mruda

pruthvi oopari satah par mote, madhyam aur baareek kaarbanik tatha akaarbanik mishrit kanon ko mruda (mitti / soil) kehte hain. oopari satah par se mitti hataane par praaya: chattaan (shail) pai jaati hai. kabhi kabhi thodi gaharaai par hi chattaan mil jaati hai. 'mruda vigyaan' (Pedology) bhautik bhoogol ki ek pramukh shaakha hai jismein mruda ke nirmaan, usaki visheshataaon evam dharaatal par uske vitran ka vaigyaanik adhyayan kiya jaata hain.

anukram

parichay

nadiyon ke kinaare tatha paani ke bahaav se laai gayi mitti jisko 'kachhaar mitti' kehte hain, khodane par chattaan naheen milti. vahaaain neeche ke star mein jal ka srot milta hai. sabhi mittiyon ki utpatti chattaan se hui hai. jahaaain prakruti ne mitti mein adhik her-fer naheen kiya aur jalavaayu ka prabhaav adhik naheen pada, vahaaain yeh sambhav hai ki ham neeche ki chattaanon se oopar ki mitti ka sambandh kramabaddh roop se sthaapit kar sakein. yadyapi oopar ki satah ki mitti ka rang-roop neeche ki chattaan se bilkul bhinn hai, fir bhi donon mein raasaayanik sambandh rahata hai aur yadi praakrutik kriya dvaara, arthaat jal dvaara bahaakar, athva vaayu dvaara udaakar, doosare sthal se mitti naheen laai gayi hai, tab yeh sambandh poorn roop se sthaapit kiya ja sakta hai. chattaan ke oopar ek star aisa bhi paaya ja sakta hai jo chattaan se hi bana hai aur abhi praakrutik kriyaaon dvaara poornat: mitti ke roop mein naheen aaya hai, sirf chattaan ke mote-mote tukade ho gaye hain, jo na to mitti kahe ja sakte hain aur na chattaan. inheen ki oopari satah mein mitti ki banaavat pai jaati hai. isi star ki mitti mein hamein neeche ki chattaan ke raasaayanik aur bhautik gunon ka sanchaya mil sakta hai. yadi chattaan kristaleeya hai, to iski sambhaavana shat pratishat pakki hai. neeche ki chattaan ke atyant niktavarti, paarshv bhaag mein chattaan ke samaan raasaayanik aur bhautik gun praapt ho sakte hain. jaise-jaise oopar ki or doori badhti jaaegi chattaan ki rooparekha bhi badalti jaaegi. ant mein ham vah mitti paate hain, jo krushi ke liye atyant anukool siddh hui hai aur jispar aadi kaal se krushi hoti aa rahi hai tatha manushya fasal paida karta raha hai. koi-koi mitti doosari jagah ki chattaanon se bankar praakrutik kaaranon se aa jaati hai. aise sthaanon mein yeh sambhaavana naheen hai ki oopar ki mitti ka bhautik tatha raasaayanik sambandh neeche ke sanchaya se sthaapit kiya jaaya, par yeh nishchit hai ki mitti ki utpatti chattaanon se hui hai. kheton ki mitti mein chattaanon ke khanijon ke saath-saath, ped paudhon ke sadne se, kaarbanik padaarth bhi paae jaate hain.

sookshmadarshi dvaara tatha raasaayanik vishleshan se pata chalta hai ki chattaanon ki chheejan kriya prakruti mein paae jaanevaale raasaayanik dravyon ke prabhaav se dheere-dheere hoti hai. chattaanon ke raasaayanik avayav badal jaate hain aur mitti ki rooparekha bilkul bhinn prateet hoti hai. yadi chattaan ka chheejana hi mitti ke banane mein ek pradhaan kriya hoti to ham aaj kheton ki mitti ko paudhon ke panapaane ke liye anukool naheen paate. mitti ki tulana PC hui baareek chattaan se naheen ki ja sakti. yadyapi chattaanon ke khanij mitti ke oopari bhaag mein bahut paae jaate hain aur unke tukade bhi bade parimaan mein vartamaan rahate hain, fir bhi mitti mein jeev-jantu kriyaaeain hoti rahati hain, jo krushi ke liye mahatvapoorn saabit hui hain. jeevajantu tatha unase sambandh rakhanevaale padaartho ke, jaise ped paudhon ki sadi hui vastuon aur sade hue jeev jantuon ke, prabhaav se kalil avastha mein praapt chattaanon ke chhote chhote kanon par pratikriya hoti rahati hai aur mitti ka rang roop badal jaata hai. yeh roop chattaanon ke sirf kanon ka naheen rahata, mitti ka ek naveen pranaali ki bhoosha se susajjit ho jaati hai. ham sookshmadarshi se mitti ke ek tukade ki pareeksha karein aur fir usi yantr dvaara in chattaanon ke kanon ki pareeksha karein to ham donon mein jameen aasmaan ka antar paaveinge. yeh antar un akaarbanik padaarthon ke sammishran se hota hai jo jeev-jantu aur paudhon se praapt hote hain.

praakrutik kriyaaon dvaara chattaanon ka chhote-chhote kanon mein parivartan hone se mitti ke banane mein jo sahaayata hoti hai, us kriya ko apakshaya (westhering) kehte hain. yeh kriya mahatvapoorn hai aur iske kaaran hi ham pruthvi par mitti ko krushi ke anukool paate hain. is kriya mein jal, hava mein sthit okseejan, kaarban daaioksaaid, jeevaanuon tatha anya amleeya raasaayanik dravyon se bahut sahaayata milti hai.

mitti ka paarshv drushya aur uske sanstar

Soil profile.png

yeh maani hui baat hai ki jis mitti par praakrutik kriyaaeain hoti hai, jal ka prapaat tatha vaayu aur sooryakirn ka sansarg hota rahata hai, vah kuchh varsho mein aisa roop dhaaran kar leti hai jisse uske neeche ki bhinn roop rang aur gunavaali mittiyon ke bahut se sanstar ho jaate hain. yadi ham mitti ki oopari satah par 10 ya 12 foot gahra gaddha khodein aur mitti ke paarshv ka avlokan karein, to hamein niyamit roop se kai bhinn roop rang, rachana ki mitti ek star se doosare star tak milti jaaegi. vaigyaaniko ne iske teen hi pradhaan star maane hain aur ve kin-kin kaaranon se aur kin-kin paristhitiyon mein paae jaate hain, iska bhi varnan kiya hai.

jal mitti ke oopari sanstar par se hote hue aur bahut se raasaayanik dravyon ko lete hue neeche ke sanstar mein jaata hai aur vahaaain mitti ke saath milkar anek raasaayanik kriyaaon dvaara mitti ke rang roop ko badal deta hai. is tarah oopar se dravya aakar neeche ke sanstar me jama ho jaate hain.

inmein ek hai oopari sanstar, jismein se jal dvaara vilyan hokar dravya neeche ki or jaate hain, athva avakshepan kriya dvaara neeche ke star mein jama ho jaate hain. is oopari sanstar ko ham (a) sanstar kehte hain. doosra vah sanstar hai, jismein oopar varnan ki gayi kriya dvaara dravya aakar jama hote hain ise (b) sanstar kehte hain. teesara sanstar uske neeche hai, jismein oopar ki mitti banti hai, ise (s) sanstar kehte hai. is sanstar ko doosare shabdon mein Patrick sanstar (parent horizon) bhi kaha jaata hai. yeh naam isaliye saarthak hai ki isi sanstar se oopar waali mitti ki utpati hui hai. is sanstar mein chattaan aur usase bane bade-bade malabe (debris) paae jaate hain. har ek sanstar mein [praaya: (a) aur (b) sanstar mein] bhinn-bhinn sanstar sammilit rahate hain. sanstaron ka kramabaddh sambandh dikhlaana ati kathin samasya hai. is samasya ko pehle roos ke vaigyaaniko ne hal kiya tha. sabse kathin samasya tab prakat hoti hai jab mitti ke oopari sanstar ka kuchh ansh aparadan (erosion) dvaara kat jaata hai. kabhi-kabhi to sampoorn (a) sanstar ka kataav ho jaata hai aur (s) sanstar rah jaata hai.

in sanstaron ke aantarik sambandh par jis vigyaan ke kshetr mein anusandhaan hota hai, use mrudaavijnyaaan (Pedology) kehte hain. is vigyaan se mitti ke vargeekaran mein adhik sahaayata milti hai. yeh aadhunik vigyaan hai aur iski uttarotar unnati hoti ja rahi hai. ab yeh praaya: siddh ho gaya hai ki mitti ki oopari satah ke bhautik aur raasaayanik gunon ko jaan lene se hi krushi ko laabh naheen ho sakta. paudhon ki badhti ko jaanane ke liye tatha krushakon ko salaah dene ke liye yeh aavashyak hai ki mitti ke vibhinn sanstaron ke bhautik aur raasaayanik gun tatha inka paraspar sambandh jaan liya jaaya.

mitti mein vibhinn prakaar ke kan rahate hain. inmein jo ausatan nyoon maatra ke kan hain, ve hi mitti ko urvara banaane ke liye aavashyak hain. inke kaaran mitti ki mrudukan rachana (crumb structure) ki utpati hoti hai. is rachana dvaara mitti mein jal avashoshan ki kriya badh jaati hai tatha paudhon ke liye anya vibhinn prakaar ke khaadya padaarth bhi avashoshit hote hain.

mitti ke bhautik gun mitti ki sanrachana, jalavaayu mitti mein sthit ooshma evam khanij padaartho par nirbhar hain. mitti ke kan bhinn-bhinn aakaar prakaar ke, koi bade to koi chhote aur koi ati sookshm, hote hain. bade aakaar ke kan chhote-chhote pattharon ke tukade hote hain. jaise jaise inapar praakrutik kriyaaeain hoti jaati hain, bade tukade chhote hote jaate hain aur ant mein baaloo, silt, chikni mitti athva domat mitti ke aakaar ke ho jaate hain. mitti ke bade aakaar ke kan adhikaansh balui mitti mein paae jaate hain aur chhote aakaar ke kan matiyaar mitti mein milte hain. inheen donon aakaar ke kanon ke mishran se bhinn-bhinn prakaar ki mittiyaaain banti hain aur unke bhinn-bhinn bhautik gun bhi hua karte hain. mitti mein sthit bhautik gunon ka krushi vigyaan se atyant gahra sambandh hai.

mitti ke kuchh bhautik gun, jaise aapekshik gurutv, kanavinyaas (structure), kan aakaar, (texture), mitti ki sughatyata aur sansanjan, rang, bhaar kanaantarik chhidr, samooh aadi mahatva ke hain, mitti ka aapekshik gurutv do prakaar ka, ek aabhaasi (apparent) aur doosra nirpeksh (absolute) hota hai.

aabhaasi aapekshik gurutv mitti ke bheetari bhaag mein jal tatha vaayu ke samaavesh se praapt hota hai, arthaat yeh mitti ke bheetari sthit khanij se mishrit jal aur vaayu ka gurutv hai. isaliye is gurutv ki maatra nirpeksh aapekshik gurutv se kam hoti hai. kisi gyaat aayatan waali shushk mitti ke bhaar aur usi aayatanavaale jal ke bhaar ka yeh anupaat hai. yeh 1.40 se 1.68 tak hota hai. chikni mitti aur silt ke kan bahut chhote aur halke hote hain, isaliye ve ek doosare ke saath saghan naheen ho paate. aisi mitti ka bhaar kam hota hai. matiyaar, domat tatha silt mitti ka bhaar jaanane ke liye use shushk bana diya jaata hai, kyonki bhinn-bhinn prakaar ki mitti mein nami bhinn prakaar ki hoti hai. nirpeksh aapekshik gurutv mitti ke un bhaagon se sambandh rakhata hai jo khanij tatv hai. is kaaran iska maan adhik hota hai. nirpeksh aapekshik gurutv 1.4 se 2.6 ke beech mein hota hai.

mitti ke kan samooh banaate hain. bhinn-bhinn samooh bhinn-bhinn prakaar ki mitti utpann karte hain. ye kan ek doosare ke saath bhinn-bhinn prakaar se mile hue hain aur inka paarasparik sambandh drudh tatha vyavasthit hota hai. kan kisi bhi roop aur aakaar ke ho sakte hain. mitti ki urvarata kanon ke vinyaas par nirbhar hai. paudhon ko hava aur paani ki aavashyakta hoti hai aur hava tatha paani ka mitti mein rahana kanon ke vinyaas par nirbhar hai. ye kan samooh hain-

  • (1) ekakaneeya (single grain),
  • (2) sthoolakaneeya (massive),
  • (3) mrudukaneeya (crumb),
  • (4) daanedaar (granular),
  • (5) khandaatmak (fragmentary),
  • (6) palavaar (mulch),
  • (7) giridaar (nut)
  • (8) prijmeeya (prismatic),
  • (9) stanbhaakaar (columnar),
  • (10) paratadaar (platy),
  • (11) golaakaar (shot) aur
  • (12) vajrasaareeya (orstein)

ho sakte hain.

  • (1) ekakaneeya vinyaas mein kan adhikaansh alag-alag rahate hain. ismein paani adhik der tak naheen thaharata. reteeli mitti mein aisa hota hai.
  • (2) sthoolakaneeya mein chhote-chhote kan majabooti se ikatthe hokar bahut bade bade ho jaate hain. ismein kanaantarik chhidr bahut kam hote hain.
  • (3) mrudukaneeya vinyaas mein chhote-chhote kanon ke paraspar mil jaane se mitti banti hai. yeh urvara hoti hai. ismein jal der tak thaharata hai.
  • (4) kanon ke paraspar milkar kankar banane se daanedaar mitti banti hai. paudhon ki vruddhi ke liye yeh vinyaas achha naheen hai.
  • (5) khandaatmak banaavat mein chhote-chhote kan bahut bade dhelon ke samaan ho jaate hain aur aniyamit roop se vitrit rahate hain. yeh banaavat paudhon ke liye achhi naheen hai.
  • (6) palavaar vinyaas kaarbanik padaarthon ke saath kanon ke mishrit hone se banta hai. ismein kanon ki paarasparik doori kam rahati hai aur paani ka avashoshan adhik hota hai.
  • (7) giridaar rachana mein chhote-chhote kan patthar ke bade-bade tukade ke aakaar ko praapt hote hain. kan aapas mein milkar bade thos ho jaate hain aur aniyamit roop se vitrit rahate hain. is rachana mein paani naheen thaharata aur kaarbanik padaarth ki kami hone ke kaaran mitti ki urvarata kam rahati hai.
  • (8) prijmeeya banaavat kanon ke trikonik vitran par nirbhar hai. vaayu aur jal ki nyoonata ke kaaran yeh utani upajaaoo naheen hai.
  • (9) stanbhaakaar rachana mein kan ek doosare se milkar golaakaar roop dhaaran karte hain aur bahut kathor mitt banaate hain.
  • (10) paratadaar mitti ki rachana abhrak mein pai gayi parat ka roop dhaaran karti hain. mitti ke kan parat ke roop mein abhrak ke sattash rahate hain. yeh rachana bhi paudhon ke liye laabhadaayak naheen hai, kyonki isame jal ek sthaan se doosare sthaan tak saralata se naheen ja paata.
  • (11) golaakaar rachana kanon ke geind ke samaan gol aakaar hone par banti hai. ismein kaarbanik padaarth ki kami hone se mitti ki urvarata kam rahati hai.
  • (12) vajrasaar vinyaas mein mitti ke sabhi kan ek doosare se aakarshit hokar, paraspar bahut majabooti se baindh jaate hain. iske banane mein mitti ka loha aur kailsiym bahut sahaayak hote hain. yeh vinyaas paudhon ke liye haanikaarak hai, kyonki ismein na to paudhon ki jadein badh sakti hain, na jal ka hi sanchaaran saralata se ho sakta hai tatha na hava ka pravesh hi svachhandata se ho sakta hai.

kan aakaar

mruda gathan trikon (soil texture triange)

kanon ke aakaar ka prabhaav mitti ke anya bhautik gunon par bhi padta hai. bade aakaar ke kanonvaali mitti ke kanaantarik chhidr bade hote hain. aisi mitti mein jal badi teevrata se neeche bah jaata hai, jisse nami ka sada abhaav rahata hai. aisi mitti mein sheegra garam aur thanda ho jaane ka gun rahata hai tatha aisi mitti oosar hoti hai. chhote chhote kanavaali mittiyon mein visheshat: chikni mitti mein, vipreet gun hote hain.

mitti ki sughatyata aur sansanjan (Plasticity and Cohesion)

mitti ke saath jal ke milne se

  • (1) gurutv, dabaav, pranod (thrust) aur khinchaav (pull) par prabhaav padta hai,
  • (2) mitti mein anya padaartho ke saath sat jaane ki shakti ho jaati hai aur
  • (3) uaingali se kuredane par sughatyata ka anubhav hota hai.

kaarbanik padaarthon ki upasthiti se bhi mitti mein sughatyata aati hain. chhote-chhote kanon ke kaaran sughatyata badhti hai. aitabarg (Atberg) ne sughatyata ki chaar avasthaaeain batalaai hain, jo jal ki maatra par nirbhar karti hain.

mitti ke vibhinn kanon par ek doosare se vidyut shakti dvaara khinchaav utpann hota hai, jise sansanjan kehte hain. sansanjan aur sughatyata ka paraspar sambandh hai. ek ke adhik hone se doosra bhi adhik ho jaata hai.

mitti ka rang

mittiyon ke rang bhinn bhinn hote hain. kuchh mittiyaaain safed hoti hai, kuchh laal, kuchh bhoori, kuchh kaali tatha kuchh raakh ke rang ki. kaheen kaheen peeli mitt bhi pai jaati hai. vibhinn dravyon ki upasthiti ke kaaran mitti mein ye rang aa jaate hain. mitti ke rang par bhi jalavaayu ka prabhaav padta hai. jahaaain varsha adhik hoti hai vahaaain ki mitti rangeen hoti hai. ushn pradeshon mein lauhayukt mitti pai jaati hai, jiska rang bhoora tatha peela hota hai. lauh ke aakseekaran se yeh rang praapt hota hai. kaali mitti ka rang kaarbanik padaarth tatha hyoomas (humus) ke rahane ke kaaran kaala hota hai. aisi mitti adhik varsha vaale sthaanon mein pai jaati hai.

bhaar

mitti ka adhikaansh bhaag khanij padaarthon dvaara bana hua hai. aapekshik gurutv (lagbhag 2.5) se bhaar ka gyaan hota hai. kaarbanik padaarth tatha jeevaashm adhik hone se mitti halki ho jaati hai.

kanaantarit chhidr

mitti ke kanon ke beech kuchh jagah chhooti rahati hai. in jagahon ko kanaantarik chhidr kehte hain. yeh kanon ke vinyaas par nirbhar karta hai.

pratishat kanaantarik chhidr = (1 - (aabhaasi aapekshik gurutv)/(aabhaasi nirpeksh gurutv)) x 100

isse kanaantarik pratishat chhidron ke aayatan ka pata lagaaya ja sakta hai, par chhidron ke aakaar aur roop ka pata naheen lagta. matiyaar mitti mein kanaantarik chhidr chhote hote hain, jabki balui mitti mein ve bade hote hain. isse matiyaar mitti jal adhik sokhati hai aur balui mitti kam sokhati hai. pehle prakaar ki mitti keshikeeya (capillary) hoti hai aur doosare prakaar ki akeshikeeya. kanaantarik chhidr ke kaaran mitti jalaavashoshan kshamata aati hai.

mitti ki sanrachana kanon ki sanrachana par nirbhar karti hai. kan vidyuchhakti se baindhakar samooh banaate hain. samoohon mein baindh jaane se bandhan aur majaboot ho jaata hai. samoohon ke baaaindhane mein lauh aur kaarbanik padaartho ka vishesh haath rahata hai. chhote chhote kanon ke milne se mrudukan vinyaas (crumb structure) praapt hota hai. isse paani ka thaharaav adhik hota hai aur jutaai bhi adhik sugamata se hoti hai.

kanon ki maap

kanon ko maapakar unka vargeekaran kiya gaya hai. maap se mitti ke gunon aur urvarata ka bahut kuchh pata lagta hai. yeh vargeekaran antararaashtreeya hai:

moti baaloo mein 2 mimee0 se 0.2 mimee0 vyaas tak,
maheen baaloo mein 0.2 mimee0 se 0.02 mimee0 vyaas tak,
silt (silt) mein 0.02 mimee0 se 0.002 mimee0 vyaas tak tatha
chikni mitti (clay) mein 0.002 mimee0 se kam vyaas ke kan hote hain.

