muhammad bin tuglak

muhammad bin tuglak Delhi saltanat mein tuglak vansh ka shaasak tha. gyaasuddeen tuglak ki mrutyu ke baad usaka putr 'joona khaaain', muhammad bin tuglak (1325-1351 E.) ke naam se Delhi ki gaddi par baitha. iska mool naam 'uloog khaaain' tha. raajaamundari ke ek abhilekh mein muhammad tuglak (jauna ya joona khaaain) ko duniya ka Khan kaha gaya hai. sambhavat: madhyakaaleen sabhi sultaanon mein muhammad tuglak sarvaadhik shikshit, vidvaan evam yogya vyakti tha. apni sanak bhari yojanaaon, kroor-krutyon evam doosare ke sukh-dukh ke prati upeksha ka bhaav rakhane ke kaaran ise 'svapnasheel', 'paagal' evam 'rakt-pipaasu' kaha gaya hai. barani, sarahindi, nijaamuddeen, badaayoonni evam frishta jaise itihaasakaaron ne sultaan ko adharmi ghoshit kiya gaya hai.

anukram

pad vyavastha

sinhaasan par baithane ke baad tuglak ne ameeron evam saradaaron ko vibhinn upaadhiyaaain evam pad pradaan kiya. usane taataar khaaain ko 'baharaam khaaain' ki upaadhi, malik kbool ko 'imaad-ul-mulk' ki upaadhi evam 'vajeer-A-mumaalik' ka pad diya tha, par kaalaantar mein use 'khaanejahaaain' ki upaadhi ke saath Gujarat ka haakim banaaya gaya. usane malik arooyaaj ko khwaaja jahaan ki upaadhi ke saath 'shahana-A-imaarat' ka pad, maulaana gyaasuddeen ko (sultaan ka adhyaapak) 'kutulug khaaain' ki upaadhi ke saath 'vakeel-A-dar' ki padavi, apne chachere bhaai firoj shaah tuglak ko 'naayab baarabak' ka pad pradaan kiya tha.

gunavaan vyakti

muhammad bin tuglak Delhi ke sabhi sultaanon mein sarvaadhik kushaagr, buddhi sampann, dharm-nirepaksh, kala-premi evam anubhavi senaapati tha. vah arabi bhaasha evam faarasi bhaasha ka viddhaan tatha khagolashaastr, darshan, ganit, chikitsa, vigyaan, tarkashaastr aadi mein paarangat tha. alaauddeen khilji ki bhaaainti apne shaasan kaal ke praarambh mein usane, na to khleefa se apne pad ki sveekruti li aur na ulema varg ka sahayog liya, yadyapi baad me aisa karna pada. usane nyaaya vibhaag par ulema varg ka ekaadhiptya samaapt kiya. kaaji ke jis faisale se vah santusht naheen hota tha, use badal deta tha. sarvapratham muhammad tuglak ne hi bina kisi bhedabhaav ke yogyata ke aadhaar par padon ka aavantan kiya. nasl aur varg-vibhed ko samaapt karke yogyata ke aadhaar par adhikaariyon ko niyukt karne ki neeti apanaayi. vastut: yeh us shaasak ka durbhaagya tha ki, usaki yojanaaen safalataapoorvak kriyaanvit naheen hui. jiske kaaran yeh itihaasakaaron ki aalochna ka paatr bana.

Delhi saltanat

muhammad tuglak ke sinhaasan par baithate samay Delhi saltanat kul 23 praanton mein bainta thi, jinmein mukhya the - Delhi, devagiri, Lahore, multaan, saramuti, Gujarat, avadh, kannauj, lakhanauti, Bihar, maalava, jaajanagar (udeesa), dvaarasamudr aadi. Kashmir evam baloochistaan Delhi saltanat mein shaamil naheen the. Delhi saltanat ki seema ka sarvaadhik vistaar isi ke shaasanakaal mein hua tha. parantu iski kroor neeti ke kaaran raajya mein vidroh aarambh ho gaya. jiske falasvaroop dakshin mein nae svatantr raajya ki sthaapana hui aur ye kshetr Delhi saltanat se alag ho gaye. Bengal bhi svatantr ho gaya. raajyaarohan ke baad muhammad tuglak ne kuchh naveen yojanaaon ka nirmaan kar unhein kriyaanvit karne ka prayatn kiya. jaise -

  • doaab kshetr mein kar vruddhi (1326-27 i॰)
  • rajdhani parivartan (1326-27 i॰)
  • saanketik mudra ka prachalan (1329-30 i॰)
  • khuraasan evam kaaraachil ka abhiyaan aadi.

