mudraaraakshas

mudraaraakshas sanskrut ka aitihaasik naatak hai jiske rachayita vishaakhadatt hain. iski rachana chauthi shataabdi mein hui thi. ismein chaanakya aur chandragupt maurya sambandhi khyaat vrutt ke aadhaar par chaanakya ki raajaneetik safalataaon ka apoorv vishleshan milta hai. is kruti ki rachana poorvavarti sanskrut-naatya parampara se sarvatha bhinn roop mein hui hai- lekhak ne bhaavukata, kalpana aadi ke sthaan par jeevan-sangharsh ke yathaarth ankan par bal diya hai. is mahatvapoorn naatak ko hindi mein sarvapratham anoodit karne ka shreya bhaarateindu harishchandr ko hai. yon unke baad kuchh anya lekhakon ne bhi is kruti ka anuvaad kiya, kintu jo khyaati bhaarateindu harishchandr ke anuvaad ko praapt hui, vah kisi anya ko naheen mil saki.

ismein itihaas aur raajaneeti ka sundar samanvaya prastut kiya gaya hai. ismein nandavansh ke naash, chandragupt ke raajyaarohan, raakshas ke sakriya virodh, chaanakya ki raajaneeti vishyak sajagata aur antat: raakshas dvaara chandragupt ke prabhutv ki sveekruti ka ullekh hua hai. ismein saahitya aur raajaneeti ke tattvon ka manikaanchan yog milta hai, jiska kaaran sambhavat: yeh hai ki vishaakhadatt ka janm raajakul mein hua tha. ve saamant bateshvaradatt ke pautr aur mahaaraaj pruthu ke putr the. 'mudraaraakshas' ki kuchh pratiyon ke anusaar ve mahaaraaj bhaaskaradatt ke putr the. is naatak ke rachana-kaal ke vishay mein teevr matabhed hain, adhikaansh viddhaan ise chauthi-paaainchavi shati ki rachana maanate hain, kintu kuchh ne ise saataveen-aathaveen shati ki kruti maana hai. sanskrut ki bhaaainti hindi mein bhi 'mudraaraakshas' ke kathaanak ko lokapriyta praapt hui hai, jiska shreya bhaaratendu harishchandr ko hai.

anukram

parichay

vishaakhadatt athva vishaakhadev ka kaal-nirnaya abhi naheen ho paaya hai. vaise, ve bhaas, kaalidaas, harsh aur bhavabhooti ke paravarti naatakakaar the aur prastut naatak ki rachana anumaanat: chhathi se naveen shataabdi ke madhya hui thi. saamant vateshvaradatt ke pautr aur mahaaraaj pruthu athva bhaaskaradatt ke putr hone ke naate unka raajaneeti se pratyaksh sambandh tha, falat: 'mudraaraakshas' ka raajaneetipradhaan naatak hona aakasmik sanyog naheen hai, varan ismein lekhak ki roochi bhi pratiflit hai. vishaakhadatt ki do anya rachanaaon- devi chandraguptam, tatha raaghavaanand naatakam - ka bhi ullekh milta hai, kintu unki prasiddhi ka moolaadhaar 'mudraaraakshas' hi hai.

'devi chandraguptam' ka ullekh raamachandr-gunachandr ne 'naatyadarpan' mein, bhoj ne 'shrrungaaraprakaash' mein aur abhinvagupt ne 'naatakashaastr' ki teeka mein kiya hai. yeh naatak dhruvadevi aur chandragupt dviteeya ke aitihaasik vrutt par aadhaarit hai, kintu abhi iske kuchh ansh hi praapt hue hain. 'raaghavaanand naatakam' ki rachana Ram-charitra ko lekar ki gayi hogi, kintu iske bhi ek-do sfut chhand hi praapt hue hain.