in kanon ki maap stoks (Stokes) naamak vaigyaanik ke nirdhaarit sameekaran se praapt hoti hai.

mitti mein jal

mitti mein jal ka bahut bada mahatva hai. yeh jal chaar prakaar ka hota hai:

(1) aardrataavashoshi (hygroscopic) jal
(2) ant:shoshit (imbibitional) jal,
(3) keshika (capillary) jal tatha
(4) gurutveeya (gravitational) jal
  • (1) aardrataavashoshi jal mitti ke kanon mein aarkashan dvaara mila rahata hai. ise hataana kathin hai.
  • (2) ant:shoshit jal mitti mein sthit koshikaaon dvaara avashoshit hokar rahata hai.
  • (3) keshika jal paudhon ko praapt hota hai tatha
  • (4) gurutveeya jal vah jal hai jo naaliyon ke bhar jaane ke baad jama ho jaata hai. yeh jal bahaav dvaara baahar nikal jaata hai.

paudhon ka jal se sambandh

jab tak paani paryaapt rahata hai, paudhe ki jad apna kaam karti rahati hai. dheere-dheere paani jab kam ho jaata hai tab aisi avastha aa jaati hai ki paudhe ki jade paani ka avashoshan karne mein asamarth ho jaati hai aur paudhe sookhane lagte hain. aisi avastha mein mitti mein jal bahut kam rahata hai aur usako mitti se preshit karne ke liye adhik maatra mein shakti ki aavashyakta hoti hai. aisi avastha mein jo jal mitti mein hai, use mlaanigunaank (wilting coefficient) kehte hai. iski upayogita adhik hai, kyoki isse mitti ke kaulauyad (colloid) padaarth ki maatra gyaat hoti hai. iske atirikt isse nishkriya jal ki maatra ka bhi gyaan hota hai. us adhiktam jal ko, jise mitti santrupt vaayumandal ke kisi ek taap par avashoshit karti hai, aardrataagraahi gunaank (hygroscopic coefficient) athva aardrataavashoshi kshamata (hygroscopic capacity) kehte hain. aardrataagraahi gunaank ka gyaan nimnalikhit prakaar se praapt kiya jaata hai.

aardrataavashoshi gunaank = mlaani gunaank * 0.68
= (nami nirdhaaran kshamata - 21) * 0.234
= 0.007 ret + 0.082 silt + 0.39 chikni mitti + jaiv padaarth.

mitti mein sthit vaayu

mitti mein kanaantarik chhidr rahate hain. un chhidron mein jab jal naheen rahata tab vaayu pravesh karti hai. yeh vaayu mitti mein sthit jal mein bhi vilyan ki avastha mein pai jaati hai. is vaayu mein okseejan aur naaitrojan ke saath-saath kaarban daaioksaaid bhi rahata hai. okseejan paudhon ki jadon ke liye laabhadaayak hai. kaarban daaioksaaid se paudhon ki vruddhi hoti hai.

mitti mein ooshma

paudhon ki vruddhi mitti ke jal, vaayu aur taap par nirbhar karti hai. mitti ki oopari satah par paaainch prakaar se garami pahuainchati hai:

  • (1) soorya ki kirnon dvaara,
  • (2) greeshmakaal mein varsha ke garam paani dvaara,
  • (3) garam vaayu ke jalavaashp dvaara,
  • (4) mitti ke neeche garami oopar ko sanchaalit hone par mitti ki oopari satah par taap ke badhne se tatha
  • (5) kaarbanik padaartho ke sadne se.

mitti ki oopari satah par taap do prakaar se ghatata hai:

  • (k) mitti par jame paani ke bhaap bankar vaayu mein uthane se tatha
  • (kh) oopari hava ke taap ke kam rahane se.

mitti ka taap usaki gaharaai aur jalavaayu par nirbhar karta hai. gaharaai se ooshma badhti hai. greeshm ritu mein taap ooaincha hota hai aur sharadritu mein neecha.

mitti mein sthit akaarbanik padaarth

leebig (Liebig) ne 1840 i0 mein pehle pahal yeh siddhaant sthaapit kiya ki mitti mein paudhon ko upajaane ke liye akaarbanik padaarthon ki aavashyakta hoti hai. iske baad is vishay par anekaanek anusandhaan hote rahe aur aaj ham nishchit roop se jaante hain ki mitti mein nimnalikhit tattvon ka nyoonaadhik maatra mein rahana atyaavashyak hai:

adhik maatra mein rahanevaale tattv

(1) naaitrojan, (2) potaishiym, (3) fausfaras, (4) kailsiym, (5) maigneeshiym, (6) sodiym, (7) kaarban, (8) okseejan aur (9) haaidrojan.

nyoon maatra mein rahanevaale tattv

(1) lauh, (2) gandhak, (3) silika, (4) kloreen (5) mainganeej, (6) jasta, (7) nikal, (8) kobalt (9) molibdenam, (10) taamr, (11) boran tatha (12) sailiniym hain.