doaab kshetr mein kar vruddhi

apni pratham yojana ke dvaara muhammad tuglak ne doaab ke oopajaaoo pradesh mein kar ki vruddhi kar di (sanbhavat: 50 pratishat), parantu usi varsh doaab mein bhayankar akaal pad gaya, jisse paidaavaar prabhaavit hui. tuglak ke adhikaariyon dvaara jbaran kar vasoolane se us kshetr mein vidroh ho gaya, jisse tuglak ki yeh yojana asafal rahi. muhammad tuglak ne krushi ke vikaas ke liye 'ameer-A-kohi' naamak ek naveen vibhaag ki sthaapana ki. sarkaari karmachaariyon ke bhrashtaachaar, kisaanon ki udaaseenata, bhoomi ka achha na hona ityaadi kaaranon se krushi unnati sambandhi apni yojana ko teen varsh pashchaat samaapt kar diya. muhammad bin tuglak ne kisaanon ko bahut kam byaaj par rin (sonathar) upalabdh karaaya.

rajdhani parivartan

tuglak ne apni doosari yojana ke antargat rajdhani ko Delhi se devagiri sthaanaantarit kiya. devagiri ko “akuvvatul islaama” bhi kaha gaya. sultaan kutubuddeen mubaarak khilji ne devagiri ka naam 'kutubaabaad' rakha tha aur muhammad bin tuglak ne iska naam badalkar daulataabaad kar diya. sultaan ki is yojana ke liye sarvaadhik aalochna ki gayi. muhammad tuglak dvaara rajdhani parivartan ke kaaranon par itihaasakaaron mein bada vivaad hai, fir bhi nishkarshat: kaha ja sakta hai ki, devagiri ka Delhi saltanat ke madhya sthit hona, mangol aakramanakaariyon ke bhaya se surakshit rahana, dakshin-Bhaarat ki sampannata ki or khinchaav aadi aise kaaran the, jinke kaaran sultaan ne rajdhani parivrtit karne ki baat sochi. muhammad tuglak ki yeh yojana bhi poornat: asafal rahi aur usane 1335 E. mein daulataabaad se logon ko Delhi vaapas aane ki anumati de di. rajdhani parivartan ke parinaamasvaroop dakshin mein muslim sanskruti ka vikaas hua, jisne antat: bahamani saamraajya ke udaya ka maarg khola.

saanketik mudra ka prachalan

teesari yojana ke antargat muhammad tuglak ne saanketik va prateekaatmak sikkon ka prachalan karavaaya. sikke sambandhi vividh prayogon ke kaaran hi Edward taamas ne use 'dhanavaanon ka Rajkumar' kaha hai. muhammad tuglak ne 'dokaani' naamak sikke ka prachalan karavaaya. barani ke anusaar sambhavat: sultaan ne raajakosh ki riktata ke kaaran evam apni saamraajya vistaar ki neeti ko safal banaane hetu saanketik mudra ka prachalan karavaaya. saanketik mudra ke antargat sultaan ne sanbhavat: peetal (frishta ke anusaar) aur taanba (barani ke anusaar) dhaatuon ke sikke chalaaye, jiska moolya chaandi ke rupaye taka ke baraabar hota tha. sikka dhaalane par raajya ka niyantran naheen rahane se anek jaali takasaal ban gaye. lagaan jaali sikke se diya jaane laga, jisse arthavyavasatha thapp ho gayi. saanketik mudra chalaane ki prerana cheen tatha Iran se mili. vahaaain ke shaasakon ne in yojanaaon ko safalataapoorvak chalaaya, jabki muhammad tuglak ka prayog vifal raha. sultaan ko apni is yojana ki asafalata par bhayaanak aarthik kshati ka saamana karna pada.

khuraasaan evam karaachil abhiyaan

chauthi yojana ke antargat muhammad tuglak ke khuraasaan evam karaachil vijay abhiyaan ka ullekh kiya jaata hai. khuraasan ko jeetne ke liye muhammad tuglak ne 3,70,000 sainikon ki vishaal sena ko ek varsh ka agrim vetan de diya, parantu raajaneetik parivartan ke kaaran donon deshon ke madhya samjhauta ho gaya, jisse sultaan ki yeh yojana asafal rahi aur use aarthik roop se haani uthaani padi. karaachil abhiyaan ke antargat sultaan ne khusaro malik ke netrutv mein ek vishaal sena ko pahaadi raajyon ko jeetne ke liye bheja. usaki poori sena jangali raaston mein bhatak gayi, ibn batoota ke anusaar antat: keval teen adhikaari hi bachakar vaapas aa sake. is prakaar muhammad tuglak ki yeh yojana bhi asafal rahi. sambhavat: 1328-29 E. ke madhya mangol aakramanakaari taramaashareen chagtaai ne ek vishaal sena ke saath Bhaarat par aakraman kar multaan, Lahore se lekar Delhi tak ke pradeshon ko raund daala. aisa maana jaata hai ki, sultaan muhammad tuglak ne mangol neta ko ghoos dekar vaapas kar diya tha. is neeti ke kaaran sultaan ko aalochna ka shikaar banana pada. iske baad fir kabhi muhammad tuglak ke samay mein Bhaarat par mangol aakraman naheen hua. apni mahattvaakaankshi asafal yojanaaon ke kaaran muhammad tuglak ko 'asafalataaon ka baadshah' kaha jaata hai.