'mudraaraakshas' ki rachana poorvavarti sanskrut-naatyaparampara se sarvatha bhinn roop mein hui hai. vaise, vishaakhadatt bhaarateeya naatayashaastr se suparichit the aur isi kaaran unhein 'mudraaraakshas' mein 'kaarya' ki ekta ka nirvaah karne mein adbhut safalta praapt hui hai, yadyapi ghatna-kam ki vyaapakata ko dekhte hue yeh upalabdhi sandigdh ho sakti thi. kintu poorvavarti lekhakon dvaara nirdhaarit pratimaanon ka yathaavat anukaran bhi unhein abheesht naheen tha. iseeliye unhonne bhaavukata, kalpana aadi ke aashray dvaara kathaanak ko atirikt jeevan-sangharsh mein praapt hone waali safalta-asafalata ka yathaarthamoolak chitran kiya hai. unhonne kathaanak ko shuddh aitihaasik prushthabhoomi pradaan ki hai, svachhandataavaadi tatvon par unka bal naheen raha hai. aabhijaatyavaadi drushtikon na keval katha-sanyojan aur charitra-chatrin mein drushtigt hota hai, apitu unki suspasht tatha sashakt pad-rachana bhi isi pravrutti ki den hai. is sandarbh mein yeh bhi ullekhaneeya hai ki jis prakaar mallinaath ki vyaakhyaaon ke abhaav mein kaalidaas ke krutitv ka anusheelan apoorn hoga, usi prakaar 'mudraaraakshas' par dhundhiraaj ki teeka bhi prasiddh hai.

kathaanak

'mudraaraakshas' ki kathaavastu prakhyaat hai. is naatak ke naamakaran ka aadhaar yeh ghatna hai - apni mudra ko apne hi virooddh prayukt hote hue dekhkar raakshas ka stabdh athva vivsh ho jaana. ismein chandragupt ke raajyaarohan ke uparaant chaanakya dvaara raakshas ki raajaneetik chaalon ko vifal kar dene ki katha ko saat ankon mein suchaaroo roop mein vyakt kiya gaya hai. naatakakaar ne chaanakya auऱ raakshas ki yojana-pratiyojanaaon ko poorn raajaneetik vaidagdhya ke saath upasthaapit kiya hai. unhonne naatakagat ghatanaakam ke aayojan mein svaabhaavikta, jijnyaaasa aur rochakata ki or upayukt dhyaan diya hai. tatkaaleen raajaneetijnyaon dvaara raajatantr ke sanchaalan ke liye kis prakaar ke upaayon ka aashray liya jaata tha, iska naatak mein rochak vivran milta hai. chaanakya ke sahaayakon ne roochi-aroochi athva svatantr ichha-shakti ki chinta na karte hue apne liye nirdisht kaaryon ka jis tatparata se nirvaah kiya, vah kaarya sambandhi ekta ka uttam udaaharan hai. ghatnaaon ki dhaaraavaahikta is naatak ka prashansaneeya gun hai, kyonki shadyantr-pratishdyantron ki yojana mein kaheen bhi vyaaghaat lakshit naheen hota. yadyapi chaanakya ki kutil chaalon ka varnan hone se iska kathaanak jatil hai, kintu naatakakaar ne ise poorvaapar kram-samanvit rakhane mein adbhut safalta praapt ki hai. ismein kaaryaavasthaaon, arth-prakrutiyon sandhiyon aur vruttiyon ka naatayashaastravihit prayog hua hai.

kaaryaavasthaaeain

bhaarateeya aachaaryon ne naatak ne katha-vikaas ki paanch avasthaaeain maani hain - praarambh, prayatn, praaptyaasha, niytaapti, falaagam. naatak ka aarambh roochir aur suniyojit hona chaahiye, kyonki naatak ki paravarti ghatnaaon ki safalta isi par nirbhar karti hai. 'mudraaraakshas' mein nipunak dvaara chaanakya ko raakshas ki mudra dene tak ki katha 'praarambh' ke antargat aaegi. 'prayatn' avastha ke antargat in ghatnaaon ka samaavesh kiya ja sakta hai - chaanakya dvaara raakshas aur malayaketu mein vigrah karaane ki cheshta, shakatadaas ko sooli dene ka mithya aayojan, siddhaarthak dvaara raakshas ka vishvaasapaatr bankar use dhokha dena aadi. 'praaptyaasha' ki yojana ke liye naatakakaar ne chandragupt aur chaanakya ke chhadam virodh, raakshas dvaara kusumapur par aakraman ki yojana aadi ghatnaaon dvaara raakshas ka utkarsh varnit kiya hai, kintu saath hi kootneetigya chaanakya ki yojanaaon ka bhi varnan hua hai. chaanakya dvaara raakshas aur malayaketu mein vigrah kara dene aur raakshas ki yojanaaon ko vifal kar dene ki ghatanaaeain 'niytaapti' ke antargat aati hai. chhathe-saatavein ankon mein 'falaagam' ki siddhi ke liye raakshas ke aatm- samarpan ki prushthabhoomi prastut karte hue uske dvaara chandragupt ke amaatya-pad ki sveekruti ka ullekh hua hai. ukt avasthaaon ka niroopan naatakaar ne jitni aur svachhata se kiya hai, vah prashansaneeya hai.

