mukaabalon ke liye antarraashtreeya taur par sveekrut seema bani rahi.

vyaavasaayik mukaabalon mein sir par kavach pahanane ki anumati naheen hoti aur kisi mukaabale ko rok dene se poorv mukkebaajon ko saamaanyat: bahut adhik saja bhugatne di jaati hai. haalaanki, yadi referee ko yeh mahasoos ho ki koi ek pratibhaagi apni chot ke kaaran svayanki raksha naheen kar sakta, to refari kisi bhi samay pratiyogita ko rok sakta hai. aisi sthiti mein, doosare pratibhaagi ko ek takaneeki knock-out jeet pradaan ki jaati hai. ek takaneeki knock-out us sthiti mein diya jaaega, jab kisi khilaadi dvaara maare gaye ghoonse ke kaaran pratidvandvi ko koi chot lag jaae aur baad mein chikitsak dvaara yeh ghoshit kar diya jaae ki vah khilaadi us chot ke kaaran khel ko aage jaari rakh paane mein saksham naheen hai. is kaaran ke liye, khilaadi aksar chot-nivaarak (Cutmen) vyakti ko niyukt karte hain, jiska kaarya chakron ke beech chot ka ilaaj karna hota hai, taaki chot ke baavajood bhi khilaadi khel ko jaari rakh paane mein saksham ho sake. yadi koi mukkebaaj yoon hi khel chhodkar baahar nikal jaae athva yadi usaka chhor ladaai ko rok de, tab bhi jeetne vaale mukkebaaj ko ek takaneeki knock-out jeet pradaan ki jaati hai. shaukiya mukkebaaji ke vipreet, vyaavasaayik puroosh mukkebaajon ko seena khula rakhakar ladna hota hai.[17]

vasr

apni bhaar shreni ke nirpeksh, sabhi mukkebaajon ke liye vishisht prakaar ke vasr mukaabale ke liye aavashyak hote hain. vyaavasaayik mukkebaaj shaukiya mukkebaajon se bhinn prakaar ke vasr pahanate hain, lekin unamein ek buniyaadi vichaar ya arth hota hai. anumodit mukaabalon mein shaamil sabhi mukkebaajon ke liye hast-aavaran (handwraps), dastaane, uroo-mool rakshak (groin protectors), mukh-rakshak (mouth guards) tatha mulaayam talavon vaale joote pahanana aavashyak hota hai.

shaurts

shaukiya mukkebaaji mein, pratyek mukkebaaj apne chhor ke rang mein apni anumodan sanstha dvaara anumodit rang ki shaurts pahanata hai. vyaavasaayik mukkebaaji mein, shaurts ke rang aur dijaain ka chayan pratyek khilaadi par chhod diya jaata hai aur iska niyman naheen kiya jaata. shaurts ke anek prakaar chatakh rangon ke saath pattedaar hote hain. kai mukkebaaj shaurts ke kamaraband par apna naam ya upanaam likhva lete hain, saath hi unke praayojakon aur yahaan tak ki un anumodan sansthaaon ke prateek-chinh bhi hote hain, jinhonne unhonne belt aavantit kiya ho. anek mukkebaaj, jaise prince naseem haamid, atyadhik alankrut shaurts pahanate hain, jabki Mike taaisan jaise anya mukkebaaj saadageepoorn shaurts pasand karte hain. aadhunik yug mein shaurts pichhli peedhi ki tulana mein bahut adhik dheeli-dhaali hoti hain, taaki adhik gatisheelata, aaraam va vishishtata praapt ki ja sake.

tank top

vyaavasaayik mahila mukkebaajon ki tarah shaukiya mukkebaaj bhi tank top shart pahanate hain. kuchh mahila mukkebaaj tank top ke bajaay khelon ke liye banaaye gaye antarvasr pahanana pasand karti hain. oopari shareer ka aavaran pratyek khilaadi ki vyaktigat pasand ke anusaar badalta rahata hai. vyaavasaayik puroosh mukkebaaj sadaiv hi apne shareer ke oopari hisse ke vasron ko utaarakar hi mukaabala karte hain.

surakshaatmak upakaran

shaukiya mukkebaajon ke liye sir par apne chhor ke rang ka kavach aur ek bina baanh ka shart pahanana aavashyak hota hai, jabki vyaavasaayik mukkebaaj khule seene aur sir par kavach ke bina ladte hain. shaukiya star ki mahila mukkebaajon ko ek chhoti baanh ka shart pahanane ki anumati di jaati hai, jabki vyaavasaayik mahila mukkebaaj ek bina baanh ka shart pahanati hain. sabhi mahila mukkebaajon ko seene ki suraksha karne wala kavach pahanane ki anumati hoti hai. ek maauthapees sabhi mukkebaajon ke liye aavashyak hota hai, jiska nirmaan anumodan sanstha va mukkebaaj par nirbhar hota hai. anumodit mukaabalon mein sabhi mukkebaajon ke liye ek foul rakshak ka hona aavashyak hota hai, jo unke uru mool aur pet ke nichle bhaag ko bachaata hai. mahila foul rakshakon mein uru mool vaale sthaan par kam paiding hoti hai, lekin fir bhi anumodit mukaabalon mein unke liye inhein pahanana aavashyak hota hai. sabhi mukkebaaj dastaane pahanate hain, jinka bhaar shaukiya mukaabalon mein 8-16 auns tatha vyaavasaayik mukaabalon mein mein 6-12 auns ke beech hota hai. shaukiya mukkebaajon ke liye ek anumodit dastaane ka hona anivaarya hota hai, jabki vyaavasaayik mukkebaajon ke liye keval ek nyoonatam bhaar ka paalan aavashyak hota hai, jiske sateek bhaar aur yahaan tak ki brand ka nirdhaaran mukaabale se poorv aapasi sahamati ke dvaara kiya ja sakta hai. mukaabale se poorv anumodak sanstha ke pratinidhiyon tatha vipakshi khilaadi ke chhor ke logon dvaara dastaanon ka nireekshan kiya jaata hai. iske baad dheela hone se bachaane ke liye un par tape laga diya jaata hai aur saamaanyat: anumodan sanstha ke pratinidhi us par hastaakshar karte hain, taaki is baat ko sunishchit kiya ja sake ki koi chhed-chhaad naheen ki gayi hai. hast-aavaran (Handwraps) pahanana bhi mukkebaajon ke liye aavashyak hota hai. yooesae boxing (USA Boxing) pun:prayog kiye ja sakane yogya sooti hast-aavaran ki anumati deti hai, jinmein ek huk va ek paash sanvarak hota hai, jabki vyaavasaayik mukaabalon ke liye chipkaaye ja sakane vaale tatha ek hi baar prayog kiye ja sakane vaale aavaran aavashyak hote hain. in aavaranon ka bhi pareekshan kiya jaata hai, jiska ek ullekhaneeya udaaharan Shane mosle aur entoniyo maargaarito ke beech hua mukaabala hai, jismein maargaarito ke aavaranon mein plaastar jaisa ek padaarth paaya gaya, jiske parinaamasvaroop unhein "kam se kam ek varsh" ke liye nilambit kar diya gaya. aadhunik vyaavasaayik mukkebaaji mein, purooshon ke liye ek kamaraband pahanana aavashyak hota hai, jise unki jaangh ke oopari hisse aur kamar ke nichle hisse mein lapeta jaata hai. saamaanyat: yeh kamaraband kaale athva laal rang ka hota hai aur rabar (kabhi-kabhi chamade) ka bana hota hai, taaki khilaadi ke shareer ko nar-shareer ke sabse samvedansheel bhaag-uske ling- ki or hone vaale kisi bhi jaanleva vaar se bachaaya ja sake. haalaanki, kamaraband pahanane ke baavajood bhi kisi ghoonse ke kaaran ling par chot lag jaana sambhav hai, jo ki ghoonse ki shakti par nirbhar hota hai. mukaabale ke dauraan kamaraband jhukakar mud jaata hai aur aksar mukkebaaj ki shaurts ke baahar chipk jaata hai, jisse uske pet par thoda dabaav padta hai. 1980 ke dashak se poorv, kamaraband bahut chhota hota tha; isse mukkebaaj ke pedoo ko adhik kshati pahunchati hai.

joote

sabhi mukkebaajon ke liye mulaayam tali vaale joote pahanana aavashyak hota hai, taaki pairon par galati se athva jaanboojhkar doosare khilaadi ka pair pad jaane se hone waali kshati nyoonatam ho. joote ka nirmaan khilaadi par nirbhar hota hai, jinmein se anek aantarik khilaadi adhik karshan paane ke liye bunaavat waali rabar ki tali ko pasand karte hain aur anek baahari khilaadi kam gharshan aur saral gatishilta ke liye chikni tali ko praathamikta dete hain.

mukkebaaji ki shaili ki shabdaavali

mukkebaaji mein, kinheen do khilaadiyon ki shailiyaan ek samaan naheen hoti. mukkebaaj apne abhyaas ke dauraan jo kuchh bhi seekhate hain aur unke swayam ke liye jo bhi upayukt hota hai, use laagoo karte jaane par unki shaili viksit hoti hai. fir bhi, aisi anek shabdaavaliyon ka prayog kiya jaata hai, jo mote taur par ek mukkebaaj ki shaili[krupaya uddharan jodein] ka varnan karti hain. dhyaan dein ki kisi mukkebaaj ka varnan karne ke liye inmein se kisi ek shabdaavali tak hi seemit rahana aavashyak naheen hota. koi khilaadi aantarik ladaai aur baahya ladaai donon mein poorn ho sakta hai, jiska ek achha udaaharan maini pakveo aur barnaard haupakins hain aur mukkebaajon ki koi adviteeya shaili bhi ho sakti hai, jo kisi bhi shreni mein saralata se samaahit na ki ja sakti ho, jaise naseem haamid.

mukkebaaj/baahya-yoddha

haiveevet champion muhammad Ali

ek paaramparik "mukkebaaj" ya shaileekaar (jise "baahya-yoddha" bhi kaha jaata hai) teji se, lambi doori ke mukke maarate hue, sarvaadhik ullekhaneeya roop se chubhaate hue aur antat: apne pratidvandvi ko neeche gira kar apne aur pratidvandvi ke beech antar banaae rakhane ka prayaas karta hai. kamzor mukkon ke prati is nirbharata ke kaaran, baahya-yoddha knock-out ke bajaay ankon ke nirnaya dvaara jeetne ki or pravrutt hota hai, haalaanki kuchh baahya-yoddhaaon ka knock-out rikaard ullekhaneeya hai. aksar unhein mukkebaaji ke sarvashreshth rananeetikaar bhi maana jaata hai kyonki unamein ladaai ki gati ko niyantrit kar paane aur apne pratidvandvi ka netrutv karne ki kshamata hoti hai, jiske dvaara ve yojanaabaddh roop se use paraajit kar dete hain aur kisi braular[krupaya uddharan jodein] ki tulana mein adhik kushalata aur yogyata ka parichay dete hain. baahya-yoddhaaon ko pahunch, haathon ki gati, pratikriya aur pairon ki gatividhi ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

ullekhaneeya baahya-yoddhaaon mein muhammad Ali, jeen tani,[18] ejaard Charles,[19] vili pep,[20] meldrik Taylor, lairi homs, Roy jons junior, shugar re liyonaard, oscar de la hoya aur jo kaaljeg shaamil hain.

mukkebaaj-panchar

ek mukkebaaj-panchar (Boxer-Puncher) ek poornat: viksit mukkebaaj hota hai, jo takaneek aur shakti ke sanyojan ke saath kam doori par rahakar lad paane mein saksham hota hai aur aksar ek sanyojan ke dvaara aur kuchh sthitiyon mein ek hi mukke mein apne pratidvandvi ko hara deta hai. unki gatividhi aur kaushal ek baahya-yoddha ke samaan hi hote hain (haalaanki, saamaanyat: ve baahya-yoddha jitne gatisheel naheen hote), lekin nirnaya ke dvaara jeetne ke bajaay ve sanyojanon ka prayog apne pratidvandvi se aage badhne aur ek knock-out score praapt karne ka prayaas karte hain. is shaili ka prayog kar paane ke liye ek mukkebaaj ko poornat: viksit hona chaahiye.

ullekhaneeya pancharon mein maini pakveo, saim laingaford,[21] henari Armstrong,[22] jo luis,[23] shugar re raubinsan,[24] toni jel, aarchi moor, kaarlos maunajaun,[25] eleksis aargvelo, erik morels, lennauks levis, vlaadimir klitshko, teri nauris aur Thomas harns shaamil hain.

braular/slagar

ek braular ek aisa khilaadi hota hai, jismein yogyata ki aur ring mein pairon ki gatividhi ki kami hoti hai, lekin jo iski poorti mukke maarane mein apni praveenata ke dvaara karta hai. anek braular gatisheelata ko kam rakhane ka prayaas karte hain, kam gatisheel rahane ko praathamikta dete hain, adhik sthir dharaatal chaahate hain aur apne pairon ko tej gati se chalaane vaale khilaadiyon ka mukaabala kar paane mein unhein kathinaai mahasoos hoti hai. unamein sanyojan mukkebaaji ko upekshit karne aur iske bajaay ek haath se lagaataar mukke-maarane tatha kam gati vaale aur adhik shaktishaali mukke (jaise hook aur upper-kat) maarane ki pravrutti bhi ho sakti hai. unki mand gati aur poorvaanumeya paitarn (svaabhaavik pahal ke saath ekal mukke) ke kaaran aksar unhein pratikaarak mukkon ka bhi saamana karna padta hai, at: safal braularon ke liye yeh anivaarya hai ki ve saja ko paryaapt maatra ko sah paane mein saksham hon. shakti aur sahanasheelata (saja ko sahate hue mukkebaaji jaari rakh paane ki kshamata) ek braular ki sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn sanpattiyaan hoti hain.

ullekhaneeya braularon mein David tyuaa, Ricky haitan, stainale keshel,[26] maiks beyar,[27] Jack laimota, raubarto dyuraan, rauki grejiyaano,[28] sauni listan[29] aur George foramain, juaan uraango shaamil hain.

svaurmar/ant:yoddha

ant:yoddha/svaurmar (jise kabhi-kabhi "dabaav yoddha" bhi kehte hain) apne pratidvandvi ke nikat bane rahane ka prayaas karta hai aur achaanak teevr aakraman karte hue aur hook tatha upper-kat ke sanyojan ka prayog karta hai. ek safal ant:yoddha ke liye aksar ek achhi "thodhi"ki aavashyakta hoti hai kyonki svaurming mein apne pratidvandvi ke nikat pahunch paane, jahaan ve adhik prabhaavi hote hain, se poorv aksar anek jaib ka aakraman jhelana padta hai. ant:yoddha kam doori par apna sarvashreshth pradarshan karte hain kyonki saamaanyat: ve chhote kad ke hote hain aur pratidvandvi ki tulana mein unki pahunch kam hoti hai aur isaliye ve kam doori par jyaada prabhaavi hote hain, jahaan unke pratidvandvi ko apne lambe haathon ke kaaran mukke maarane mein kathinaai hoti hai. haalaanki kuchh aise khilaadi bhi hain, jinhonne apni shreni ki tulana mein lambe hote hue bhi ant:yuddh aur baahya-yuddh donon ko achhi tarah apna liya hai. ek svaurmar ka mool-mantra bina rooke hamla karte rahana hai. chhote kad vaale kai ant:yoddha apne kad ka laabh uthaate hain aur Bob-end-veev raksha ka prayog karke apni kamar ko thoda jhukaakar rakhate hue mukkon se neeche ya unke bagal mein hatkar apna bachaav karte hain. avarodh ke vipreet, yadi pratidvandvi ke mukka vyarth chala jaae, to isse usaka taal-mel bigad jaata hai, jisse khilaadi ko aage badhkar pratidvandvi mukkebaaj ki tani hui baanh ki seema ke bheetar pahunch jaane ka mauka mil jaata hai aur javaabi hamla karne ke liye uske haath khule hue hote hain. ant:yoddhaaon ko milnevaala ek vishisht laabh aparakat maarate samay milta hai, jismein ve mukke ke saath apne poore shareer ka bhaar laga sakte hain; Mike taaisan vidhvansak aparakat ke liye prasiddh the. kuchh ant:yoddha apne kathor vaar ke liye kukhyaat rahe hain. aakramakata, dhairya, sahanasheelata aur baubing-end-veeving ek svaurmar ke liye sabse mahatvapoorn hain.

ullekhaneeya ant:yoddhaaon mein Mike taaisan, Harry greb,[30] Jack dempsi,[31] rauki maarsiyaano,[32] jo frejiyr, jek laamota aur juliyo seejr shaavej shaamil hain.

pratyuttarakaari-mukkebaaj

pratyuttarakaari mukkebaaj anishchit, rakshaatmak shaili vaale khilaadi hote hain, jo aksar laabh praapt karne, chaahe vah score card par ho ya adhik behtar roop se ek knock-out, ke liye apne pratidvandvi ki galatiyon par nirbhar hote hain. ve hamlon se bachane ke liye apni poorn viksit pratirksha ka prayog karte hain aur fir sahi samay par ek sateek mukka maar kar apne pratidvandvi ko turant paraast kar dete hain. is prakaar, pratyuttarakaari mukkebaaj ke khilaaf ladne ke liye satat chhal karne aur kabhi bhi apne mukke ka anumaan na lagaane dene ki aavashyakta hoti hai, taaki pratyuttarakaari mukkebaaj ek achha aakraman na kar sake. is shaili ka prayog karke safal hone ke liye unamein achhi pratikriya, buddhi, mukke ki achookata aur haathon ki achhi gati hona anivaarya hota hai.

ullekhaneeya pratyuttarakaari mukkebaajon mein flaayad mevedar, junior, jeri kveri, rikaardo lopej, barnaard haupkins, vitaali klitshko, James toni, maarvin haiglar, iveindar holeefeeld, juaan mainyuel maarkvej aur parnel vhaaitekar shaamil hain.

shaili Milan

anya shailiyon ke viruddh inmein se pratyek mukkebaaji shaili se milne vaale laabh ke baare mein ek saamaanyat: sveekrut niyam hai. saamaanya roop se, ek ant: yoddha ko ek baahya-yoddha ki tulana mein adhik laabh hota hai, ek baahya-yoddha ek panchar se adhik faayde mein rahata hai aur ek panchar ko ek ant:yoddha se adhik laabh milta hai; is prakaar pratyek shaili ek shaili ki tulana mein majboot aur doosari shaili ki tulana mein kamzor hone ke kaaran ek prakaar ka chakr ban jaata hai aur rock-pepar-sijrs ke khel ki tarah ismein koi bhi kisi doosare par haavi naheen hota. svaabhaavik roop se, anek anya kaarak, jaise kushalata ka star aur khilaadiyon ka prashikshan, mukaabale ke parinaam ka nirdhaaran karte hain, lekin mukkebaaji ke prashansakon aur lekhakon ke man mein shailiyon ke beech sambandh ko lekar vyaapak taur par sveekrut yeh vishvaas is kahaavat mein sammilit hai ki "shaili se hi ladaai mein jeet milti hai (styles make fights)."

braular svaurmaron ya ant:yoddhaaon par haavi hone ka prayaas karte hain kyonki slagar ke nikat aane ka prayaas karne par, ant: yoddha ko nirpavaad roop se bahut adhik kathorataapoorvak aakraman kar rahe braular ki bandook ka saamana karna padega, at:, jab tak ant:yoddha mein bahut adhik sahanasheelata na ho aur braular ki shakti bahut kamzor na ho, tab tak braular ki majboot shakti hi vijayi hogi. jo frejiyr ke khilaaf George foramain ki knock-out jeet is prakaar ke Milan ke laabh ka ek prasiddh udaaharan hai.

chitr:Julio Cesar Chavez vs. Meldrick Taylor poster.jpg
Taylor banaam chaavej 1: ek shaili ko mel khaane ke liye ek udaaharan

haalaanki ant: yoddha bhaari slagaron ke khilaaf sangharsh karte hain, lekin vishisht roop se unhein baahya-yoddhaaon athva mukkebaajon ke khilaaf adhik safalta ka aanand milta hai. baahya-yoddha ek dheemi ladaai pasand karte hain, jismein unke aur pratidvandvi ke beech kuchh antar ho. ant:yoddha is antar ko paatane aur ugr aakramanon ko ujaagar karne ka prayaas karte hain. bheetari bhaag mein, baahya-yoddha apni ladne ki prabhaavakaarita ka bahut saara bhaag kho deta hai kyonki vah kathor mukke maar paane mein saksham naheen hota. saamaanyat: is sthiti mein ant:yoddha safal rahata hai kyonki apne pratidvandvi par laabh ki teevrata aur achhi dakshata ke kaaran use hara paana kathin ho jaata hai. udaaharanaarth, slagar George foramain dvaara saralata se paraajit kar diya gaya svaurmar jo frejiyr mukkebaaj muhammad Ali ke saath hue apne teen mukaabalon mein uske liye anek anya samasyaaen khadi kar paane mein saksham raha tha. sanyaas ke baad jo luis ne yeh sveekaar kiya ki unhein ghir jaane se nafarat thi aur mukt/aparaajit vijeta rauki maarsiyaano jaise svaurmar Louis ke sarvashreshth daur mein bhi unke liye shaili ki samasya utpann kar paane mein saksham hue hote.

mukkebaaj ya baahya-yoddha ek braular, jiski dheemi gati (donon haath aur donon pair) tatha kamzor takaneek use tej baahya-yoddha ke aakraman ka ek saral lakshya banaati hai, ke vipreet sarvaadhik safal rahate hain. baahya-yoddha ki mukhya chinta sajag bane rahana hoti hai kyonki braular ko apna khel poora karne ke liye keval ek achha mukka maarane ki zaroorat hoti hai. yadi baahya-yoddha un shaktishaali mukkon se bach sake, to vah aksar apne teevr mukkon ke dvaara braular ko thakaakar use hara sakta hai. yadi vah paryaapt roop se safal ho, to baad ke chakron mein atirikt dabaav daalkar vah ek knock-out haasil karne ka prayaas bhi kar sakta hai. muhammad Ali jaise adhikaansh paaramparik mukkebaajon ne slagaron ke virooddh hi apni sarvashreshth safalataaon ka aanand liya tha.

meldrik Taylor, mukkebaaj ya baahya-yoddha, ke khilaaf juliyo seejr shaavej, ek svaurmar ya ant:yoddha, ke beech aitihaasik mukaabala shaili Milan ka ek udaaharan hai (shaavej banaam Taylor dekhein). shaavej ki zabardast mukkebaaji kshamata aur Taylor ki andhaadhundh gati ke ek sanket ke roop mein is mukaabale ko "thandar meets laaitaning" ki sanjnyaa di gayi thi. shaavej mukkebaaji ki "maiksikn" shaili ke prateek the. ve lagaataar peechha karte rahate the aur doosare khilaadi ki seema mein aage badhte rahate the, bhale hi unhein nikat doori par aane ke kaaran kitni hi saja bhugatani pade, jiske baad ve apne pratidvandvi ko saja diya karte the, jo ya to shareer par ek bhayankar aakraman ke roop mein hota tha, jiske parinaamasvaroop pratidvandvi ya to dard aur thakaan ke kaaran gir jaata tha ya atyadhik thakaan ke kaaran apna bachaav kar paane mein asamarth ho jaata hai aur tab shaavej uske sir par hamla karke use ek knock-out ke dvaara paraast kar dete the. ladaai ke dauraan, Taylor ke haathon aur pairon ki shaanadaar gati aur unki mukkebaaji ki kshamataaon se unhein shuruaati laabh mila, jisse unhonne ankon ki ek badi badhat banaani shuroo kar di, lekin ant mein shaavej ki saja ne Taylor ko paraast kar diya aur antim charan mein daayein haath se maare gaye ek bheeshan ghoonse ne unhein knock-daaun kar diya, jisse unki haar ho gayi.

upakaran

choonki mukkebaaji mein shakti ke saath lagaataar mukke maarana shaamil hota hai, at: haathon ki haddiyon mein hone waali kshati se bachaav ke liye saavadhaaniyaan baratana anivaarya hai. adhikaansh prashikshak mukkebaajon ko haathon/kalaai ke aavaranon aur mukkebaaji ke dastaanon ko pahane bina prashikshan lene aur abhyaas karne ki anumati naheen dete. haathon ke aavaranon ka prayog haathon ki haddiyon ki suraksha ke liye kiya jaata hai aur dastaanon ka prayog haathon ko kisi ghaatak chot se bachaane ke liye kiya jaata hai, jisse mukkebaajon ko usaki tulana mein adhik bal ke saath mukke maarane ka mauka milta, jitna ki ve inka prayog kiye bina maar sake hote. unneesaveen sadi ke antim bhaag se hi dastaane pratispardha ke liye aavashyak rahe hain, haalaanki mukkebaaji ke aadhunik dastaane beesaveen-sadi ke praarambhik daur ke khilaadiyon dvaara pahane jaane vaale dastaanon se bahut adhik bhaari hote hain. mukkebaaji ke mukaabale se poorv, donon mukkebaaj mukaabale mein prayog kiye jaane vaale dastaanon ke bhaar par aapasi sahamati bana lete hain, is samajh ke saath ki halke dastaane bhaari mukkebaajon ko adhik kshati pahunchaate hain. dastaanon ka brand bhi mukkon ke asar ko prabhaavit kar sakta hai, at: mukaabale se poorv aksar is par bhi sahamati banaai jaati hai. daaton va masoodon ko chot se bachaane ke liye aur thodhi ka bachaav karne ke liye ek mukh-rakshak bhi aavashyak hota hai, jisse knock-out ki sambhaavana kam ho jaati hai.

mukkebaaj do buniyaadi prakaar ki panching bag par apne kaushal ka abhyaas karte hain. pratikriyaaon aur doharaavapoorn dhang se mukke maarane ke kaushal ko paina karne ke liye ek chhoti, aansoo ki boond ke aakaar ki "speed bag" ka prayog kiya jaata hai, jabki shaktishaali dhang se mukke maarane aur shareer par hone vaale bheeshan prahaaron ka abhyaas karne ke liye ek badi belanaakaar "heavy bag" ka prayog kiya jaata hai, jo ret, ek sanshleshit padaarth athva jal se bhari hui hoti hai. upakaranon ki in vishisht saamagriyon ke atirikt, mukkebaaj apni shakti, gati aur dhairya ko badhaane ke liye adhik saamaanya prashikshan upakaranon ka prayog bhi karte hain. saamaanya prashikshan upakaranon mein free vets, roving machine, janp rop aur medisin bauls shaamil hain.

takaneek

mudra

aadhunik mukkebaaji ki mudra unneesaveen sadi aur beesaveen ki sadi ke praarambhik daur ki vishisht mukkebaaji mudraaon se bahut adhik bhinn hai. aadhunik mudra mein haathon ki raksha ke liye ek jyaada oordhv guard hota hai, jabki beesaveen sadi ke praarambhik daur ke hook prayoktaaon, jaise Jack jaunsan, dvaara apnaaya gaya guard adhik kshaitij hota tha, jismein anguliyon ke jod saamane ki or hua karte the.

