mrutyudand

Asiaee vishv mein sabse prachalit mrutyudand ka roop hai faansi

mrutyudand (angreji:kaipitl panishmaint), kisi vyakti ko kaanooni taur par nyaayik prakriya ke falasvaroop kisi aparaadh ke parinaam mein praanaant ka dand dene ko kehte hain. angreji mein iske liye prayukt kaipitl shabd laitin ke kaipitlis shabd se aaya hai, jiska shaabdik arth hai "sir ke sambandh mein ya se sambandhit" (laitin kaiput). iske mool mein aaranbhik roop mein diye jaane vaale mrutyudand ka svaroop sir ko dhad se alag kar dene ki prakriya mein hai. vartamaan samay mein emanesti international ke aankadon ke anusaar vishv ke 58 deshon mein abhi mrutyudand diya jaata hai[1], jabki anya deshon mein ya to is par rok laga di gayi hai, ya gat das varsho se kisi ko faansi naheen di gayi hai. yooropiyaai sangh ke sadasya deshon mein,chaartar of fndaamental raaits of the yooropiyn union ki dhaara-2 mrutyudand ko nishedh karti hai.[2]

anukram

vivaad

maayara ke sant nikolas ne teen galat nirnaya dvaara mrutyudand bhaagiyon ko antim ghadi mein bachaane hetu jallaad ke haath se talavaar kheenchate hue. (tail chitr, iliya repin 1888, roosi raajakeeya sangrahaalaya

mrutyudand par abhi bhi vibhinn deshon mein vivaad joron par hai. iske vipkshiyon ka kehna hai ki yeh bahut had tak sambhav hai ki kaanoon ko tod-marod kar aur jhoothi gavaahi ke aadhaar par nirdosh vyakti ko faansi de di jaae. iske liye aankadon ko aadhaar banaakar kaha jaata hai ki mrutyudand ke shikaar banane ja rahe logon mein se adhikaansh gareeb varg ke log hote hain ya aise log jo apni pairavi ke liye vakeel naheen rakh sakte hain.[3] iske vipreet, mrutyudand ke pakshadhar anek aadhaaron par vibhinn sajaaon ko shreneebaddh karte hue yeh kehte hain ki kisi aparaadhi ko mrutyudand diya jaana use sada ke liye kaaraagaar mein rakhane se kaheen sasta sauda hota hai. iske alaava ise ek sabak ke taur par bhi maanate hain, taaki anya log seekh lein, lekin iske baavajood mrutyudand ka bhaya aparaadhon par rok naheen lagaata.

chaartar of fndaamental raaits of the yooropiyn union ki dhaara-2 yooropiyn sangh ke sadasya raashtron mein mrutyudand ko nishedh karti hai.

aaj ऍmanesti international ke anusaar adhikaansh desh mrutyudand ke vipakshi hain,[4] jinke liye sanyukt raashtra mein you.N. ko mrutyudand unmooloan karne hetu ek gair-anivaarya prastaav par matadaan kiya gaya tha.[5] yahaan ye dhyaanayogya hai ki jin adhikaansh deshon mein mrutyudand ka unmoolan kiya gaya hai, ve paashchaatya desh hain, jabki jin deshon mein vishv ki adhikaansh janasankhya (lagbhag 60%) rahati hai, vahaan mrutyudand abhi tak jaari hai.[3] in deshon mein pramukh chaar desh aate hain: cheen, Bhaarat, sanyukt raajya aur Indonesia. in chaaron deshॊn mein abhi tak mrutyudand jaari hai aur nikat bhavishya mein nishedh hone ki koi sambhaavana bhi naheen dikhti hai.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

vishv mein prayog

itihaas mein anek sabhyataaon mein mrutyudand ka naam aata hai. praacheen yoonaani, misr, cheeni aur bhaarateeya sabhyataaon mein is dand ke sandarbh milte hain, lekin us samay ise dene ke ajeebogareeb tareeke hua karte the. dviteeya vishv yuddh se mrutyudand unmoolan hetu lagaataar prayaas hote rahe hain. 1977 mein, 6 deshon ne ise nishedh kiya tha. vartamaan sthiti ye hai ki 95 deshon ne mrutyudand nishedh kar diya hai, 9 deshon ne ise anya sabhi aparaadhon ke liye nishedh kiya hai, sivaaya vishesh paristhitiyon ke aur 35 deshon ne ise pichhle das varshon ne kisi ko aaropit naheen kiya hai. anya 58 deshon ne ise poori tarah laagoo kiya hua hai.[15] emanesti international ke anusaar, varsh 2009 mein 18 deshon ne kam se kam 714 mrutyudand diye hain aur laagoo bhi kiye hain.[16]

vishv bhar ke deshon mein mrutyudand ka prayog (June 2009 ke anusaar)
█a█ sabhi aparaadhon ke liye nishiddh (94) █a█ sivaaya vishesh paristhitiyon ke, sabhi aparaadhon ke liye nishiddh (10) █a█ jaari hai, kintu kam se kam 10 varshon se naheem di gayi (35) █a█ mrutyudand jaari hai (58)* * ye dhyaanayogya hai, ki haalaanki sanyukt raajya ke vibhinn raajyon ke kaanoon mein antar hai, kintu fir bhi ise pakshadhar maana jaata hai, kyonki sangheeya mrutyudand abhi bhi prayog mein hai.
Mexico mein firing skvaayad dvaara mrutyudand, 1916
desh 2009 mein faansiyaan
1चीनी जनवादी गणराज्य cheen aadhikaarik aankade pradarshit naheen.
kam se kam 1700[17] - 5000[18]
2Flag of Iran.svg Iran kam se kam 388
3Flag of Iraq.svg iraak kam se kam 120
4Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi arab kam se kam 69
5Flag of the United States.svg sanyukt raajya 52
6Flag of Yemen.svg yaman kam se kam 30
7Flag of Sudan.svg soodaan kam se kam 9
8Flag of Vietnam.svg viytanaam kam se kam 9
9Flag of Syria.svg Syria kam se kam 8
10Flag of Japan.svg Japan 7
11Flag of Egypt.svg misr kam se kam 5
12Flag of Libya.svg Libya kam se kam 4
13Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh 3
14Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand 2
15Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore kam se kam 1
16Flag of Botswana.svg botsvaana 1
17Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia bataaya naheen
18Flag of North Korea.svg uttari Korea bataaya naheen


sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain