muft software

free, ya jeepeeeld, ya kaupeelefted sauftaver paryaayavaachi shabd hain.

free, ya jeepeeeld, ya kaupeelefted sauftaver

kuchh log kaupeeraait ka varnan kar computer program ko surakshit is prakaar se kar rahe hain ki na to ve swayam us par koi bhi maalikaana hak rakh rahein hain na hi koi aur vyakti unke dvaara banaaye gaye kan‍aapyootar program par maalikaana adhikaar rakh sakta hai. udaaharanaarth, yadi main koi kan‍aapyootar program likhoon aur usaka sors code aur obajekt code mein is tarah ki ghoshana tatha shart lagaate huye prakaashit karoon ki

  • yeh maine likha hai; aur
  • ismein mera kaupeeraait hai; aur
  • main har vyakti ko is kama‍aapyootar program (sorsakod aur obajekt code) ki kaapi karne, vitran karne, tatha sanshodhan karne ka adhikaar deta hoon. iske liye unhein mujhe koi rauyalati naheen deni hogi;

par iski shart yeh hai ki,

  • yadi vah vyakti kama‍aapyootar program ka sanshodhit karke ya bina sanshodhit kiye vitrit karta hain to use bhi sorsakod aur obajekt code prakaashit karna hoga; aur
  • anya logon ko vahi svatantrata deni hogi jaisi ki mainne use di hai.

ab is ghoshana aur shart ke kaaran na to main swayam na aur koi anya vyakti is kan‍aapyootar program ke prayog karne athva sanshodhan karne hak rakh sakta hai. is tarah ki ghoshana ke dvaara maine sunishchit kar diya hai ki koi anya vyakti bhi iska prayog athva sanshodhan bina kaupeeraait ke ullanghan kiye kar sakta hai. saadhaaranataya:, kaupeeraait ka arth yeh hota hai ki koi anya vyakti usaka prayog athva sanshodhan uske maalik ki anumati ke na kar sake. yahaan kaupeeraait ka prayog karte huye theek iska ulta kaam hua. kaupeeraait ka yadi koi ulta shabd ho sakta hai to vah hai kaupeeleft. yeh ek naya shabd hai aur abhi tak angreji ke shabd kosh mein naheen aaya hai haalaanki computer shabdakosh mein yeh ek prachalit shabd hai. jis kan‍aapyootar program ke laaiseins mein is tarah ki ghoshana aur shart hoti hai use kaupeelefted software kaha jaata hai. is tarah ka software free software, bhi kahalaata hai.

free shabd ka prayog karna richrd staalamen ne shuroo kiya aur yeh aandolan bhi unka hi shuroo kiya gaya hai| ve 1980 ke dashak mein maisaachuset istintyoot of teknauloji mein padhaate the. unke mutaabik pehle kama‍aapyootar prograamar sauftaveyar mein kaapeeraait klem naheen karte the aur bahut aasaani se ek doosare ko apna program de dete the lekin baad mein kamapyootar prograamaron ne apna program ek doosare ko dena band kar diya aur kisi aur ko unke program mein sanshodhan karne ka adhikaar bhi samaapt kar diya. staalamen ko laga ki is tarah se kama‍aapyootar sauftaveyar kuchh khaas logon ke paas rah jaayega aur usaka sarvaangeen vikaas naheen ho paayega. isaliye un‍aahonne apna in‍aas‍aateetayoot ko chhod kar ghanyoo projek‍aat (GNU project), free saurs faaundeshan (Free Source Foundation) ke antargat shuroo kiya| ismein us tarah ke sauftaveyar likhne shuru kiye jo ki kaupeelefted hon.

unhonne is tarah ke saaftaveyar ko free-sauftaveyar ka naam diya| yeh isaliye, kyon ki unke mutaabik ismein logon ko kama‍aapyootar program ya sauftaveyar ko sanshodhan karne ki svatantrata hai unka kehna hai ki free ko aise mat socho jaisa free beer mein hai par aise dekho jaisa ki freedom of speech mein hai| free saurs faaundeshan ki vebasaait ke mutaabik, unhi ke shabdon mein 'Free software' is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of 'free' as in 'free speech', not as in 'free beer'

free tatha jeepeeeld (GPLed) sauftaver ki shartein

free ya kaapeelefated sauftaveyar mein nimn baatein mukhya hain - ismein sors code hamesha prakaashit kiya jaata hai is tarah ke sauftaveyar ke liye koi paisa ya rauyalti naheen deni padti hai par yadi uske sambandh mein yadi aap koi service de rahein hai to service dene ka paisa le sakte hain| is tarah ke sauftaveyar ko koi bhi sanshodhit kar sakta hai is tarah ke sauftaveyar ko sanshodhan karne ke baad prakaashit karne ya baatanne ki koi aavashyakta nahi hai| aap use bina prakaashit ya baatein apne sangathan mein prayog kar sakte hain| par yadi is tarah ke sauftaveyar ko bina sanshodhan kiye ya sanshodhit karne ke baad baanta jaata hai to usamein vahi shartein raheingeen jo ki pehle theen yaani ki sorsakod prakaashit karna padega; anya logon ko sanshodhan karne ki svatantrata deni hogi; tatha sauftaveyar ke liye koi paisa ya rauyalti naheen li ja sakti hai|

staalamen ne kuchh vakeelon ki madad se general pablik license (General Public License) (GPL) likha, jismein is tarah ki ghoshana evam shart hai jo kisi bhi saafataveyar ko kaupeeleft karta hai| isaliye is tarah ke sauftaver ko jeepeeeld (GPLed) sauftaver bhi kaha jata hai| yaani ki free sauftaver ya kaupeelefted sauftaver ya geepeeeld sauftaver ek hi tarah ke sauftaver ke paryaayavaachi shabd hain|