ek poornat: khadi mudra mein, mukkebaaj pairon ko apne donon kandhon ke baraabar ki doori par rakhakar khada hota hai aur pichhla pair agale pair se aadha-kadam peechhe rakha jaata hai. daahini haath se ladnevaala ya rudhivaadi mukkebaaj apne baayein pair aur baayeen mutthi ko aage rakhata hai. donon pair samaanaantar hote hain aur daahini edi jameen se oopar uthi hui hoti hai. agali (baayeen) mutthi aankhon ki seedh mein chehare ke saamane lagbhag chh: inch ki doori par oordhv roop se sthit hoti hai. pichhli (daahini) mutthi ko thodhi ki bagal mein rakha jaata hai aur kohani pasaliyon ke dhaanche ke saamane hoti hai, taaki shareer ki raksha ki ja sake. thodhi ko seene ki or jhukaakar rakha jaata hai, taaki jabade par padne vaale mukkon se bacha ja sake, jo aksar knock-out ka kaaran bante hain aur thodhi aksar kendra se thodi door hoti hai. kalaaiyaan thodi jhuki hui hoti hain, taaki mukke maarate samay hone waali kisi sambhaavit kshati se bacha ja sake aur pasaliyon ki suraksha ke liye kohaniyon ko dabaakar rakha jaata hai. kuchh mukkebaaj aage ki or thoda jhukakar dubakane ki mudra mein ladte hain aur apne pair paas-paas rakhate hain. yahaan varnit mudra ko "tekstabuk" mudra maana jaata hai aur khilaadiyon ko is baat ke liye protsaahit kiya jaata hai ki ek baar ismein mahaarat haasil kar lene par ise aadhaar maankar ve ismein badlaav karte rahein. isi bindu ka dhyaan rakhate hue, kuchh tej mukkebaaj apne haathon ko neeche rakhate hain aur unke pair lagbhag atishyoktipoorn mudra mein hote hain, jabki braular athva buli mukkebaaj dheemi gati se apne pratidvandviyon ka saamana karne ka prayaas karte hai.

baayein haath vaale ya saauthapau (Southpaw) khilaadi rudhivaadi mudra ki pratibinb mudra ka prayog karte hain, jisse rudhivaadi khilaadiyon ke saamane samasya utpann ho sakti hai, jo vipreet disha se hamle, hook athva kraus jhelne ke abhyast naheen hote. iske vipreet yeh saauthapau mudra, seedhe daahine haath ke khilaaf kamzor saabit hoti hai.

uttari Amreeki khilaadi ek adhik santulit mudra ko pasand karte hain, jismein ve lagbhag vargaakaar roop se pratidvandvi ke saamane khade hokar usaka mukaabala karte hain, jabki anek Europeeya khilaadiyon ki mudra is prakaar ki hoti hai ki unka dhad bagal mein adhik muda hua hota hai. haathon ki sthiti mein bhi antar ho sakta hai kyonki kuchh khilaadi donon haathon ko chehare ke saamane uthaakar rakhana pasand karte hain, jisse shareer par hone vaale prahaaron ka khatra badh jaata hai.

kabhi-kabhi aadhunik mukkebaajon ko apne gaalon ya maathe ko apni mutthiyon se thapathapaate hue dekha ja sakta hai, jiske dvaara ve swayam ko yaad dilaate hain ki unhein apne haath oopar rakhane hain (jo ki lambe mukaabalon ke dauraan kathin ho jaata hai). mukkebaajon ko apne pairon ko gatisheel banaae rakhane ka prashikshan diya jaata hai, taaki ve prabhaavi roop se apni chaal chal sakein. agr-gaman mein saamane vaale pair ko uthaana aur pichhle pair se aage badhna shaamil hota hai. pashch-gaman mein pichhle pair ko uthaana aur agale pair se peechhe ki or badhna shaamil hota hai. paarshvik gati ke dauraan gati ki disha mein sthit pair pehle badhta hai, jabki vipreet disha mein sthit pair shareer ko hilaane ke aavashyak bal pradaan karta hai.

ghoonse

mukkebaaji mein ghoonse moolat: chaar prakaar ke hote hain: jaib, seedha daahina/baayaan haath, hook aur aparakat. yadi koi mukkebaaj daahine haath se khelta hai (rudhivaadi), to usaka baanya haath agala haath aur daahina haath pichhla haath hota hai. ek baayein haath vaale mukkebaaj ya saauthapau ke liye, haathon ki yeh sthiti ulti ho jaati hai. spashtata ke liye, nimnalikhit charcha ek daahine haath ke mukkebaaj par vichaar karti hai.

  • jaib - ek tej, seedha ghoonsa jo saamane vaale haath se guard ki sthiti se maara jaata hai. jaib ke saath hi shareer aur koolhon ko ghadi ki sui ki disha mein thoda-sa ghumaaya jaata hai, jabki mutthi 90 ansh par ghoom jaati hai aur prabhaavi hone par kshaitij sthiti mein aa jaati hai. jab ghoonsa apne poore vistaar pahunchata hai, to agale kandhe ko thodhi ki raksha ke liye oopar laaya ja sakta hai. jabade ki suraksha ke liye pichhla kandha chehare ke paas bana rahata hai. lakshya ke saath sampark bana lene ke baad, agala haath turant vaapas kheench liya jaata hai, taaki vah chehare ke rakshak ke roop mein apni sthiti par laut sake. jaib ko kisi mukkebaaj ke shasraagaar ka ek mahatvapoorn ghoonsa maana jaata hai kyonki yeh apni suraksha ki ek paryaapt maatra pradaan karta hai aur yeh pratidvandvi ke pratikriyaatmak ghoonse ke liye sabse kam sthaan chhodta hai. kisi bhi mukke ki tulana mein iski pahunch sabse lambi hoti hai aur iske liye kisi pratibaddhata ya adhik bhaar ke sthaanaantaran ki aavashyakta naheen hoti. iski apekshaakrut kamzor shakti ke kaaran, jaib ko aksar dooriyon ki thaah lene ke liye, pratidvandvi ki pratirksha ki jaanch karne, pratidvandvi ko pareshaan karne aur ek adhik vajani, adhik shaktishaali mukkon ki taiyaari karne ke ek upakaran ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata hai. atirikt shakti ke liye ismein aadha-kadam joda ja sakta hai, jisse poore shareer ki shakti mukke mein shaamil ho jaati hai. lairi homs aur vlaadimir klitshko kuchh aise ullekhaneeya mukkebaajon mein shaamil hain, jo apne jaib mein saapeksh shakti viksit kar paane aur apne pratidvandvi ko saja dene ya 'maat dene' mein kuchh had tak safal rahe the.
yookreni aaibeeऍf, dablyoobeeo aur aaibeeo haiveevet champion vlaadimeer klitsachako.
  • kraus - pichhle haath se maara jaane wala ek shaktishaali, seedha ghoonsa. guard ki sthiti se, pichhla haath thodhi se feinka jaata hai, jo ki shareer ko paar karta hua ek seedhi rekha mein lakshya ki or badhta hai. pichhla kandha aage ki or jhuka hua hota hai aur thodhi ke baahar bhaag ko halka-sa chhoote hue samaapt hota hai. isi samay, agale haath ko peechhe kheenchakar chehare ke saamane rakh liya jaata hai, taaki thodhi ke aantarik bhaag ki raksha ki ja sake. atirikt shakti ke liye, kraus maarate samay dhad aur koolhe ghadi ki sui ki vipreet disha mein ghoom jaate hain. bhaar bhi pichhle pair se agale pair ki or sthaanaantarit kar diya jaata hai, jiske parinaamasvaroop pichhli edi baahar ki or mud jaati hai kyonki yeh bhaar ke sthaanaantaran ke liye aadhaar pradaan karne ka kaarya karti hai. shareer ko ghumaane aur bhaar ko achaanak sthaanaantarit karne se hi kraus ko iski shakti milti hai. jaib ki hi tarah, aage ki or aadha kadam badhaaya ja sakta hai. ek baar kraus ka prahaar kar diye jaane par, haath ko turant peechhe kheench liya jaata hai aur pun: guard ki sthiti bana li jaati hai. iska prayog ek jaib ka pratyuttar dene ke liye (ya shareer par lakshyit kisi kraus ka uttar dene ke liye) ya koi hook sthaapit karne ke liye pratidvandvi ke sir ko nishaana banaakar kiya ja sakta hai. kraus ka prayog kisi jaib ke baad bhi kiya ja sakta hai, jisse yeh ek paaramparik "ek-do" sanyojan banaata hai. kraus ko ek "stret" ya "right" bhi kaha jaata hai, visheshat: yadi pratidvandvi ke poori tarah khinche hue jaib ko paar na kar raha ho.
  • hook - agale haath se pratidvandvi ke sir ke paarshv bhaag mein maara gaya ek ardh-vruttaakaar ghoonsa. guard ki sthiti se, ek kshaitij mutthi ke saath kohani peechhe ki or laai jaati hai (anguliyon ke jodon ko baahar ki or rakhate hue) aur mudi hui hoti hai. thodhi ko surakshit rakhane ke liye pichhla haath drudhtaapoorvak jabade ke saamane rakha jaata hai. dhad aur koolhe ghadi ki sui ki disha mein ghumaae jaate hain aur shareer ke saamane ki or ghadi ki sui ki disha mein ek chaap banaate hue aur lakshya se sampark karte hue mutthi ko dhakela jaata hai. isi samay, agala pair ghadi ki sui ki disha mein ghoom jaata hai aur baayeen edi baahar ki or mud jaati hai. sampark hone par, hook ka vruttaakaar path akasmaat samaapt ho jaata hai aur apni sthiti ki raksha karne ke liye agala haath teji se peechhe ki or kheench liya jaata hai. ek hook shareer ke nichle bhaag par bhi keindrit ho sakta hai aur is takaneek ko kabhi-kabhi "rip" kaha jaata hai, taaki ise sir par maare jaane vaale paaramparik hook se alag pahachaana ja sake. pichhle haath se bhi ek hook maara ja sakta hai. baayein haath se hook maarane vaale ullekhaneeya khilaadiyon mein shaamil hain: jo frejiyr aur Mike taaisan.
  • aparakat - pichhle haath se maara gaya ek urdhv, oopar ki or utha hua ghoonsa. guard ki sthiti se, dhad thoda-sa daahini or sarak jaata hai, pichhla haath pratidvandvi ke seene ki seedh ke neeche padta hai aur ghutne kuchh mude hue hote hain. is sthiti se, pichhla haath oopar ki or ek ubharate hue chaap mein pratidvandvi ki thodhi ya dhad ki or feinka jaata hai. isi samay, ghutne teji se oopar ki or dhakele jaate hain aur dhad tatha koolhe ghadi ki sui ke vipreet disha mein ghoomate hain aur kraus ki shaareerik gatividhi ki nakal karte hue pichhli edi baahar ki or nikal jaati hai. aparakat ki rananeetik upayogita pratidvandvi ke shareer ko "uthaane" ki iski kshamata, jisse agale hamlon ke liye usaka santulan bigad jaata hai, par nirbhar hoti hai. daahine aparakat ke baad ek baayein hook ka prayog ek ghaatak sanyojan hota hai, jismein aparakat pratidvandvi ki thodhi ko ek aaghaat yogya sthiti mein utha deta hai aur iske baad hook pratidvandvi ko knock-out kar deta hai.

mukkon ke ye vibhinn prakaar anek sanyojanon ya "kaumbo" ka nirmaan karne ke liye teevr anukram mein prayog kiye ja sakte hain. jaib aur kraus ka sanyojan sabse aam hai, jise "van-too kaumbo" ka naam diya gaya hai. yeh saamaanyat: ek prabhaavi sanyojan hota hai kyonki jaib ke kaaran pratidvandvi kraus ko dekh naheen paata, jisse iska prayog adhik safaai aur bal ke saath kar paana saral ho jaata hai.

murge jaisi peeth waali sthiti se shuru hone wala ek bada, jhoolata hua vruttaakaar ghoonsa, jismein haath hook ki tulana mein adhik lambi doori tak vistaarit hota hai aur iske peechhe khilaadi ka saari shakti lagi hoti hai, kabhi-kabhi ek "raaundahaaus", "hemekar" ya sakar-panch bhi kahalaata hai. shareer ke bhaar aur ek vyaapak chaap ke bheetar kendraabhisaari bal ke aadhaar par, raaundahaaus ek shaktishaali prahaar ho sakta hai, lekin yeh aksar jangali aur aniyantrit ghoonsa hota hai, jise maarane wala khilaadi iske baad apna santulan kho deta hai aur usaka raksha-kavach khul jaata hai. chaude, chakreeya ghoonson ki ek anya kami yeh hai ki unhein maarane mein samay bhi adhik lagta hai, jisse pratidvandvi ko pratikriya karne va pratyuttar dene ke liye paryaapt chetaavani mil jaati hai. is kaaran, hemekar ya raaundahaaus ek paaramparik ghoonsa naheen hai aur prashikshak ise kamzor takaneek ya hataasha ka prateek maanate hain. iski atyadhik sambhaavit shakti ke kaaran kabhi-kabhi iska prayog kisi aise pratidvandvi ka khel samaapt karne ke liye kiya jaata raha hai, jo pehle se hi ladkhada raha ho aur uske dvaara us kamzor sthiti ka laabh uthaae jaane ki sambhaavana athva kshamata na dikhaai de rahi ho, jismein yeh ghoonsa iska prayog karne vaale ko le aata hai.

durlabh avsaron par prayog kiya jaane wala ek anya aparanparaagat ghoonsa "bolo panch (bolo punch)" hai, jismein pratidvandvi apne ek haath ko ek chaude chaap mein kai baar jhulaata hai, saamaanyat: dhyaan bantaane ke liye aur iske baad usi haath se ya doosare haath se ghoonsa maarta hai.

pratirksha

ek mukkebaaj mukkon se bachane ya unhein rokane ke liye anek buniyaadi chaalon ka prayog kar sakta hai, jinhein neeche pradarshit va varnit kiya gaya hai.

  • fislana (Slip) - fislane se shareer thoda ghoom jaata hai, jisse aane wala ghoonsa koi haani pahunchaae bina sir ki bagal se nikal jaata hai. jab pratidvandvi ka ghoonsa aata hai, to mukkebaaj teekshnata se koolhon aur kandhon ko ghumaata hai. isse thodhi bagal mein ghoom jaati hai aur ghoonsa "fislakar" nikal jaata hai. muhammad Ali aur shuruaat mein Mike taaisan bhi, atyadhik teevr va nikat slip ke liye prasiddh the.
  • ghoomana ya jhukna (Sway or fade) - kisi ghoonse ka poorvaanumaan karne aur isse bachane ya iske prabhaav ko paryaapt maatra mein kam karne ke liye shareer ke oopari bhaag ya sir ko peechhe ki or le jaana. ise "roling vith the panch" ya "raaiding the panch" bhi kaha jaata hai.
  • dak ya break (Duck or break)-peeth ko poori tarah seedha neeche ki or karna, taaki sir ko lakshya banaakar maara gaya ghoonsa poori tarah dikhaai de jaae ya chook jaae.
  • Bob end veev (Bob and Weave) - baubing mein sir ko aane vaale mukke ke paarshv mein va usase neeche ki or hataaya jaata hai. jab pratidvandvi ka mukka aata hai, to mukkebaaj apne pairon ko teji se mod deta hai aur saath hi shareer ko daahini ya baayeen or thoda sarka deta hai. ek baar mukke se bachaav ho jaane par mukkebaaj pun: seedhi khadi sthiti ki or "mud jaata" hai aur pratidvandvi ki abhi tak vistaarit bhuja ke baahar ya bheetar ki or aa jaata hai. pratidvandvi ki vistaarit bhuja ke baahar jaana "baahar ki or baubing" kahalaata hai. pratidvandvi ki vistaarit bhuja ke bheetar aana "bheetar ki or baubing" kahalaata hai. jo frejiyr, Jack dempsi, Mike taaisan aur rauki maarsiyaano baubing aur veeving ke visheshagya the.
  • pairi/block (Parry/block) - pairi karne ya block karne ke liye mukkebaaj ke kandhe, haathon ya bhuja ka prayog aane vaale aakramanon se bachaav ke liye rakshaatmak upakaranon ke roop mein kiya jaata hai. ek block mein saamaanyat: mukke ka saamana karna padta hai, jabki pairi mein iski disha badalne ka prayaas kiya jaata hai. ek "panja" ya "chaanta" ek block hai, jo aane vaale ghoonse ko rokane vaale khilaadi ke dastaane ke us bhaag par uddeshyapoorn roop se jhelata hai.
  • dhankana (The Cover-up) - dhankana kisi arakshit chehare ya shareer ko ek aakraman se bachaane ka antim avsar (ek mukke ke dvaara ghumaane ke atirikt) hota hai. saamaanya shabdon mein, sir aur thodhi ko bachaane ke liye haath oopar rakhe jaate hain aur shareer par hone vaale hamle ko rokane ke liye agr-bhujaaen dhad ke saamane hoti hain. shareer ka bachaav karte samay, mukkebaaj koolhon ko ghumaata hai aur aane vaale mukkon ko rakshak se door "nikal jaane" deta hai. sir ko bachaane ke liye, mukkebaaj donon mutthiyon ko chehare ke saamane rakhata hai aur agr-bhujaaen samaanaantar va baahar ki disha mein hoti hain. is prakaar ka rakshak neeche se hone vaale aakramanon ke khilaaf kamzor hota hai.
  • jakadna (The Clinch) - jakadna kushti ka ek aparishkrut roop hai aur iska prayog tab kiya jaata hai, jab donon khilaadiyon ke beech ki doori kam ho aur seedhe mukke na maare ja sakte hon. is sthiti mein, mukkebaaj pratidvandvi ke haathon ko pakadne ya "baandhane" ka prayaas karta hai, jisse vah hook ya aparakat maar paane mein aksham ho jaata hai. jakadne ke liye, mukkebaaj donon haathon ko pratidvandvi ke kandhon ke baahar se lapetate hue unhein agr-bhujaaon ke neeche se bheetar ki or laakar pratidvandvi ki bhujaaon ko usi ke shareer ki sahaayata se jakad leta hai. is sthiti mein, pratidvandvi ki bhujaaen bandh jaati hain aur vah aakraman karne ke liye inka prayog naheen kar sakta. jakadna mukaabale ki ek asthaai avastha hai aur referee dvaara ise turant hi door kar diya jaata hai. takaneeki taur par jakadna niyamon ke viruddh hai aur iska prayog karne par shaukiya mukaabalon mein turant hi ank kaat liye jaate hain. haalaanki, vyaavasaayik mukkebaaji mein jakadne par anko mein katauti ko dekhe jaane ki sambhaavana naheen hai.

