mudra sfeeti

mudra sfeeti (en:inflation) ek ganiteeya aakalan par aadhaarit arthashaastreeya avadhaarana hai jisse baajaar mein mudra ka prasaar va vastuo ki keematon mein vruddhi ya kami ki ganana ki jaati hai. udaaharan ke liye: 1990 mein ek sau rupae mein jitna saamaan aata tha, agar 2000 mein use khreedane ke liye do sau rupae vyaya karne pade hai to maana jaaega ki mudra sfeeti shat-pratishat badh gayi.

cheejon ki keematon mein badhotri aur mudra ki keemat mein kami ko vaigyaanik dhang se soocheebaddh karna mudra sfeeti ka kaam hota hai. isse byaaj darein bhi tay hoti hain.

mudra sfeeti samast arthashaastreeya shabdon mein sanbhavat: sarvaadhik lokapriya hai. kintu ise paaribhaashit karna ek kathin kaarya hai. vibhinn vidvaanon ne iski bhinn-bhinn pareebhaasha di hain :

  1. bahut kam maal ke liye bahut adhik dhan ki aapoorti ho jaane se iska janm ho jaata hai
  2. maal ya seva ki aapoorti ki tulana mein maang adhik ho jaane par bhi iska janm hi jaata hain
  3. aapoorti mein dosh, gatyaavarodh tatha dhaanchaagat asantulan ke chalte bhi mudra sfeeti panapati hain

saamaanya roop se iska arth ye hoga ki ye bina ruke badhti dar se kisi diye gaye kaal khand mein moolya star ki vruddhi hain jo bhavishya mein aur adhik vruddhi ki sambhaavana ko badhaati hai.

anukram

mudra sfeeti ke kaaran

kaaranaatmak roop se mudra sfeeti ke kai kaaran ho sakte hain. inhein mukhya roop se do bhaago mein baaaint sakte hain:

  1. maang kaarak (demand pull)
  2. moolya vruddhi kaarak (cost push)

maang kaarak maal seva ki maang mein vruddhi se paida hote hain jabki moolya vruddhi kaarak spashtat: moolya vruddhi athva maal seva ki aapoorti mein kami se utpann hote hain.

maang kaarak

  1. badhta sarkaari vyaya - jo ki vigat kai saalon se badh raha ho jis se saamaanya janta ke haathon mein adhik dhan aa jaata hain jo unki khareed kshamata ko badhaata hai. yeh mukhya roop se gair yojana vyaya (Unplanned expenditure) hai jo ki anutpaadak prakruti ka hota hai tatha keval kraya kshamata mein tatha maang mein vruddhi karta hai.
  2. ghaate ki poorti tatha mudra aapoorti mein vruddhi se badhte sarkaari vyaya ki poorti, ghaate ke bajat (Deficit Budget) se tatha nai mudra chhaap kar ki jaati hain jo mudra sfeeti tatha aapoorti donon mein vruddhi kar dete hain.

moolya vruddhi kaarak

  1. utpaadan-aapoorti mein utaar chadhaav: jab kabhi utpaadan mein atyaadhik utaar chadhaav aata hain ya praapt utpaadan ko munaafaakhor jama kar lete hain.
  2. utpaadakata se adhik vetan vruddhi laagat moolya ko badhaate hain jo nateejatan moolya mein vruddhi kar dete hain, saath hi maang tatha kraya kshamata mein bhi vruddhi hoti hain jo pehle vaale sheershak ke antargat vruddhi kar deti hain.
  3. apratyaksh kar bhi laagat moolya badha kar saamagri ke moolya mein vruddhi ke kaarak bante hain.
  4. dhaanchaagat vikaas mein kami ya dosh se prati ikaai laagat moolya badhta hain jo ki saamaanya keemat mein vruddhi kar deta hain.
  5. prashaasit moolya mein vruddhi jaise khaadyaann ke nyoonatam samarthan moolya ya petrol tatha anya utpaadon ke moolya jinhein sarkaar svechha se nirdhaarit karti hain kyonki ve aam aadmi ke bajat ka ek bada bhaag hote hain.

vipin

mudra sfeeti ke prabhaav

  1. utpaadan mein anishchitta ke parinaamasvaroop utpaad ki maaaing anishchit ho jaati hai va sansaadhanon ka vitran asangat ho jaata hai. pooainji sansaadhan deergh kaaleen rup mein naheen varan laghu kaaleen prayog mein aane lagte hain tatha utpaadakon ka jhukaav zaroori se gair jaroori utpaad ki or ho jaata hai kyonki gair zaroori utpaad ki keemat badh jaane par unamein nivesh laabhaprad ho jaata hai.
  2. mudra sfeeti se arthavyavastha ke kai kshetron mein mandi aa jaati hai jaise Bhaarat mein kapda utpaad moolya badh jaane par in utpaadon ki maang mein giraavat aa jaati hai, log keval behad zaroori maal hi khareedte hain. isse udyog thapp pad jaate hain.
  3. desh mein aayavitran gadbada jaata hai. munaafaakhoron ko laabh hone lagta hai aur naukareepesha sankat mein pad jaate hain. bhrashtaachaar, kaalaabaajaari aur sattebaaji badhti hai. kathor shram ki ichha shakti mein bhi kami aa jaati hai.

Bhaarat mein mudra sfeeti ka naapan thok moolya soochakaank (Wholesale Price Index) tatha audyogik shramik hetu upabhokta moolya soochakaank (en:Consumer Price Index) se hota hai.