mudran ka itihaas

saamaanyat: mudran ka arth chhapaai se hai, jo kaagaj, kapda, plastic, taat ityaadi par ho sakta hai. daakagharon mein lifaafon, postakaardon va rajistard chitthiyon par lagne waali muhar ko bhi 'mudran' kehte hain. prasiddh angreji vidvaan Charles diknas ne mudran ki mahatta ko bataate hue kaha hai ki svatantr vyakti ke vyaktitv ko banaae rakhane mein mudran mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaati hai. praarambhik yug mein mudran ek kala tha, lekin aadhunik yug mein poornataya takaneeki aadhaarit ho gaya hai. mudran kala patrakaarita ke kshetr mein pushpit, pallavit, viksit tatha takaneeki ke roop mein parivrteet hui hai.

vaidik siddhaant ke anusaar- parameshvar ki ichha se brahmaand ki rachana aur jeevon ki utpatti hui. iske baad 'dhvani' prakat hua. dhvani se 'akshar' tatha aksharon se chshabdaj banein. shabdon ke yog ko 'vaakya' kaha gaya. iske baad pita se putr aur guroo se shishya tak vichaaron, bhaavanaaon, maton va jaankaariyon ka aadaan-pradaan hone laga. bhaarateeya rishi-muniyon ne sunane ki kriya ko shruti aur samajhne ko prakriya ko smruti ka naam diya. gyaan ke prasaar ka yeh tareeka aseemit tatha asantoshajanak tha, jiske kaaran maanav ne apne poorvajon aur guroojanon ke shreshth vichaaron, maton va jaankaariyon ko lipibddh karne ki aavashyakta mahasoos ki. iske liye lipi ka aavishkaar kiya tatha pattharon va vrukshon ki chhaalon par khodakar likhne laga. is takaneeki se bhi vichaaron ko adhik dinon tak surakshit rakhana sambhav naheen tha. iske baad lakdi ko nukila chheelakar taadpatron aur bhojapatron par likhne ki prakriya praarambh hui. praacheen kaal ke anek granth bhojapatron par likhe mile hain.

san 105 E. mein cheeni naagrik tas-tsaai loon ne kapas evam salamal ki sahayata se kaagaj ka aavishkaar hua. san 712 E. mein cheen mein ek seemaabaddh evam spasht block printing ki shurooaat hui. iske liye lakdi ka block banaaya gaya. cheen mein hi san 650 E. mein heerak sootr naamak sansaar ki pehli mudrit pustak prakaashit ki gayi. san 1041 E. mein cheen ke pai sheing naamak vyakti ne cheeni mitti ki madad se aksharon ko taiyaar kiya. in aksharon ko aadhunik taaipon ka aadi roop maana ja sakta hai. cheen mein hi duniya ka pehla mudran sthaapit hua, jismein lakdi ke taaipon ka prayog kiya gaya tha. taaipon ke oopar syaahi jaise padaarth ko potakar kaagaj ke oopar dabaakar chhapaai ka kaam kiya jaata tha.

is prakaar, mudran ke aavishkaar aur vikaas ka shreya cheen ko jaata hai. yeh kala Europe mein cheen se gayi athva vahaan svatantr roop se viksit huyi, iske sandarbh mein koi adhikaarik vivran upalabdh naheen hai. ek anumaan ke mutaabik kaagaj banaane ki kala cheen se arab deshon mein tatha vahaan se Europe mein pahunchi hogi. ek anya anumaan ke mutaabik 14veen-15veen sadi ke dauraan Europe mein mudran-kala ka svatantr roop se vikaas hua. us samay Europe mein bade-bade chitrakaar hote the. unke chitron ki svatantr pratikriya ko taiyaar karna kathin kaarya tha. ise sheeghrataapoorvak naheen kiya ja sakta tha. at: lakdi athva dhaatu ki chaadaron par chitron ko uker kar thappa banaaya jaane laga, jis par syaahi lagaakar poorvokt reeti se thappe ko do takhton ke beech dabaakar unke chitron ki pratiyaan taiyaar ki jaati thi. is tarah ke aksharon ki chhapaai ka kaam aasaan naheen tha. aksharon ko uker kar unke chhappe taiyaar karna bada hi mushkil kaam tha. usamein kharch bhi bahut jyaada padta tha. fir bhi usaki chhapaai achhi naheen hoti thi. in asuvidhaaon ne Germany ke lareins jeinsajon ko chhutte type banaane ki prerana di. in taaipon ka prayog sarvapratham san 1400 E. mein Europe mein hua.