rakshak

anek rakshaatmak sthitiyaan (rakshak ya shailiyaan) hain, jinka prayog mukkebaaji mein kiya jaata hai. pratyek shaili ke bheetar, mukkebaajon ke beech paryaapt vividhta hoti hai kyonki kuchh mukkebaaj apne sir ka bachaav karne ke liye rakshak ko oonchaai par rakh sakte hain, jabki anya mukkebaaj shareer par aane vaale ghoonson se bachaav ke liye apne rakshak ko neeche rakh sakte hain. anek khilaadi poore mukaabale ke dauraan apni rakshaatmak shaili ko badalate rahate hain, taaki us pal ki sthiti ke anusaar apna bachaav karne ke liye sarvaadhik upayukt avastha ka chayan kiya ja sake.

ek seedhi khadi mudra ka prayog karne vaale mukkebaaj apni thodhi ka bachaav pichhle haath ke dvaara ek nichli ya mishrit rakshak shaili mein karte hain, jo ki neeche pradarshit hai. dubakane ki mudra mein ladne vaale khilaadi saamaanyat: "peek-a-boo (Peek-a-boo)" shaili ka prayog karte hain, jiski charcha neeche ki gayi hai.

  • peek-a-boo (Peek-a-boo) -kabhi-kabhi ise "iyaramafs (Earmuffs)" ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai, haathon ko chehare ke saamane ek-doosare ke saath rakha jaata hai (iski sateek sthiti ko lekar khilaadiyon mein vividhta dekhi jaati hai) aur kohaniyaan shareer se sataakar rakhi jaati hain (yeh sthiti kohaniyon ko yathaasanbhav paas laakar haasil ki jaati hai aur is baat ka dhyaan rakha jaata hai ki aisa karna swayam ke liye shramasaadhya na ho). jab koi mukkebaaj mukkebaaji ki shuruaat kar raha hota hai, to use yahi rakshaatmak shaili sikhaai jaati hai, anubhav praapt kar lene par vah rakshak ko badalne ya usamein sanshodhan ka nirnaya le sakta hai. pratyuttar mein mukke maarane aur aaghaat ko kam karne ke sandarbh mein yeh shaili madhyam-maarg waali shaili hai. ek mukkebaaj is mudra ke dvaara mukkon ka pratyuttar de to sakta hai, lekin aisa karna kathin hai. j haalaanki, aise mukkebaaj rahe hain, to yeh kaarya bahut achhi tarah kar sakte hain. yeh pratirksha ek mukkebaaj ko achhi tarah surakshit rakhati hai, lekin fir bhi ismein kuchh kamiyaan hain. hook haathon ke aas-paas jaakar ya kohaniyon ke theek peechhe maarkar kshati pahunchaate hain. kshati ko kam karne ke drushtikon se, vinki right dvaara is shaili ka prayog bahut achhi tarah kiya jaata hai. ek anya prasiddh udaaharan Mike taaisan ka hai, jinhonne apne kairiyr ki shuruaat mein peek-a-boo ka prayog atyadhik safalta ke saath kiya.
  • bandhe hue haath (Cross-armed) - agr-bhujaaon ko chehare ke saamane kshaitij roop se ek doosare ke sheersh par rakha jaata hai aur ek haath ka dastaana doosare haath ki kohani ke sheersh par rakha hota hai. jab pichhla haath oordhv roop se uthata hai, to is shaili mein bahut antar aa jaata hai. yeh shaili sir par hone waali kshati ko kam karne mein sarvaadhik prabhaavi hai. is sthiti mein khilaadi ko keval sir ke sheersh par maare gaye jaib ka hi khatra hota hai. shareer khula rahata hai, lekin is shaili ka prayog karne vaale adhikaansh mukkebaaj apne shareer ki raksha karne ke liye thoda mud aur jhuk jaate hain, lekin yadi ve seedhe khade rahein aur apni sthiti na badalein, to shareer par hamla ho sakta hai. is sthiti mein rahate hue mukkon ka pratyuttar de paana bahut kathin hota hai, lekin yeh sir par hone waali kshati ki sambhaavana ko sachmuch poori tarah samaapt kar deti hai.
  • fili shel, hitmain ya kraib - agali agr-bhuja shareer ke saamane, aksar naabhi aur seene ke beech, rakhi jaati hai aur saamane wala haath khilaadi ke shareer ke doosari or hota hai. pichhla haath chehare ke paarshv bhaag mein hota hai. agala kandha chehare ke paarshv mein bahut nikat laaya jaata hai. is shaili ka prayog un khilaadiyon dvaara kiya jaata hai, jo mukkon ka pratyuttar dena pasand karte hon. is rakshak ko kriyaanvit karne ke liye khilaadi bahut adhik chust aur anubhavi hona anivaarya hota hai. mukkon ka pratyuttar dene ke liye yeh shaili itni adhik prabhaavi isaliye hai kyonki yeh khilaadiyon ko ghoomkar aur apne shareer ke oopari bhaag ko jhukaakar mukkon se bachane ka mauka deti hai aur prahaar khilaadi se door se gujr jaate hain. jab prahaar gujr jaae, to khilaadi ka pichhla haath apni-sthiti-se-hat-chuke pratidvandvi ko maarane ke liye sarvaadhik upayukt sthiti mein hota hai. is shaili mein sholdar leen (Shoulder lean) vidhi ka prayog kiya jaata hai. jab pratidvandvi ka mukka khilaadi ki or aa raha ho, to sholdar leen ko kriyaanvit karne ke liye vah mukkebaaj ghoom jaata hai aur vaar se bachane ke liye shareer ko jhuka leta hai tatha jab usaka pratidvandvi apna haath vaapas le raha ho, tab vah peechhe ki or ghoomta hai. apne asurakshit pratidvandvi ki or ghoomate samay khilaadi apne pichhle haath se ek mukka maarega. is shaili ki kamajori yeh hai ki jab khilaadi sthir ho aur ghoom na raha ho, to us par aakraman kiya ja sakta hai, at: is shaili ka prayog karne ke liye yeh anivaarya hai ki khilaadi chust aur achhi sthiti mein ho. is shaili ko maat dene ke liye khilaadi apne pratidvandvi ke kandhe par jaib karna pasand karte hain, jisse kandhe aur bhuja mein dard hone lagta hai aur unki bhuja sthir ho jaati hai.

saamaanyat: mukkebaaj uchch, teevr sanyojanon ka prayog karne aur uske baad turant apni sthiti badal lene ka prayaas karte hain, taaki pratidvandvi ki or se hone waali kisi bhi sambhaavit pratikriya se bacha ja sake. rananeetik roop se, saamaanyat: is chakr ke kendra mein rahana vaanchhit hota hai kyonki aisa hone par mukkebaaj apne pratidvandvi ko unke chaaron or sthit vrutt par jaane par baadhya karke gatividhi ko ulat paane mein saksham ho jaata hai. yadi mukkebaaj kendra mein ho, to use peechhe ki or dhakel kar ring ko chaaron or se gher kar rakhanevaali rassiyon par giraaye jaane aur us par adhikaar kar liye jaane ki sambhaavana bhi kam ho jaati hai. mukkebaaj ki shaili ke aadhaar par, keindreeya sthiti vaanchhit hoti hai kyonki pratidvandvi par adhikaar kar lena sadaiv hi ek achhi rananeeti hai. haalaanki, adhikaansh khilaadi kendra mein sthit mukkebaaj ke aas-paas naheen ghoomeinge kyonki aisa karne par ve achhe konon par kiye gaye prahaaron ke prati asurakshit ho jaate hain. gatisheelata hi ring mein sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn saadhan hai aur yeh khilaadi ko un mukkon se bachane ka mauka deti hai, jinka anumaan naheen kiya gaya tha. yadi koi mukkebaaj sthir khada hai, to uske pratidvandvi ke paas us par prahaar karne ka ek behtar mauka hota hai. sthir rahakar kisi prahaar ka poorvaanumaan kar rahe khilaadi ke bach paane ki sambhaavana gatisheel khilaadi ki tulana mein kam hoti hai.