arth-prakrutiyaaain

kathaanak ke samyak vikaas ke liye bhaarateeya aachaaryon ne kaaryaavasthaaon ki bhaaainti paaainch arth-prakrutiyaaain bhi nirdhaarit ki hain - beej, bindu, pataaka, prakari, kaarya. inmein se 'pataaka' ke antargat mukhya praasangik katha ko prastut kiya jaata hai aur 'prakari' se abhipraaya gaun praasangik kathaaon ke samaavesh se hai. kintu, kathaanak ke samyak vikaas ke liye praasangik kathaaon aur aadhikaarik katha ka santulit nirvaah aavashyak hai. 'mudraaraakshas' mein chaanakya dvaara raakshas ko apne paksh mein milaane ka nishchaya kathaavastu ki 'beej' hai. jiski abhivyakti pratham ank mein chaanakya ki ukti mein hui hai: ''jab tak raakshas naheen pakada jaata tab tak nandon ke maarane se kya aur chandragupt ko raajya milne se hi kya ?.... isse uske pakadne mein ham logon ko niroodyam rahana achha naheen.'' chaanakya aadi ka malayaketu ke aashram mein chale jaana beejanyaas' athva beej ka aarambh hai. bindu' ke antargat in ghatanaaoain ki ganana ki ja sakti hai- nipunak dvaara chaanakya ko raakshas ki mudra dena, shakatadaas se patra likhvaana, chaanakya dvaara chandanadaas ko bandi banaane ki aajnyaa dena. naatak ki fal-siddhi mein siddhaarthak aur bhaaguraayan dvaara kiye gaye prayant 'pataaka' ke antargat ganya hain. 'prakari' ka aayojan 'mudraaraakshas' ke truteeya ank ke ant aur chaturth ank ke praarambh mein kiya gaya hai-chaanakya aur chandragupt mein mithya kalah aur raakshas tak iski soochana pahunchana iska udaaharan hai. raakshas dvaara chandragupt ka mantritv sveekaar karke aatmasamarpan kar dena 'kaarya' naamni arth-prakruti hai: avasthaaon ke antargat isi ko falaagam ki sanjnyaa di jaati hai.

hindi anuvaad

bhaaratendu harishchandr ne 'satya harishchandran' (1875i0), 'shri chandraavali' (1876), 'Bhaarat durdasha' (1876-1880 ke madhya), 'neeladevi' (1881) aadi maulik naatakon ki rachana ke atirikt sanskrut-naatakon ke anuvaad ki or bhi dhyaan diya tha. 'mudraaraakshas' ka anuvaad unhonne 1878 i0 mein kiya tha. iske poorv ve sanskrut-rachana 'chaurapanchaashika' ke bangala-sanskaran ka 'vidyaasundar'(1868) sheershak se, Krishna mishr ke prabodhachandrodaya' ke truteeya ank ka 'paakhand vidmban' (1872) sheershak se aur raajashekhar krut praakrut-kruti 'sattak' ka 'karpoor-manjari' (1875-76) sheershak se anuvaad kar chuke the. in anuvaadon mein unhonne bhaavaanuvaad ki paddhit apnaai hai, falat: inhein naatayaroopaantar kehna adhik upayukt hoga. naatak ke prastaavana, bharatavaakya aadi sthalon ko unhonne praay: maulik roop mein prastut kiya hai. isi prakaar shabdaanuvaad ki pravrutti ka aashram na lekar charitra-vyanjana mein paryaapt svatantr drushtikon rakha gaya hai. yahi kaaran hai ki 'mudraaraakshas' mein anuvaad ki shushkata ke sthaan par maulik vichaaradrushti aur bhaasha-pravaah ko praay: lakshit kiya ja sakta hai. naatakagat kaavyaansh mein yeh pravrutti aur bhi spasht roop mein lakshit hoti hai. prastut lekh mein anuvaadak ki safalta-asafalata par vichaar na karke bhaaratendu krut anuvaad ke aadhaar par mudraaraakshas ka moolyaankan kiya jaaega jismein vishaakhadatt ke krutitv ki sameeksha hi visheshat: abheesht hogi.

baahari kadiyaaain