mahattvapoorn vidroh

muhammad bin tuglak ke shaasan kaal mein sabse adhik (34) vidroh hue, jinmein se 27 vidroh akele dakshin Bhaarat mein hi hue. sultaan muhammad tuglak ke shaasan kaal mein hue kuchh mahattvapoorn vidrohon ka saaraansh nimnalikhit hain- pratham vidroh 1327 E. mein tuglak ke chachere bhaai sultaan gurashaasp ne kiya, jo gulabarg ke nikat saagar ka soobedaar tha. vah sultaan dvaara buri tarah se paraajit kiya gaya. muhammad tuglak ke viruddh sindh tatha multaan ke soobedaar baharaam aaiba oorf kishloo khaaain ne 1327-1328 E. mein vidroh kiya. Sayyed jalaaluddeen hasanashaah ka maalaabaar vidroh 1334-1335 E. mein kiya gaya. Bengal ka vidroh (1330-1331 E.) pramukh hain. Bengal ke vidroh ko yadyapi praarambh mein daba liya gaya tha, kintu 1340-1341 E. ke lagbhag shamsuddeen ke netrutv mein Bengal Delhi saltanat se alag ho gaya. 1337-1338 E. mein kada ke soobedaar nijaam bhaai ka vidroh, 1338-1339 E. mein beedar ke soobedaar, nusarat khaaain ka vidroh, 1339-1340 E. mein gulabarg ke aleeshaah ka vidroh aadi bhi muhammad tuglak ke viruddh kiye gaye vidrohon mein pramukh hain. is tarah ke vidrohon ka sultaan ne safalataapoorvak daman kiya. muhammad tuglak ke shaasanakaal mein hi dakshin mein 1336 E. mein 'harihr' evam 'bukka' naamak do bhaaiyon ne svatantr 'vijyanagar' ki sthaapana ki. afreeki yaatri ibn batoota ko 1333 E. mein muhammad ne apne raajadoot ke roop mein cheen bheja. ibn batoota ne apni pustak 'rehala' mein muhammad tuglak ke samay ki ghatnaaon ka varnan kiya hai. muhammad tuglak dhaarmik roop mein sahishnu tha. jain vidvaan evam sant 'jinprabhu soori' ko darbaar mein bulaakar sammaan pradaan kiya. muhammad bin tuglak Delhi saltanat ka pratham sultaan tha, jisne hindu tyoharon (holi, deepaavali) mein bhaag liya. Delhi ke prasiddh soofi shekh 'shihaabuddeen' ko 'deevaan-A-mustakharaaj' niyukt kiya tatha shekh 'muijuddeen' ko Gujarat ka Governor tatha 'saiyyad kalaamuddeen ameer kirmaani' ko sena mein niyukt kiya. shekh 'nijaamuddeen chiraag-A-Delhi' sultaan ke virodhiyon mein ek the.

mrutyu

apne shaasan kaal ke antim samay mein jab sultaan muhammad tuglak Gujarat mein vidroh ko kuchal kar taargi ko samaapt karne ke liye sindh ki or badha, to maarg mein thatta ke nikat gondaal pahuainchakar vah gambhir roop se beemaar ho gaya. yahaaain par sultaan ki 20 March 1351 ko mrutyu ho gayi. uske marne ke par itihaasakaar badaayoonni ne kaha ki, “asaltaan ko usaki praja se aur praja ko apne sultaan se mukti mil gayi.” isaami ne sultaan muhammad bin tuglak ko islaam dharm ka virodhi bataaya hai. dau॰ ishvari prasaad ne uske baare mein kaha hai ki, “amadhya yug mein raajamukut dhaaran karne vaalon mein muhammad tuglak, ni:sandeh yogya vyakti tha. muslim shaasan ki sthaapana ke pashchaat Delhi ke sinhaasan ko sushobhit karne vaale shaasakon mein vah sarvaadhik viddhaan evam susanskrut shaasak tha.” usane apne sikkon par “aal sultaan jilli allaaha”, “asultaan ishvar ki chhaayaa”, sultaan ishvar ka samarthak hai, aadi vaakya ko ankit karavaaya. muhammad bin tuglak ek achha kavi aur sangeet premi bhi tha.


Delhi saltanat ke shaasak vansh
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