kam prachalit rananeetiyaan

  • "rop-a-dop" rananeeti : George foramain ke khilaaf 1974 ke apne "ranbal in the jungle" mukaabale mein muhammad Ali dvaara prayukt, rop-a-dop vidhi mein rassiyon par peechhe ki or let jaana aur swayam ko rakshaatmak roop se yathaasanbhav bachaate hue pratidvandvi ko bahut saare mukke maarane ka prayaas karne dena shaamil hota hai. peechhe ki jhuk jaane ki mudra, jiski sahaayata se apna bachaav kar raha mukkebaaj utana asantulit naheen hota, jitna ki vah saamaanya taur par peechhe jaane par hoga, bachaav kar rahe mukkebaaj ke sir aur pratidvandvi ke beech ki doori ko bhi adhiktam kar deti hai, jisse is baat ki sambhaavana badh jaati hai ki mukke apne abheesht lakshya se chook jaaenge. padnevaale prahaaron ko hava mein rakhakar pratirkshak apne pratidvandvi ko apni oorja kharch karne ka pralobhan deta hai, jabki swayam ki oorja ko bachaakar rakhata hai. yadi yeh rananeeti safal ho jaae, to aakraman karne wala pratidvandvi antat: thak jaaega aur rakshaatmak dosh nirmit kar lega, jinka laabh mukkebaaj utha sakta hai. aadhunik mukkebaaji mein, rop-a-dop vidhi ko saamaanyat: hatotsaahit kiya jaata hai kyonki adhikaansh mukkebaaj iske jhaanse mein naheen aate aur ek lambe, anuttarit hamle ko jhel paane ki shaareerik kshamata bahut kam mukkebaajon mein hoti hai. haalaanki, haal hi mein, sevan-divijn ke vishv vijeta maini pakveo ne November 2009 mein veltaravet vijeta migvel kauto ki shakti ka anumaan karne ke liye kushalataapoorvak is rananeeti ka prayog kiya tha. pakveo ne rop-a-dop chaal ka samaapan ek naukadaaun ke dvaara kiya.
  • bolo-panch : olimpik mukkebaaji mein kabhi-kabhi dikhaai dene wala bolo (bolo) bhujaaon se maara jaane wala ek mukka hai, jo shareer ke bhaar ke sthaanaantaran ke bajaay ek vruttaakaar chaap ko chhota karke apni shakti praapt karta hai; mukke ki vaastavik shakti ke bajaay yeh vichitr kon ke vismaya ke dvaara adhik prabhaav daalne ka prayaas karta hai. kisi takaneeki kaushal ke bajaay yeh ek tikdm adhik hai; is mukke ka prashikshan naheen diya jaata kyonki mukkebaaji mein takaneeki roop se yeh Ali shafal ke hi star par hai. iske baavajood, kuchh peshevar mukkebaajon ne bahut prabhaavi dhang se bolo-panch ka prayog kiya hai, jinmein poorv veltaravet vijeta shugar re liyonaard aur kid gaiviln shaamil hain. midlavet vijeta seferino gaarshiya ko bolo-panch ka aavishkaarak maana jaata hai.
  • ovarahaind right (Overhand right) : ovarahaind right ek aisa mukka hai, jo har mukkebaaj ke shasraagaar mein naheen paaya jaata. daahine kraus ke vipreet, jismein jameen ke samaanaantar ek vakr rekha hoti hai, ovarahaind right mein ek vruttaakaar paashayukt chaap hota hai kyonki ise kandhe-ke-oopar se feinka jaata hai aur panja mukkebaaj ki vipreet disha mein hota hai. yeh vishesh roop se chhote kad vaale mukkebaajon ke beech lokapriya hai, jo apne se lambe kad vaale pratidvandviyon tak pahunchane ka prayaas kar rahe hon. jin mukkebaajon ne satat roop se va prabhaavi taur par is mukke ka prayog kiya hai, unamein poorv heveevet vijeta rauki maarsiyaano tatha tim vidraspoon shaamil hain. ovarahaind right aise anya mukaabalon mein ek lokapriya hathiyaar ban gaya hai, jinmein mutthiyon se prahaar karna shaamil hota hai.
  • check hook : ek check hook ka prayog aakraaman mukkebaajon ke jhapatte se bachane ke liye kiya jaata hai. check hook ke do bhaag hote hain. pehle bhaag mein ek saamaanya hook hota hai. doosra bhaag ek yuktipoorn bhaag hai, jismein pairon ki gatividhi shaamil hoti hai. jab pratidvandvi jhapatta maarta hai, to mukkebaaj ko apna hook maarana chaahiye aur apne baayein pair ko dhuri banaate hue apna daahina pair 180 ansh ke kon par ghumaana chaahiye. yadi ise sahi dhang se kriyaanvit kiya jaae, to aakraamak mukkebaaj jhapatta maarega aur jis prakaar koi saand lakshya se chook jaata hai, usi prakaar vah mukkebaaj koi haani pahunchaae bina apne pratidvandvi ke paar nikal jaaega. vyaavasaayik mukkebaaji mein ise dekha jaana durlabh hi hai kyonki iska prayog karne ke liye kushalata ke ek asaadhaaran star ki aavashyakta hoti hai. takaneeki taur par to yeh kaha jaata hai ki check hook jaisi koi cheej naheen hoti aur yeh pratidvandvi ke khilaaf prayukt ek hook maatr hai jismein aage ki or jhatka dete hue apne pratidvandvi ke paar nikla jaata hai, jo beech mein use keval hook kar deta hai. anya logon ka tark hai ki check hook ka astitv to hai, lekin yeh ek avaidh mukka hai kyonki yeh dhuri ke aadhaar par maara jaane wala ek mukka hai, jiska prayog is khel mein avaidh hai.

flaaed mevedar junior ne Ricky haitan ke khilaaf ek check hook ka prayog kiya tha, jiske parinaamasvaroop pehle haitan ka sir kone par sthit khanbe se takaraaya aur fir unhein naukadaaun kar diya gaya. naukadaaun ke baad bhi haitan pun: apne pairon par khade ho paane mein safal rahe, lekin spasht roop se ve stabdh dikhaai de rahe the aur kuchh hi kshanon baad mevedar ne mukkon ki jhadi laga di, jiske kaaran haitan kainavaas par gir pade aur mevedar ko dasvein chakr mein ek ti ke O (TKO) jeet tatha haitan ko unki aaj tak ki pehli haar mili.

kona

mukkebaaji mein, pratyek khilaadi ko ring mein ek kona diya jaata hai, jahaan vah chakron ke beech vishraam karta hai aur jahaan prashikshak khade rahate hain. vishisht roop se, kone mein svat: mukkebaaj ke atirikt teen log khade rahate hain; ye hain, prashikshak, sahaayak prashikshak tatha katamain. saamaanyat: prashikshak va sahaayak mukkebaaj ko is baare mein salaah dete hain ki vah kahaan galati kar raha hai aur yadi vah haar raha ho, to usaka hausala badhaate hain. katamain ek tvacha-chikitsak hota hai, jiski jimmedaari mukkebaaj ke chehare aur aankhon ko ghaavon aur khoon se mukt rakhane ki hoti hai. yeh vishesh roop se mahatvapoorn hai kyonki anek mukaabale aise ghaavon ke kaaran rok diye jaate hain, jinse mukkebaaj ki aankhon par aaghaat hone ka bhaya ho.

iske atirikt, yadi kone mein khade log yeh mahasoos karein ki unke khilaadi par kisi sthaayi chot ka gambhir khatra hai, tab bhi khel ko rukavaana unki jimmedaari hoti hai. kabhi-kabhi kone mein khade log ek safed tauliya bhi fekeinge, jo ek mukkebaaj ke aatm-samarpan ko soochit karta hai (muhaavaredaar vaakyaansh "tauliya feinkana", jiska arth haar maan lena hota hai, isi vidhi se bana hai).[33] ise diyego kaurels aur flaayad mevedar ke beech hui ladaai mein dekha ja sakta hai. us ladaai mein, kaurels ke kone mein khade logon ne kaurels ke drudh inkaar ke baavajood aatm-samarpan kar diya tha.

chikitseeya chintaaen

kisi vyakti ko mukka maarkar behosh kar dene ya yahaan tak ki kam gambhir aaghaat lagaane par bhi sthaayi roop se mastishk ko kshati pahunch sakti hai.[34] is baat ka koi spasht vibhaajan naheen hai ki kisi vyakti ko giraane ke liye kitne bal ki aavashyakta hai aur kitna bal lagaane par kisi vyakti ki maut ho sakti hai. 1980 se, ring ke bheetar ya prashikshan ke dauraan lagi choton ke kaaran 200 se adhik shaukiya aur vyaavasaayik mukkebaaj aur tafamain khilaadiyon ki maut ho chuki hai.[35] at: 1983 mein journal of the American medical esosiyeshan (Journal of the American Medical Association) ne mukkebaaji ko pratibandhit karne ki maang ki thi. iske sampaadak Doctor George lundabarg ne mukkebaaji ko ek "foohadta" kraar diya, "jise kisi bhi sabhya samaaj dvaara sveekaar naheen kiya jaana chaahiye."[36] tabhi se, british,[37] Canadai[38] aur Australiaee[39] medical esosiyeshan bhi mukkebaaji ko pratibandhit karne ki maang kar rahe hain.

is pratibandh ke samarthakon ka tark hai ki mukkebaaji hi ek maatr aisa khel hai, jiska lakshya hi doosare khilaadi ko haani pahunchaana hai. british medical esosiyeshan (British Medical Association) ke mukkebaaji pravakta Doctor bill O' neel ne mukkebaaji par bi M A (BMA) ke prastaavit pratibandh ka samarthan kiya hai: "yeh akela aisa khel hai, jiska lakshya aapke pratidvandvi ko gambhir chot pahunchaana hota hai aur ham yeh mahasoos karte hain ki hamein avashya hi mukkebaaji ko poorn-roop se pratibandhit kar dena chaahiye."[40] 2007 mein, shaukiya mukkebaajon par kiye gaye ek adhyayan ne darshaaya ki sir par pahane jaane vaale rakshaatmak kavach ne mastishk ko hone waali kshati se raksha naheen ki,[41] aur ek anya adhyayan ne paaya ki shaukiya mukkebaajon mein mastishk ki kshati ka atyadhik khatra tha.[42]

