mudra

ek mudra [muːaaˈaadrɑaaː] (sanskrut: mudra, (angreji mein: "seal", "mark," ya "gesture")) hindu dharm aur bauddh dharm mein ek prateekaatmak ya aanushthaanik bhaav ya bhaav-bhangima hai.[1] jabki kuchh mudraaon mein poora shareer shaamil rahata hai, lekin jyaadaatar mudraaen haathon aur ungaliyon se ki jaati hain. ek mudra ek aadhyaatmik bhaav-bhangima hai aur bhaarateeya dharm tatha dharm aur taaovaad ki paranparaaon ke pratima shaastr va aadhyaatmik karm mein niyojit praamaanikta ki ek oorjaavaan chhaap hai.

niyamit taantrik anushthaanon mein ek sau aath mudraaon ka prayog hota hai.[2]

yog mein, aam taur par jab vajraasan ki mudra mein baitha jaata hai, tab saans ke saath shaamil shareer ke vibhinn bhaagon ko santulit rakhane ke liye aur shareer mein praan ke pravaah ko prabhaavit karne ke liye mudraaon ka prayog praanaayaam (saans lene ke yogik vyaayaam) ke sanyojan ke saath kiya jaata hai.

November 2009 mein raashtreeya vigyaan academy mein prakaashit ek shodh aalekh mein dikhaaya gaya hai ki haath ki mudraaen mastishk ke usi kshetr ko uttejit ya protsaahit karti hain jo bhaasha ki hain.[3]

anukram

naamapaddhati aur vyutpatti

cheeni anuvaad yin (yin) (cheeni : ; pinyin: yìan) ya yinksiyaang (yinxiang) (cheeni : 印aa相; pinyin: yìanxiàang) hai. Japani aur Koreai vartani "in" ("in") hai.

pratima shaastr

bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ki hindu aur bauddh kala ke pratima shaastr mein mudra ka prayog kiya jaata hai aur dharmagranthon mein ise varnit bhi kiya gaya hai, jaise ki naatyashaastr, jismein 24 asaṁaayuta ("pruthakkrut", arthaat "ek-haath") aur 13 saṁaayuta ("sanyukt" arthaat "donon-haath") mudraaon ki soochi hai. aamtaur par donon haath aur ungaliyon se mudra avasthaaen banti hain. aasan ("baithane ki mudraaen") ke saath, ve dhyaan mein sthir bhaav se aur hindu dharm ke Nāaṭaya abhyaas mein gatisheel roop se niyojit hoti hain. pratyek mudra ka abhyaas karne vaale par vishesh prabhaav padta hai. saamaanya haath mudraaen hindu aur bauddh donon ke pratima shaastr mein dekhi jaati hain. kuchh kshetron mein, udaaharan ke liye Thailand aur laaos mein, ye ek-doosare se bhinn hain, lekin sambandhit pratima shaastr prathaaen prayukt hoti hain.

hevaajr tantr par apni tippani mein jaamagon kongatrul ne kaha hai, prateekaatmak asthi aabhooshanon (sanskrut: aṣaaṭaahiamudrā: tibbati: ras pa'i rgyaanl fyaag rgya (rus pa'i rgyanl phyag rgya)) ko bhi "mudra" ya "seels" ("seals") ke naam se jaana jaata hai.[4]

bhaarateeya shaastreeya nrutya

bhaarateeya shaastreeya nrutya mein "hast mudra" (sanskrut mein haath ko hast kehte hain) shabdaavali prayukt hoti hai. bhaarateeya shaastreeya nrutya ke sabhi roopon mein mudraaen samaan hain, haalaanki unke naam aur unka upayog bhinn hua karte hain. bharatanaatyam mein 28 (ya 32), kathakali mein 24 aur odisi mein 20 mool mudraaen hoti hain. ek haath, do haath, baanh ki gatividhiyon, shareer tatha chehare ki abhivyaktiyon ki tarah ye mool mudraaen vibhinn tareekon se sanyukt hoti hain. kathakali mein, jismein sabse adhik sankhya mein sanyojan hua karte hain, shabdaavali lagbhag 900 shabdon ki hai.[5]

yog mudraaen

mudraaen yog abhyaas ka maulik roop hain, udaaharan ke liye, Bihar school of yog dvaara prakaashit aasan, praanaayaam, mudra, bandh sabse prasiddh pustake hain.