Germany ke John gutenabarg ne san 1440 E. mein aise taaipon ka aavishkaar kiya, jo badal-badalkar vibhinn saamagri ko bahusankhya mein mudrit kar sakta tha. is prakaar ke taaipon ko punaraavatrtak chhaape (ripeetebil print) ke varn kehte hain. iske falasvaroop bahusankhyak janta tak bina rookaavat ke samaachaar aur maton ko pahunchaane ki suvidha mili. is suvidha ko kaayam rakhane ke liye baraabar tatpar rahane ka uttaradaayitv lekhakon aur patrakaaron par pada. John gutenabarg ne hi san 1454-55 E. mein duniya ka pehla chhaapaakhaana (printing-press) lagaaya tatha san 1456 E. mein baaibil ki 300 pratiyon ko prakaashit kar peris bheja. is pustak ki mudran tithi 14 August 1456 nirdhaarit ki gayi hai. John gutenabarg ke chhaapaakhaane se ek baar mein 600 pratiyaan taiyaar ki ja sakti thi. parinaamat: 50-60 varshon ke andar Europe mein kareeb do karod pustakein print ho gayi thi.

is prakaar, mudran kala Germany se aarambh hokar Europeeya deshon mein fail gayi. kolane, aagajavarg besah, tom, penis, entavarn, peris aadi mein mudran ke pramukh kendra bane. san 1475 E. mein sar William kekastan ke prayaason ke chalte Britain ka pehla press sthaapit hua. Britain mein raajanaitik aur dhaarmik ashaanti ke kaaran chhaapaakhaane ki suvidha sarkaar ke niyantran mein thi. ise svatantr roop se sthaapit karne ke liye sarkaar se vidhivt aajnyaa lena bada hi kathin kaarya tha. Portugal mein iski shurooaat san 1544 E. mein hui.

mudran ke itihaas ki padtaal se spasht hai ki chhaapaakhaana ka vikaas dhaarmik-kraanti ke daur mein hua. yeh suvidha milne ke baad dhaarmik granth bade hi aasaani se jan-saamaanya tak pahunchane lage. in dhaarmik granthon ka vibhinn deshon ki bhaashaaon mein anuvaad karke prakaashit hone lage. poortagaali dharm prachaar ke liye mudran takaneeki ko san 1556 E. mein Goa laaye aur dharmagranthon ko prakaashit karne lage. san 1561 E. mein Goa mein prakaashit baaibil pustak ki ek prati aaj bhi New York laaibreri mein surakshit hai. isse utsaahit hokar bhaarateeyon ne bhi apne dharmagranthon ko prakaashit karne ka saahas dikhlaaya. bheem ji paarekh pratham bhaarateeya the, jinhonne deev mein san 1670 E. mein ek udyog ke roop mein press shuroo kiya.

san 1638 E. mein paadari jese globharale ne ek chhaapaakhaana jahaaj mein laadakar sanyukt raajya America ke liye prasthaan kiya, lekin raaste mein hi usaki mrutyu ho gayi. uske baad unke sahayogi myaashyu aur ritefen de ne ukt chhaapaakhaana (printing-press) ko sthaapit kiya. san 1798 E. mein lohe ke press ka aavishkaar hua, jismein ek livr ke dvaara adhik sankhya mein pratiyaan prakaashit karne ki suvidha thi. san 1811 E. ke aas-paas gol ghoomane vaale silendar chalaane ke liye bhaap ki shakti ka istemaal hone laga, jise aajkal rotari press kaha jaata hai. haalaanki iska poori tarah se vikaas san 1848 E. ke aas-paas hua. 19veen sadi ke ant tak bijli sanchaalit press ka upayog hone laga, jiske chalte New York times ke 12 pejon ki 96 hajaar pratiyon ka prakaashan ek ghante mein sambhav ho saka. san 1890 E. mein linotaaip ka aavishkaar hua, jismein taaiparaaitar machine ki tarah se aksharon ke set karne ki suvidha thi. san 1890 E. tak America samet kai deshon mein rang-birange block akhbaar chhapane lage. san 1900 E. tak bijli sanchaalit rotari press, linotaaip ki suvidha aur rang-birange chitron ko chhaapane ki suvidha, fotograafi ko chhaapane ki vyavastha hone se sachitr samaachaar patra paathako tak pahunchane lage.

ek drushti mein

  • block dvaara mudran (block printing)
  • steinsil
  • muvebal type
  • chapate aadhaar ke printing press
  • ghoorni printing press (rotari printing press)
  • litho chhapaai (1796)
  • rangeen chhapaai
  • aafaset chhapaai (1870)
  • aavaran mudran (screen printing)
  • fleksograafi
  • fotokaupiyr (1960)
  • lejar mudran (1969)
  • dot maitriks printing (1970)
  • digital press (1993)