1997 mein, mukkebaaji mein hone waali choton ko rokane ke liye anusandhaan tatha shiksha ke maadhyam se chikitseeya protokaul nirmit karne ke liye American esosiyeshan of profeshanal ringasaaid fijishiyns (American Association of Professional Ringside Physicians) ki sthaapana ki gayi.[43][44]

Norway, aaisalaind, kyooba, iraan aur uttari Korea mein vyaavasaayik mukkebaji pratibandhit hai. abhi haal[kab?] tak yeh sveedan mein pratibandhit thi, jab pratibandh to hata liya gaya, lekin kadi shartein, jinmein mukaabalon ke liye teen-minute ke chaar chakr rakhane sahit, laad di gain[tathya vaanchhit].

mukkebaaji ke hall of fame

mukkebaaji ke khel ke do antarraashtreeya taur par sveekrut boxing hall of fame hain; intaranaishanal boxing hall of fame (International Boxing Hall of Fame) (aaibeeechaoef) (IBHOF) aur world boxing hall of fame (World Boxing Hall of Fame) (dablyoobeeechaef) (WBHF), jinmein se I O bi H ef (IOBHF) adhik vyaapak roop se maanya boxing hall of fame hai.

dablyoo bi H ef (WBHF) ki sthaapana 1980 mein evaret L. saindars ke dvaara ki gayi thi. apne janm se hi dablyoo bi H ef (WBHF) ka kabhi bhi koi sthaayi kaaryaalaya ya sangrahaalaya naheen raha hai, jiske kaaran adhik haaliya I bi H ho ef (IBHOF) ko jyaada lokapriyta aur sammaan praapt karne ka mauka mila hai. dablyoo bi H ef (WBHF) ke ullekhaneeya naamon mein rikaardo "finito" lopej, gaibriyl "flaish" elored, Michael kaarbaajal, khaaosaai galaxy, henari aarmastraung, Jack Johnson, raubarto dyuraan, George foramain, kaiferino gaarshiya aur sailvaador saanchej shaamil hain. mukkebaaji ka antarraashtreeya hall of fame 1982 mein ek Amreeki kasbe dvaara do sthaaneeya naayakon ke liye aayojit ek sammaan samaaroh se prerit tha. yeh nagar, kainestota, New York (jo New York state throove se hokar sirekyooj ke poorv mein lagbhag 15 meal (24 kimi) ki doori par sthit hai), ne veltaravet/midilvet ke poorv vishv-vijeta kaarmen baisiliyo aur unke bhateeje, poorv vishv heveevet vijeta bili baikkas ko sammaanit kiya. kainestota ke logon ne is sammaan samaaroh ke liye dhan ekatr kiya, jisse ullekhaneeya mukkebaajon ke liye ek aadhikaarik, vaarshik hall of fame banaane ke vichaar ki prerana mili.

1989 mein kainestota mein intaranaishanal boxing hall of fame ka udaghaatan hua. 1990 mein ismein shaamil hone vaale sabse pehle mukkebaajon mein Jack jaunsan, beni liyonaard, Jack dempasi, henari aarmastraung, shugar re raubinsan, aarchi moor aur muhammad Ali shaamil the. vishv-star ki anya shakhsiyton mein raubarto "mainos de peedra" dyuraan, rikaardo lopej, gaibriyl "flaish" elaurd, vaaiseinte saaldivr, ismaael laigyuna, yusbiyo pedroja, kaarlos maunjaun, ajumaah nelsan, rauki maarsiyaano, paaipino kyuvaas aur ken bukaanan shaamil hain. prativrsh June mein chaar-dinon ke ek aayojan ke bhaag ke roop mein hall of fame mein pravesh ka kaaryakram aayojit kiya jaata hai.

pravesh saptaahaant ke liye kainestota aane vaale prashansakon ke liye anek kaaryakram aayojit kiye jaate hain, jinmein hastaakshar satr, mukkebaaji ke pradarshan, poorv tatha vartamaan praveshadhaariyon ko pradarshit karne waali ek parade aur svat: pravesh aayojan shaamil hain.

sanchaalan va anumodan nikaaya

1920 se chainpiyans ki sabse mahatvapoorn sanghon ke haiveevet mukkebaaji ke saath
sanchaalan nikaaya website
british boxing board of kantrol (British Boxing Board of Control) (beebeebeeofasi) (BBBofC) http://www.bbbofc.com/
nevaada state ethaletik commission (Nevada State Athletic Commission) http://boxing.nv.gov/
American esosiyeshan of profeshanal ringasaaid fijishiyns (Amrican Association of Professional Ringside Physicians)(eepeeaarapi) (AAPRP) http://www.aaprp.org/
yooropiyn boxing union http://www.boxebu.com/
anumodan sanstha website
world boxing esosiyeshan (World Boxing Association) (dablyoo.bi.A.) (W.B.A.) http://www.wbaonline.com/
world boxing kaaunsil (world Boxing Council) (dablyoo.bi.si.) (W.B.C.) http://www.wbcboxing.com/
intaranaishanal boxing federation (International Boxing Federation)(I.bi.ef.) (I.B.F.) http://www.ibf-usba-boxing.com/
world boxing organaaijeshan (World Boxing Organization)(dablyoo.bi.O.) (W.B.O.) http://www.wbo-int.com/
world profeshanal boxing federation (World Professional Boxing Federation)(dablyoo.pi.bi.ef.) (W.P.B.F.) http://www.wpbf-usbc.org/

inhein bhi dekhein

  • svachaalit mukkebaaji scoring pranaali
  • greeshmakaaleen olanpik mein mukkebaaji
  • mukkebaaji prashikshan
  • mukkebaaji vajan
  • helamet mukkebaaji
  • maujooda vishv champion mukkebaaji ki soochi
  • mahila mukkebaajon ki soochi
  • mukkebaaji ke tripl chainpiyans ki soochi
  • enaseeee (NCAA) mukkebaaji championship
  • pars boli
  • white kaular mukkebaaji
  • mahila ki mukkebaaji
  • America ant: mukkebaaji champion

nots

  1. a aa i boxing ke liye vishvakosh britainika ka pravesh
  2. boxing enshiyant history & kaartoon fan fraum braaunirauks
  3. homar, iliyd, 23.655-696
  4. varjil, enid, 5.421
  5. BBC (BBC). the orijins of boxing, BBC (BBC) history
  6. James fig, aaibeeoechaऍf (IBOHF)
  7. John reni (2006) East London praaij ring rools 1743
  8. benaami ("ek manaaya baaksar"), the Art end practice of boxing, 1825
  9. dainiyl meindoja, the modern Art of boxing, 1790
  10. kle moyle aur aarli elan (2006) 1838 praaij rools
  11. laaibreri of Congress ki inveinting entaratenameint (Inventing Entertainment) shaikshanik website ka liyonaard-kushing mukaabale wala bhaag.]][[chitr:Leonard Cushing Kinetograph 1894.ogv|12/14/96 ko liya gaya.
  12. britainika vishvakosh (2006). kveensabari rools, britaanika
  13. tresi kaalis (2006). James kaurbet, Cyberboxingzone.com
  14. Andrew eisele (2005). olympic boxing rools, About.com
  15. bauksarek boxing rikaard
  16. bauksarek boxing rikaard
  17. bart rainadolf shugar (2001). "boxing", world book online amerikaas edishn Owingsmillsboxingclub.com
  18. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, prushth 162
  19. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, prushth 254
  20. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, prushth 384
  21. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, prushth 120
  22. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, prushth 204
  23. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, prushth 337
  24. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, prushth 403
  25. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, prushth 353,
  26. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, prushth 114, 115
  27. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, prushth 50
  28. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, prushth 293
  29. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, "daugh graant",2008 prushth 330
  30. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, prushth 98, 99
  31. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, prushth 75
  32. James raubarts aur Alexander skat, the boxing rajistar, 1999, prushth 339, 340
  33. Phrases.org
  34. boxing bren daimej , BBC (BBC) news
  35. svinth, Joseph aar. "roshani ke tahat maut", electronic jarnals of maarshal Arts aur vigyaan, 25 November 2007 ko pun:praapt
  36. laindabarg, George di. "mukkebaaji sabhya deshon mein pratibandhit kar diya jaana chaahiye." journal of the American medical association . 1983, peepi. 249-250.
  37. BMA.org.uk
  38. CMA.ca
  39. CMA.ca
  40. news on boxing ban BBC (BBC) online
  41. "Amateur boxers suffer brain damage too". New Scientist (2602): 4. 08 May 2007. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19426023.000-amateur-boxers-suffer-brain-damage-too.html.
  42. "Does Amateur Boxing Cause Brain Damage?". American Academy of Neurology. May 2, 2007. http://www.aan.com/press/index.cfm?fuseaction=release.view&release=470.
  43. American association of profeshanal ringasaaid fijishiyans
  44. haujr, Thomas. "medical ishus end the eepeeaarapi" SecondsOut.com, 25 November 2007 ko pun:praapt

sandarbh

  • ekseedeints tech laaivs of yang ailyoomni (July/agast 2005). ilinois ailyoomni,

18 (1), 47.

baahari links

saaaincha:Martial arts saaaincha:World boxing champions saaaincha:Olympic sports