naaitrojan mitti mein kaarbanik aur akaarbanik donon roopon mein rahata hai, akaarbanik roop mein naaitret aur amoniya ke roop mein. kaarbanik padaartho ke sadne se amoniya banta hai. amoniya par jeevaanuon ki kriya se pehle naaitraait aur peechhe naaitret bante hain. jeevaanuon se enjaaim bante hai, jo mitti ko apaghatit karte rahate hain. fausfet aipetaait se aata hai. yeh paudhon ke fool aur fal ke liye laabhadaayak hota hai. potaishiym salfet aur kaarbonet ke roop mein mitti mein rahata hai tatha paudhon ki raasaayanik kriya mein sahaayak hota hai. isse paudhon ke patte svasth rahate hain aur proteen aur sharkara ki maatra badhti hai. kailsiym mitti mein, fausfet, kaarbonet aur salfet ke roop mein rahata hai. isse paudhon ke tane majaboot hote hain. yeh mitti ki amlata ko kam karta hai aur usase paudhon ko laabh pahuainchata hai. maigneeshiym kaarbonet ke roop mein mitti mein rahata hai. yeh paudhon mein klorofil ke banaane mein sahaayata pahuainchaata hai. kaarban, haaidrojan aur okseejan mitti mein kaarbanik padaarth aur jal dvaara praapt hote hain. paudhe mitti se ye tatv kaarbonet ke roop mein paate hain, lekin adhikaansh kaarban paudhon ko vaayu dvaara praapt hota hai. paudhe haaidrojan aur okseejan ko mitteesh se jal ke roop mein praapt karte hai. sodiym kshaareeya tatv hai aur mitti mein salfet tatha kaarbonet ke roop mein paaya jaata hai.

nyoon tatvon mein lauh atyant aavashyak hai. yeh mitti mein oksaaid ke roop mein rahata hai aur klorofil ke banane mein sahaayata pahuainchaata hai. gandhak mitti mein salfet ke roop mein rahata hai. yeh paudhon mein proteen ko badhaata hai. kloreen mitti mein kailsiym, maigneeshiym aur sodiym kloraaid ke roop mein paaya jaata hai. yeh tatv paudhon ke patton ko badhaata aur mota karta hai. anya tatv paudhon ki kriyaaon ko santulit rakhakar foolon aur falon ke banane mein sahaayak hote hain.

mitti mein sthit jaiv aur kaarbanik padaarth

mitti mein anek jeevaanu, keetaanu aur jeevajantu paae jaate hai, jo anek raasaayanik abhikriyaaeain sampann kar mitti ke gun mein parivartan karte hain. ye hai:

  • (k) sookshm jantusamooh (microfauna), jaise protojoaa (protozoa), sootrakrumi (nematodes) tatha anya krumi keet ityaadi,
  • (kh) sookshm vanaspatismooh (microflora) jaise kaai ya shaivaal (algae), daayatam (diatom), kavak, (fungi) aiktinomaaiseej (actinomyces) aadi,
  • (g) jeevaanu (bacteria), jinmein svajeevi (autotropic), naaitreekaari, gandhakakaari, lauh, parajeevi (heterotrophic), sahajeevi (symbiotic) svatantrajeevi, vaatajeevi, aijotobaiktar (azotobacter), avaatajeevi amoneekaarak tatha seluloj utpaadak sammilit hai,
  • (gh) keeton mein kruntak (rodent), insektivora, milipeed (millipede), so bag (sow bugs), maaits (mites), ghogha, situaa shatapad, (centipedes), makadi aur kechuaa hain.

mitti me jeevaanuon ka sthaan bade mahatva ka hai. inse mitti ke bhautikgun badalate hain aur usaki urvarata badhti hai.

mitti mein sthit kalil par vinimay kriya

mitti mein baareek kan kalil (colloid) ke roop mein rahate hain. un par aayanon (ions) ki vinimay kriya hoti hai. yeh kriya paudhon ki jadon ko poshak dravya pahunchaane me sahaayak hoti hai. isaliye yeh kriya bade mahatva ki hai. kalil kaarbanik aur akaarbanik donon ho sakte hain. ye donon paraspar mile rahate hain. akaarbanik kalil ailyoomina aur silika ke yog se bante hain. silika kalil par rin vidyut rahata hai. ye dhan aayan ka avashoshan karte hai. dhan aayan poshak tatv hota hai. kaarbanik kalil jal aur poshak tatv ka adhik avashoshan karta hai. kalil rin aayan ka bhi avashoshan karte hain.

mitti mein amlata aur kshaareeyata

mitti mein amlata aur kshaareeyata kalil se utpann hoti hai. jab kalil mein kshaareeya tatv adhik rahata hai tab kshaareeyata aur haaidrojan adhik avashoshit rahata hai tab amlata, utpann hoti hai. amlata aur kshaareeyata donon paudhon ke liye haanikaarak hain. paudhon ki amlata aur kshaareeyata haaidrojan aayan ke saandran se maapi jaati hai. ise peeech dvaara prakat karte hain. yadi peeech 1 se 6 hai, to mitti amleeya aur 8 se 14 hai, to mitti kshaareeya hoti hai. vibhinn peeech par tatvon ka avashoshan vibhinn hota hai. amlata ko door karne ke liye choone ya jipsam ka prayog hota hai.