buniyaadi mudra: chin mudra

donon haathon ke angoothe aur tarjaniyaan shoonya ki tarah judi hoti hain. shesh ungaliyaan faili rahati hain, jabki madhyama tarjani ke bagair mude hisse ko chhooti rahati hain. vajraasan mein baithe hone par hatheliyaan neeche ki or jaangh par rakhi hoti hain. yeh mudra madhyapat ko sakriya karti hai, gahre "udar-shvasan" ke liye sahaayak hoti hai, kyonki saans lene par yeh jab pedoo ki or neeche jaati hai tab madhyapat andaruni angon ko dhakelati hai. 5-2-4-2 ki laya mein ek dheeme layabaddh shvasan (5 uchhshvasan aur 4 ant:shvasan) se pedoo aur pairon mein praan ka pravaah hota hai.

buniyaadi mudra: chinmaya mudra

angoothe aur tarjani chin mudra jaise hi hain. baaki ungaliyon ki ek mutthi ban jaati hain. tarjani ka bina muda hissa aur madhyama abhi bhi sparsh kiye hue hona chaahiye. jaise ki chin mudra mein hota hai, vajraasan mein baithe rahakar hatheliyaan neeche ki or jaangh par rakhi hoti hain. yeh mudra pasaliyon ko sakriya karti hai, isse saans lena par ek taraf se inka vistaar hota hai. 5-2-4-2 ki laya mein (5 uchhaavasan aur 4 ant:shvasan hota hain) dheemi gati se layabaddh shvasan se dhad aur shvaas nalika mein praan pravaah hota hai.

buniyaadi mudra: aadi mudra

angootha hatheli mein kanishtha ke moolaadhaar ko chhoota hua hota hai. baaki ungaliyaan mutthi banaate hue angoothe par mudi hui hoti hain. chin mudra ki tarah, vajraasan mein baith kar hatheliyaan neeche ki or jaangh par rakhi hoti hain. yeh mudra ant:shvasan karne par chhaati ka vistaar karte hue ansapeshi maansapeshiyon ko sakriya karti hain. 5-2-4-2 ki laya mein (5 uchhaavasan aur 4 ant:shvasan hota hain) dheemi gati se layabaddh shvasan se praan ka pravaah shvaasanalika aur sir mein hota hai.

buniyaadi susanbaddh mudra: brahm mudra

hatheliyaan aadi mudra mein hoti hain, lekin hatheliyon ke saamane ka hissa oopar ki or aur daahine aur baayein haath ki ungaliyon ke jod chhoote hue naabhi ke samatal mein sthit hoti hain. ise vajraasan mein baithe kar kiya jaata hai. shvasan poorn ho jaata hai: ant:shvasan mein, madhyapat neeche ki or utarata hai, tab pasaliyaan failati hain aur tab ansapeshi maansapeshiyaan aage ki or badhti hain. uchhshvasan ya saans chhodna isi kram mein hota hai, jo ek "lahar" ya lahar prabhaav paida karta hai. 5-2-4-2 ki laya mein ek dheemi layabaddh shvasan (5 uchhshvasan aur 4 ant:shvasan) poore shareer mein praan ka pravaah karti hai.

unnat susanbaddh mudra: praan mudra

ek jatil mudra haath ki mudraaon ka sanyojan karti hai, saans chakr ke andar mudra se mudra ki gatividhi aur dhyaan ko sankaalit (sinkranaaij) karti hain. siddhaasan mein baithakar mudra ka abhyaas kiya jaata hai. yahaan tak ki is mudra mein saans ka ek chakr bhi shareer ko protsaahit karne ke liye kaafi ho sakta hai. hiroshi motoyaama dvaara likhit pustak chakr ke siddhaant (thyoreej of chakraas) mein ise varnit kiya gaya hai.

saamaanya bauddh mudraaen

abhaya mudra

Korea ki raashtreeya trejr number.119.daahine haath bhayabheet bhaav dikha raha hai, jabki baaya haath varaada mein hai (ichha poori karne wala ishaara)

abhaya mudra ("bhayarahit mudra") suraksha, shaanti, paropakaar aur bhaya ko door karne ka pratinidhitv karta hai. theraavada mein, aamtaur par daahina haath kandhe ki oonchaai tak utha hota hai, baanh mudi hoti hai aur hatheli baahar ki or hua karti hai aur ungaliyaan oopar ki or tani tatha ek-doosare se judi hoti hain aur baayaan haath khade rahane par neeche ki or lataka hota hai. Thailand aur laaos mein, yeh mudra chalte hue buddh se sambaddh hai, aksar donon haathon ko uthaakar doguna abhaya mudra mein dikhaaya jaata hai, yeh aparivrtanasheel hai. kisi ajnabi ke saamane dosti ka prastaav rakhane ke achhe iraade ke prateek ke roop mein yeh mudra shaayad bauddh dharm ki shuruaat se pehle istemaal kiya jaata raha tha. gaandhaar kala mein, upadesh dete samay ise dekha gaya hai. 4thi aur 7veen sadi ke vei aur sui kaal mein iska prayog cheen mein bhi hota raha hai. ek haathi ke hamla karne par buddh dvaara is mudra ka prayog karke use shaant kiya gaya tha, vibhinn bhittichitron aur aalekhon mein ise dikhaaya gaya hai. mahaayaan mein, uttari sampradaaya ke devataaon ko aksar doosare haath ka upayog karke anya mudra ke saath dikhaaya jaata hai. Japan mein, jab abhaya mudra ka prayog kiya jaata hai tab beech ki ungali ko thoda aage ki or nikaal diya jaata hai, yeh shingon sanpradaaya ka ek prateek hai. (Japani: semui-in (Semui-in); cheeni: shivuvei yin (Shiwuwei Yin))[krupaya uddharan jodein]

bhoomisparsh mudra

bodh gaya mein shaakyamuni buddh ki jnyaaanodaya ki gavaahi ke liye is mudra ko pruthvi par bulaaya gaya. baithi hui moorti ka daahina haath bhoomi ki or faila hua hai, hatheli apni or hai.

dharmachakr mudra

apni jnyaaanodaya ke baad saaranaath ke hiran park mein buddh jab apna pehla upadesh de rahe the, dharmachakr mudra buddh ke jeevan ke us ek mukhya pal ka pratinidhitv karta hai. saamaanyat:, maitreya ko bachaane ke liye kaanoon ke vitrak ke roop mein keval Gautam buddh ko hi is mudra mein dikhaaya gaya hai. mudra ki yeh avastha dharm ke ghoomate chakr ka pratinidhitv karti hai. dharmachakr mudra tab banti hai jab chhaati ke saamane donon haath vitrk mein jude hote hain, daayeen hatheli aage aur baayeen hatheli oopar ki or hoti hai, badhti hua karti hai. Bhaarat mein ajanta ki bhittichitron ki tarah vibhinn tarah ki vividhtaaen bhi hain, jahaan donon haath alag-alag hain aur ungaliyaan ek-doosare ko sparsh naheen kar rahi hain. Bhaarat-greek shaili ke gaandhaar mein daahine haath ki bheenchi hui mutthi ki ungaliyaan prakat roop se baaen haath ke angoothe ke saath judi hui lagti hain. Japan mein horayu-ji ki chitramaya patrika mein daahine haath ko baaen par aaropit dikhaaya gaya hai. Japan ki Amitabh ki kuchh moortiyon mein 9veen sadi se pehle is mudra ka upayog karta dikhaaya gaya hai. (Japani: tenaborin-in (Tenbōarin-in), chikichi-jo (Chikichi-jō), hoshin-seppo-in (Hoshin-seppō-in); cheeni: juaanafaalun yin (Juanfalun Yin))