mitti ka vishleshan

mitti ke raasaayanik aur bhautik vishleshan kiye jaate hain. raasaayanik vishleshan se mitti ke poshak dravyon ka pata lagta hai aur bhautik vishleshan se mitti ke kanon ki sthiti ka gyaan hota hai. raasaayanik vishleshan naaitrojan, fausfet (poorn aur praapya), potaash (poorn aur praapya) aur jal ki maatra nirdhaarit ki jaati hai.

mruda ke prakaar

sarvapratham 1879 i0 mein dok shaiv ne mitti ka vargeekaran kiya aur mitti ko saamaanya aur asaamaanya mitti mein vibhaajit kiya. Bhaarat ki mittiyaaain sthool roop se paaainch vargo mein vibhaajit ki gayi hai:

  1. jalodh mitti ya kachhaar mitti (Alluvial soil),
  2. kaali mitti ya regur mitti (Black soil),
  3. laal mitti (Red soil),
  4. laitaraait mitti (Laterite) tatha
  5. maru mitti (desert soil).

bhaarateeya krushi anusandhaan parishad (ICAR) ne Bhaarat ki mitti ko aath samoohon mein baanta hai:

(1) jalodh mitti
(2) kaali mitti
(3) laal evam peeli mitti
(4) laitaraait mitti
(5) shushk mruda (Arid soils)
(6) lavan mruda (Saline soils)
(7) peetamaya mruda (Peaty soil) tatha jaiv mruda (Organic soils)
(8) van mruda (Forest soils)

jal ko avashoshan karne ki kshamata sabse adhik domat mitti mein hoti hai. mruda sanrakshan ke liye 1953 mein kendreeya mruda sanrakshan board ki sthaapana ki gayi thi. maroosthal ki samasya ke adhyayan ke liye Rajasthan ko Jodhpur mein anusandhaan kendra banaaye gaye hain.

jalodh mitti (domat mitti)

kshetrafal ke drushtikon se Bhaarat me sabse adhik kshetrafal par jalodh mitti paaye jaate hai. Bhaarat ke kul kshetrafal ka lagbhag 22 pratisht bhaag par jalaadh mitti milte hai. jalodh mitti ka nirmaan nadiyon ke nikshepan se hota hai. jalodh mitti mein naaitrojan evam fausforas ki maatra kam hoti hai. yeh kaaran hai ki jalodh mitti mein yooriya khaad daalna fasal ke utpaadan ke liye aavashyak hota hai. jalodh mitti mein potaash evam choona ki paryaapt maatra hoti hai. Bhaarat mein uttar ka maidaan (ganga ka maidaan) sindh ka maidaan, brahmaputr ka maidaan godaavari ka maidaan, kaaveri ka maidaan nadiyon jalodh mitti ke nikshepan se bane hai. jalodh ki mitti gehooain ke fasal ke liye uttam maana jaata hai. iske alaava ismein dhaan evam aaloo ki kheti bhi ki jaati hai. jalodh mitti ka nirmaan balui mitti evam chikni mitti ke milne se hui hai. jalodh mitti mein hi baangar evam khaadar mitti aate hai. baangar puraane jalodh mitti ko evam khaadar naye jalodh mitti ko kaha jaata hai. jalodh mitti ka rang halke dhoosar rang ka hota hai.

kaali mitti

kaali mitti kshetrafal ki drushtikon se Bhaarat mein doosra sthaan rakhata hai. Bhaarat mein sabse jyaada kaali mitti Maharashtra mein evam doosare sthaan par Gujarat praant hai. kaali mitti ka nirmaan jvaalaamukhi ke udagaar ke kaaran baisaalt chattaan ke nirmaan hone se hui. baisaalt ke tootan se kaali mitti ka nirmaan hota hai. dakshin Bhaarat mein kaali mitti ko 'regoor' (regood) kaha jaata hai. Kerala mein kaal mitti ko 'shaali' kaha jaata hai. uttar Bhaarat mein kaali mitti ko 'kevaal' ke naam se jaana jaata hai.

kaali mitti mein bhi naaitrojan evam fausforas ki maatra kam hoti hai. ismein loha, choona, maigneeshiym evam eloomina ki maatra adhik haati hai. kaali mitti mein potaash ki maatra bhi paryaapt hoti hai.

kaali mitti kapaas ke utpaadan ke liye sabse uttam maani jaati hai. iske alaava kaali mitti mein chaaval ki kheti bhi achhi hoti hai. kaali mitti mein masoor, chana, khesaadi ki bhi achhi upaj hoti hai.

kaali mitti mein lohe ki ansh adhik hone ke kaaran iska rang kaala hota hai. kaali mitti mein jal jaldi naheen sukhata hai arthaat iske dvaara avashoshit jal adhik dinon tak bana rahata hai, jisse is mitti mein dhaan ki upaj adhik hoti hai. kaali mitti sukhane par bahut adhik kadi evam bheegane par turant chipchipa ho jaati hai. Bhaarat mein lagbhag 5.46 lakh varg kimee0 par kaali mitti ka vistaar hai.