dhyaan mudra

kaamaakura mein kotokoo in par Amitabh ke haath ka pratima

dhyaan mudra ("mediteshan mudra") dhyaan ki mudra hai, jo achhi bhaavana aur [16] ki ekaagrata ke liye hai. donon haath god par rakhe hote hain, daahina haath baaen par hota hai aur ungaliyaan poori tarah se faili hoti hain tatha hatheliyaan oopar ki or, ek trikon ka nirmaan hota hai, jo aadhyaatmik agni ya trirtn, teen aabhooshan ka prateek hai. shaakyamuni buddh aur Amitabh buddh ke abhyaavedan mein is mudra ka prayog kiya jaata hai. kabhi-kabhi dhyaan mudra ka prayog chikitsa buddh ke roop mein kuchh abhyaavedan Bhaiṣaajyaguru mein kiya jaata hai, jisme unke haathon mein aushadhi ka paatr hota hai. iski paidaaish Bhaarat mein hui bahut sambhav gaandhaar mein aur vi kaal ke dauraan cheen mein. buddh se bahut pehle is mudra ka upayog hua karta tha, ekaagrata, chikitsa aur dhyaan abhyaason ke dauraan yogi iska prayog kiya karte the. dakshin poorv Asia ke theraavada bauddh dharm mein iska bahut adhik prayog hua hai, ismein angoothon ko hatheliyon par rakha jaata hai. (dhyaan mudra ko samaadhi mudra ya yog mudra ke naam se jaana jaata hai; Japani: jo-in (Jō-in), jokaai jo-in (Jōakai Jō-in); cheeni: ding yin (Ding Yin).)

varad mudra

varad mudra ("hitkaari mudra") chadhaava, satkaar, daan, madad, daya aur imaandaari ka prateek hai. yeh lagbhag hamesha ek aise sammaanit vyaktitv dvaara baayaan haath dikhaakar kiya jaata hai, jo lobh, krodh aur kapat se maanav mukti ke liye samarpit hai. ise vakr baanh ke saath kiya ja sakta hai aur hatheli ko thoda oopar kar diya jaaya ya agar baanh neeche ki or ho to oopar ki or ya jara mudi hui ungaliyon ke saath hatheli ho. daahine haath ka upayog karke anya mudra ke bina varad mudra shaayad hi kabhi dekhi gayi hai, khaas taur par abhaya mudra. aksar hi vitrk mudra ke saath ismein bhram ho jaata hai, jo isse bahut hi milta-julata hai. cheen aur Japan mein kramash: vei aur asuka kaal ke dauraan ungaliyaan sakht hua karti theen aur iske baad dheere-dheere samay ke saath viksit hote hue yeh dheeli padne lageen, antat: taang raajavansh tak aate-aate ye ungaliya svaabhaavik roop se mudne lageen. Bhaarat mein 4thi va 5veen shataabdiyon mein gupt kaal se hi mudra ka upayog avalokeeteshvar ki tasveeron mein hua karta tha. varad mudra ka upayog bade paimaane par dakshin-poorv Asia ki moortiyon mein hota raha hai. (Japani: yogan-in, segan-in, seyo-in ; cheeni: shiynan yin

vajr mudra

vajr mudra

vajr mudra ("garjan mudra") gyaan ki mudra hai. daahine haath se mutthi bana kar tarjani ko oopar ki or prasaarit karke ise kiya jaata hai aur tarjani ko dhankate hue baaen haath se mutthi banaakar bhi ise kiya jaata hai.[tathya vaanchhit] bajr mudra ka sabse badhiya anuprayog naain silebel seels (Nine Syllable Seals) ki saataveen takaneek (nau mein se) hai, ek anushthaan ke anuprayog mein mantra ke saath is mudra ka upayog kiya jaata hai. man ko pavitra avastha par le jaane ke liye yeh[krupaya uddharan jodein] sanskrut praarthana ka video hai, iske baad kuji-in (kuji-in) sanskaar ka drut sanskaran hai, Japani kanji (kanji) uchchaaran ka upayog kiya karte hai (gambhir saadhak ke liye hi aamtaur par sanskrut mantra bola jaata hai).

vitrk mudra

vitrk mudra, taarim besin, 9veen shataabdi

vitrk mudra ("bahas ki mudra") buddh ki shiksha par bahas aur sanchaaran ki mudra hai. is mudra ko angoothe aur tarjani ke poron ko ek saath jod kar aur shesh ungaliyon ko seedha rakh kar, bahut kuchh abhaya aur varad mudraaon ki tarah, lekin angootha tarjani ka sparsh karte hue ise banaayi jaati hai. poorv Asia mein mahaayaan bauddh dharm mein is mudra ke bahut saare bhinn roop hain. yab-yam mein devataaon dvaara kuchh vibhinnataaon ke saath Tibet mein yeh taaron aur bodhistv ki rahasyavaadi mudra hai. (vitrk mudra ko vyaakhyaan mudra ("spashteekaran" ki mudra) ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata haiPrajñaāaliṅaganabhinaya, Japani mein: 'seppo-in, N-I-in (An-i-in), cheeni: anvei yin )

gyaan mudra

gyaan mudra ("gyaan ki mudra") angoothe aur tarjani ke por ko ek saath sparsh karke, ghera bana kar banaayi jaati hai, tatha hatheli ke saath haath hrudaya ki or hota hai.[6]

karan mudra

baain taraf josiyn raajavansh aankada karan mudra banaata hai.

karan mudra vah mudra hai jo dushtaatma ko baahar nikaalati hai aur beemaari tatha nakaaraatmak vichaaron jaisi baadhaaon ko door hataati hai. yeh tarjani aur kanishth ungali ko uthaane aur anya ungaliyon ko modkar banti hai. yeh lagbhag kai pashchimi deshon mein korana ke roop mein jaani jaanevaali mudra ki hi tarah hai, antar yeh hai ki karan mein angootha madhyama aur anaamika ko pakada naheen hota hai. (yeh mudra tarjani mudra ke roop mein bhi jaani jaati hai, Japani: funnu-in, fudo-in).

anya paramparaaen

poorvi roodhivaadi aur Catholic sanskaaron aur jhaadafoonk ke pavitra anushthaanon, pavitra jal ke nirmaan, Abhishek, vapatisma, param prasaad aur mangalakaamana paavan mudra se jude hain.

maarshal Art aur mudra

hindu dharm aur bauddh dharm parampara mein baanh, haath aur shaareerik sthiti ka upayog mudraaon mein hota hai. aitihaasik buddh mudraaon ka upayog jaante the aur aksar in aanushthaanik mudraaon ka upayog karte hue unhein darshaaya gaya hai. koong foo ke vibhinn prakaaron mein in mudraaon ki sthitiyon ki pehchaan hoti hai.[7]

muromoto (2003) apne maarshal Art prashikshan ke sambandh mein mudraaon par apne anubhav ki charcha karte hue mikkyo (Mikkyō), teindaai (Tendai) aur shingon (Shingon) ka sandarbh dete hain:

bahut saari ajeeb cheejon mein ek hai jisse mera saamana apne maarshal Art prashikshan ke dauraan hua, vah hai yuyutsu kala mein mudraaon ka upayog. mudra (Japani: in), unke liye jo inse parichit naheen hain, haathon ke ajeeb se ishaare hain jinki utpatti goodh bauddh dharm (mikkyo), vishesh roop se teindaai aur shingon sanpradaayon se hui hai. maana jaata hai ki ye mudraaen aadhyaatmik kendra aur shakti paida karti hain, iske baad yeh kisi tarah baahya roop mein prakat hoti hain.[8]

muromoto (2003) maarshal Arts mein mudra ke kram ka varnan karte hai aur koryu (Koryu), rayoo (Ryu), kanto (Kanto) teinshin shoden kaatori shinto-rayoo, (Tenshin Shōaden Katori Shintō-ryū), risuke otek (Risuke Ōaatake) aur donn ef. dreger (Donn F. Draeger) ki yaad taaja karte hain:

kisi bhi maamale mein, koryu ("puraane" maarshal Arts) mein main mudra ka upayog jaan gaya tha tab se jab main teinshin shoden kaayori shinto-rayoo, otek risuke aur sv. donn ef. dregar ke saath prashikshan le raha tha. otek seinsei ne apni paddhati mein kuchh mudraaon ka varnan kiya tha, jo puraane maarshal rayoo mein se ek hai, jo kanto (poorvi) Japan mein aaj bhi astitv mein hai.[8]

Japani ladaakoo sanskruti mein mudra ke aitihaasik sahayogi kram saarani mein muromoto (2003) shinto (Shintō), samuraai (Samurai), tokugaava (Tokugawa) sarkaar, nav kanfyoosheevaad, jen bauddh dharm, kaamaakura (Kamakura) kaal, ido (Edo), taakuen (Takuan) aur haakuin (Hakuin) ko shaamil kar lete hain:

bahut saare koryoo mein mudra ka upayog aur mikkyo ke anya pahaluon ke kai udaaharan paaye jaate hain, kyonki mikkyo aur shinto saamuraai ke dharm hain, jisne un rayoo ko sthaapit kiya, jise 1600 ki sadi se pehle racha gaya tha. baad mein tokugaava sarkaar, jo prachand roop se nav kanfyoosheevaad se prabhaavit rahi aur baad mein jen bauddh dharm se; ke aane ke baad rayoo ko viksit kiya gaya. haalaanki 1300 ki sadi mein, kaamaakura kaal mein yoddha varg ke beech jen lokapriya hua, ido kaal ke baad ke samay tak maarshal Arts jen purohiton taakuen aur haakuin ke lekhan se prabhaavit naheen hua. aur yahaan tak ki ido kaal (1600-1868) mein maarshal Arts samaan roop se kanfyoosheevaad se prabhaavit tha aur isi tarah rahasyamayi shindo ke baad ke hisse mein bhi.[8]

muromoto (2003) ne paath ki drushti se naksha bana kar shuto (Shutō) mudra ka nishpaadan kiya:

mikkyo vibhinn anushthaanon, mantrochcharan aur isi tarah ke kaamon ke saath aksar mudra sanyojan kar upayog karte hain. ek aam mudra "naaif hand" ya shuto (shuto) hai. pehli do ungaliyon ko prasaarit kiya jaata hai, jabki angootha aur anya ungaliyon ko bheench liya jaata hai. kuchh koryoo kaata (koryu kata) mein yeh gatividhi goodh roop se chhipi hoti hai, agar tum kareeb se dekho, to khaastaur par tum ise teinshin shoden kaatori shinto-rayoo (Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu) paddhati mein ya divya bauddh pratimaaon mein dekh sakte ho. yeh jnyaaanodaya ki talavaar ka pratinidhitv karta hai, jo sabhi bhram ka nivaaran karta hai. kabhi-kabhi prasaarit ungaliyon ke poron ko doosare haath ki mutthi mein band kar liya jaata hai. iska ek prateekaatmak arth hota hai jo mikkyo se utpann hua hai.[8]

inhein bhi dekhein: Foreign influence on Chinese martial arts

inhein bhi dekhein

nots

  1. inasaaiklopeediya britaanika. (2010).mudra (simbaulik geschars).'.' 11 October 2010 ko pun:praapt.
  2. vudarof, sar John, shakti end shakata: eses end edreses on the shakata tantrashaastr
  3. haathon ke ishaare aur mastishk uttejan ke baare mein vigyaan dainik lekh
  4. kongtrul, jaimgan (lekhak); (angreji anuvaadak: guarisko, eliyo; maikaleod, ingrid) (2005). the trejari of naulij (shes bya kun la khyab pa'i mdzod). chhah book, bhaag chaar: bauddh dharm ke tantr, the indas trakatibl ve of seekret mantra . boldar, Colorado, amareeka: sno laaian prakaashan. ISBN 1-55939-210-X (alk.paper) prushth.493
  5. Barba 1991, prushth 136
  6. jñaaanamudrā ke anuvaad ke liye "gyaan ki dekh" ke roop mein sanket karein:. Stutley 2003, prushth 60
  7. Johnson 2000, prushth 48.
  8. a aa i E muromoto, ven (2003) maarshal kala mein mudra.. 20 December 2007 ko pun: praapt.

sandarbh

DFD monograaf vyaakhyaan mein Donn Draeger dvaara prastut ki aur transcriptions hain.

aage padhein

baahari links

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mudra ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.

saaaincha:Gestures