laal mitti

kshetrafal ke drushtikon se Bhaarat mein laal mitti ka teesara sthaan hai. Bhaarat mein 5.18 lakh varg kimee0 par laal mitti ka vistaar hai. laal mitti ka nirmaan grenaait chattaan ke tootane se hui hai. grenaait chattaan aagneya shail ka udaaharan hai. Bhaarat mein kshetrafal ki drushtikon se sabse adhik kshetrafal par Tamil Nadu raajya mein laal mitti vistrut hai. laal mitti ke neeche adhikaansh khanij milte hain.

laal mitti me bhi naaitrojan evam fausforas ki maatra kam hoti hai. laal mitti me maujood aayaranar oksaaid(Fe2O3) ke kaaran iska rang laal dikhaai padta hai. laal mitti fasal ke utpaadan ke liye achhi naheen maani jaati hai. ismein jyaada karke mote anaaj jaise- jvaar, baajara, mooaingafali, arahar, makai, ityaadi hote hai. kuchh had tak dhaan ki kheti is mitti mein ki jaati hai, lekin kaali mitti ke apeksha dhaan ka bhi utpaadan kam hota hai. Tamil Nadu ke baad chhateesagadh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh evam udeesa praapt mein bhi laal mitti milte hai.

peeli mitti - Bhaarat mein sabse adhik peeli mitti Kerala raajya mein hai. jis kshetr mein laal mitti hote hai evam us mitti mein adhik varsha hoti hai to adhik varsha ke kaaran laal mitti ke raasaayanik tatv alag ho jaate hai, jismein us mitti ka rang peela mitti dikhaai dene lagta hai.

laiteraait mitti

Bhaarat mein kshetrafal ke drushtikon se laiteraait mitti ko chautha sthaan praapt hai. yeh mitti Bhaarat mein 1.26 lakh varg kimee0 kshetr par faila hua hai. laiteraait mitti mein lauh oksaaid evam alyoominiym oksaaid ki maatra adhik hoti hai lekin naaitrojan, fausforas, potaash, chuna evam kaarbanik tatvon ki kami paayi jaati hai. laiteraait mitti chai evam kauaifi fasal ke liye sabse achhi maani jaati hai. Bhaarat mein laiteraait mitti asam, Karnataka evam Tamil Nadu raajya mein adhik maatra mein paaye jaate hai. yeh mitti pahaadi evam pathaari kshetr mein paaye jaate hai. yeh mitti kaajoo fasal ke liye sabse achhi maani jaati hai. ismein lauh aauksaaid evam alyoominiym oksaaid ki maatra adhik hoti hai, lekin is mitti mein naaitrojan, faasforas, potaas evam choona ki kami hoti hai.

is mitti ki bhi rang laal hoti hai. jab varsha hoti hai tab is mitti se choona-patthar bahakar alag ho jaati hai, jiske kaaran yeh mitti sukhane par lohe ke samaan kada ho jaati hai.

parvateeya mitti

parvateeya mitti mein kankad evam patthar ki maatra adhik hoti hai. parvateeya mitti mein bhi potaash, faasforas evam choone ki kami hoti hai. pahaadi kshetr mein khaas karke baagabaani krushi hoti hai. pahaadi kshetr mein hi jhoom kheti hoti hai. jhoom kheti sabse jyaada naagalaind mein ki jaati hai. parvateeya kshetr mein sabse jyaada garam masaala ki kheti ki jaati hai.

shushk evam maroosthaleeya mitti

shushk evam maroosthaleeya mitti mein ghulanasheel lavan evam faasforas ki maatra adhik hoti hai. is mitti mein naaitrojan evam kaarbanik tatv ki maatra kam hoti hai. yeh mitti telahan ke utpaadan ke liye adhik uparyukt maani jaati hai. jal ki vyavastha hone ke baad maroosthaleeya mitti mein bhi achhi fasal ki utpaadan hoti hai. is mitti mein tilhan ke alaava jvaar, baajara evam raagi ki kheti hoti hai.

lavaneeya mitti ya kshaareeya mitti

lavaneeya mitti ko kshaareeya mitti, reh mitti, usar mitti evam kallar mitti ke naam se jaana jaata hai. kshaareeya mitti vaise kshetr mein paaye jaate hain, jahaaain par jal ki nikaas ki suvidha naheen hoti hai. vaise kshetr ki mitti mein sodiym, kailsiym evam maigneeshiym ki maatra badh jaati hai, jisse vah mitti kshaareeya ho jaati hai. kshaareeya mitti ka nirmaan samudratateeya maidaan mein adhik hoti hai. ismein naaitrojan ki maatra kam hoti hai.

Bhaarat mein kshaareeya mitti Punjab, Haryana, pashchimi Rajasthan evam Kerala ke tatavarti kshetr mein paaye jaate hain. kshaareeya mitti mein naariyl ki achhi kheti hoti hai.

jaivik mitti (peet mitti)

jaivik mitti ko daladali mitti ke naam se jaana jaata hai. Bhaarat mein daladali mitti ka kshetr Kerala, uttaraakhand evam pashchim Bengal mein paaye jaate hai. daladali mitti mein bhi fausforas evam potaash ki maatra kam hoti hai, lekin lavan ki maatra adhik hoti hai. daladali mitti bhi fasal ke utpaadan ke liye achhi maani jaati hai.

krushya bhoomi

dekhein, krushya bhoomi (arable soil)

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain