mruchhakatikm

raaja ravi varma dvaara chitrit vasantasena

mruchhakatikm (arthaat, mitti ki gaadi) sanskrut naatya saahitya mein sabse adhik lokapriya roopak hai. ismein 10 ank hai. iske rachanaakaar mahaaraaj shoodrak hain. naatak ki prushtabhoomi paataliputr (aadhunik Patna) hai. bharat ke anusaar das roopon mein se yeh 'mishr prakaran' ka sarvottam nidrshan hai. 'mruchhakatikm' naatak iska pramaan hai ki antim aadmi ko saahitya mein jagah dene ki parampara Bhaarat ko viraasat mein mili hai jahaaain chor, ganika, gareeb braahman, daasi, naai jaise log dusht raaja ki satta palat kar ganaraajya sthaapit kar antim aadmi se naayakatv ko praapt hote hain.

anukram

kathaavastu

mruchhakatikm ki kathaavastu kavi pratibha se prasoot hai. ujjayayini ka nivaasi saarthavaah vipravar chaaroodatt is prakaran ka naayak hai aur daakhanita ke kul mein utpann vasantasena naayika hai. chaaroodatt ki patni dhoota poorvaparigrah ke anusaar jyeshtha hai jisse chaaroodatt ko rohitsen naam ka ek putr hai. chaaroodatt kisi samay bahut samruddh tha parantu vah apne daya daakshinya ke ke kaaran nirdhan ho chala tha, tathaapi praamaanikta, saujanya evam audaarya ke naate usaki mahati pratishtha thi. vasantasena nagar ki shobha hai, atyant udaar, manasvini evam vyavahaarakushala, roopagunasanpanna saadhaarani navayauvana naayika uttam prakruti ki hai aur vah aasaadhaaran gunon se mugdh ho us par nirvyaaj prem karti hai. naayak ki yon ek saadhaarani aur ek sveeya naayika hone ke kaaran yeh sankeern prakaran maana jaata hai.

iski kathaavastu tatkaaleen samaaj ka poorn roop se pratinidhitv karti hai. yeh keval vyaktigat vishay par hi naheen apitu is yug ki shaasan vyavastha evam raajya sthiti par bhi prachur prakaash daalata hai. saath hi saath vah naagrik jeevan ka bhi yathaavat chitr ankit karta hai. ismein nagar ki saaj-sajaavat, vaaraanganaaon ka vyavahaar, das pratha, dyoot kreeda, vit ki dhoortata, chauryakarm, nyaayaalaya mein nyaayanirnaya ki vyavastha, avaanchhit raaja ke prati praja ke droh, evam janamat ke prabhutv ka saamaajik svaroop bhali bhaaainti chitrit kiya gaya hai. saath hi samaaj mein daridrajan ki sthiti, guniyon ka sanmaan, sukh du:kh mein samaroop maitri ke bidrshan, upakrut varg ki krutajnyaata, nirparaadh ke prati dand par kshobh, raaj vallabhon ke atyaachaar, vaaranaari ki samruddhi evam udaarata, pranaya ki vedi par balidaan, kulaanganaaon ka aadarsh charitra jaise vaiyaktik vishyon par bhi prakaash daala gaya hai. is visheshaata ke kaaran yeh yaatharthavaadi rachana sanskrut saahitya mein anoothi hai. isi kaaran yeh paashchaatya sahrudayon ka atyadhik priya lagi. iska anuvaad vividh bhaashaaon mein ho chuka hai aur Bhaarat tatha sudoor amereeka, roos, France, Germany, Italy, inglaid ke anek rangamanchon par iska safal abhinay bhi kiya ja chuka hai.

mruchhakatik' ki katha ka kendra hai ujjayini. vah itna bada nagar hai ki paataliputr ka sanvaahak usaki prasiddhi sunakar basane ko, dhandha praapt karne ko, aata hai. hamein ismein chaaturvarnya ka samaaj milta hai – braahman, kshatriya, vaishya aur shoodr. braahmanon ka mukhya kaam purohitaai tha. par ve raajakaaj mein bhi dilchaspi lete the aur jo is katha mein ek badi gambheer baat milti hai vah yeh hai ki yahaaain braahman, vyaapaari aur nimnavarn milkar madaandh kshatriya raajya ko ukhaad feinkate hain. yeh dhyaan dene yogya baat hai. aur fir sochane ki baat yeh hai ki is katha ka lekhak raaja shoodrak maana jaata hai jo kshatriyon mein shreshth kaha gaya hai.

das ankon ka parichay

mruchhakatik mein das ank hain, pratyek ank mein kai drushya hain. is naatak mein ek sachcharitr kintu gareeb braahman chaarudatt ki kahaani hai jise saundaryamayi ganika vasantasena prem karti hai. isi ke saath aaryak ki raajyapraapti ki raajaneetik katha bhi guainthi hui hai. krutikaar ne donon kathaaon ko kushalata se joda hai. yeh naatak mote taur par do hisson mein hain- pehla, vasantasena aur chaarudatt ka prem-prasang tatha doosra, raajya vidroh ke saath aaryak ko raajapad ki praapti.

pehla ank (alankaaranyaas) : is ank mein yeh katha hai ki raaja ka saala shaakaar ujjayini ki prasiddh ganika vasantasena ko paana chaahata hai. apne do saathiyon ke saath ek aaindheri raat mein vah vasantasena ka peechha karta hai. bhayabheet vasantasena chaarudatt ke ghar mein shaaran leti hai. choron se bachane ki baat kehkar vah apne saare svarn-aabhooshaan chaarudatt ke ghar mein dharohar ke roop mein chhod deti hai.

doosra ank (dyootakaar-sanvaahak) : sanvaahak, jo pehle chaarudatt ki seva mein tha, jue ki lat lagne par bahut sa dhan haar jaata hai. bachaav ke liye vah vasantasena ke ghar shaaran leta hai, jo apna kangan dekar use rinamukt karti hai. vah bauddh-bhikshu ban jaata hai.

teesara ank (sandhichhed) : shaarvilk naam ka braahman vasantasena ki daasi madanika se prem karta hai. use daasatv se chhudaane ke liye vah ek raat chaarudatt ke ghar mein seindh lagaakar vasantasena dvaara dharohar rakhe gaye sone ke saare aabhooshan chura leta hai. udhar chaarudatt ki pativrata patni dhoota apne pati ko lokaninda se bachaane ke liye, churaae gaye aabhooshaanon ke badle mein apni keemati ratnaavali deti hai, chaarudatt vah ratnaavali dekar vidooshak maitreya ko vasantasena ke ghar bhejata hai.

chautha ank (madanika-sharvilk) : shaarvilk churaae hue aabhooshaan lekar madanika ko daasatv se mukt karaane ke liye vasantasena ke ghar pahuainchata hai. chori ki baat sunakar madanika bahut dukhi hoti hai. is galati ko sudhaarane ki bhaavana se vah shaarvilk ko yeh samajhaati hai ki chori ke aabhooshaan vasantasena ko saunp dene se na vah chor rahega, na chaarudatt ke sir par rin rahega aur vasantasena ke aabhooshan use vaapis mil jaaeainge, shaarvilk aisa hi karta hai. vah vasantasena se kehta hai ki chaarudatt ne yeh sandesh bheja hai ki ghar jarjar hone se ham svarnapaatr ko surakshit naheen rakh sakte, at: aap ise apne paas rakhein. vasantasena sandesh ke badle mein kuchh le jaane ki baat kehkar madanika ko shaarvilk ko saunp deti hai. isi ank mein vidooshak vasantasena se milkar kehta hai ki svarnapaatr jue mein haar gaye hain isliye yeh ratnaavali sveekaar karein. vasantasena vaastavikta jaanti hai, par kuchh naheen karti. vah shaam ko chaarudatt ke ghar aane ka nishchaya karti hai.

paaainchavaaain ank (durdin) : is ank mein varsha-ritu varnan hua hai. vasantasena chaarudatt se milti hai aur varsha ki jhadi ke kaaran raat usi ke ghar ruk jaati hai.

chhatha ank (pravahanavipryaya) : subah chaarudatt pushpakarandak udyaan mein ghoomane jaata hai, vasantasena ke liye gaadi taiyaar rakhane ka aadesh dekar taaki vah usamein udyaan tak yaatra kar sake. yaheen vasantasena chaarudatt ke putr rohasen ko yeh jid karte dekhti hai ki vah mitti ki gaadi se naheen svarn-shakatika (sone ki gaadi) se khelna chaahata hai. vasantasena saare aabhooshaan mitti ki gaadi mein rakhakar kehti hai ki isse sone ki gaadi bana lena. vasantasena chaarudatt se udyaan mein bheint karne niklati hai, par bhool se usi sthaan par khadi shaakaar ki gaadi mein baith jaati hai. udhar kaaraagaar todkar, rakshak ko maarkar nikal bhaaga gvaale ka beta aaryak, bachaav ke liye chaarudatt ke vaahan mein chadh jaata hai. raaste mein do police ke sipaahi- veerak aur chandanak vaahan dekhte bhi hain, par unamein se ek aaryak ko raksha karne ka vachan dekar jaane deta hai.

saatavaaain ank (aaryakaapaharan) : raaja paalak ne siddhon ki bhavishyavaani par vishvaas karke jis aaryak naamak vyakti ko bandi bana liya tha, jab vah bandhan todkar bachata hua chaarudatt ki gaadi mein chadhkar udyaan mein chaarudatt ke samaksh aata hai aur unase shaaran maaaingata hai. chaarudatt use surakshit apni gaadi mein baahar niklava deta hai.

aathavaaain ank (vasantasena-motan) : bhool se shaakaar ki gaadi mein baithi vasantasena jab udyaan mein pahuainchati hai to chaarudatt ke sthaan par dusht shaakaar se usaka saamana hota hai. vasantasena ek baar fir shaakaar ke changul mein fains jaati hai, shaakaar ka aagrah na maanane par vah vasantasena ka gala ghont deta hai aur use mara jaanakar patton se dhak kar chala jaata hai. tabhi juaari se bauddh-bhikshu ban chuka sanvaahak mrutapraaya vasantasena ko vihaar mein laakar punarjeevan deta hai.

navaaain ank (vyavahaar) : shaakaar chaarudatt ko vasantasena ki hatya ka aaropi banaata hai. nyaayaalaya mein vivaad chalta hai, chaarudatt swayam ko nirdosh saabit naheen kar paata. dukhi chaarudatt apne mitr maitreya ki prateeksha karta hai, jo vasantasena ke paas un aabhooshanon ko lautaane gaya tha jo vasantasena ne rohasen ki mitti ki gaadi ke sthaan par sone ki gaadi bana lene ko de diye the. isi kshan vahi aabhooshan lekar maitreya aa jaata hai. kintu baatcheet karte hue maitreya se bagal mein sambhaale hue ve aabhooshaan sabke saamane gir padte hain aur yeh maan liya jaata hai ki aabhooshanon ke lobh mein chaarudatt ne hi vasantasena ki hatya ki hai. use mrutyudand ka aadesh dekar vadhasthal ki or le jaaya jaata hai.

dasavaaain ank (sanhaar) : is ank mein ek to shaakaar ka sevak sthavarak chaarudatt ko nirdosh bataata hai, par usaka koi vishvaas naheen karta. doosare theek isi samay praan bachaane vaale bauddh-bhikshu bane sanvaahak ke saath aakar vasantasena shaakaar ki dushtata vyakt kar deti hai aur chaarudatt jhoothe aarop se mukt ho jaata hai. idhar raajya mein nae raaja aaryak ka aagaman hota hai, vah na keval aarop mukt chaarudatt ko raajya deta hai, balki jhootha aarop lagaane ke kaaran shaakaar ko mrutyu-dand bhi deta hai. kintu chaarudatt ke kehne par shaakaar ko bhi kshama kar diya jaata hai. pativrata dhoota chaarudatt ke liye mrutyu-dand ka samaachaar sunakar agni-pravesh ko tatpar ho uthati hai, chaarudatt upasthit hokar is dukhad ghatna ko rokata hai. raaja aaryak prasann hokar vasantasena ko 'vadhoo' ke pad se vibhooshit karta hai. bhikshu sanvaahak ko sab vihaaron ka kulapati bana diya jaata hai. das sthavarak ko daasata se mukt kiya jaata hai, mrutyudand dene vaale chaandaalon ko chaandaalon ka pramukh bana diya jaata hai, yahaaain tak ki shaakaar ko bhi abhayadaan diya jaata hai. in sukhad ghatnaaon ke saath naatak samaapt hota hai.

saahityik sameeksha

mruchhakatik ki na keval kathaavastu hi atyant rochak hai, apitu kavi ki charitra chitran ki chaaturi bahut uchch koti ki hai. yadyapi ismein pradhaan ras vipralanbh shrungaar hai tathaapi haasya, karoona, bhayaanak evam vaatsalya jaise hrudayahaari vividh rason ka sahaj saamanjasya hai. greek naatyakala ki drushti se bhi parakhe jaane par iska moolya paashchaatya maneeshiyon dvaara bahut ooaincha aaainka gaya hai. iski bhaasha prasaad gun se sampann ho atyant praanjal hai. praakrut ke vividh svaroopon ka darshan ismein hota hai- praachya, maagadhi aur shauraseni ke atirikt, sarvottam praakrut mahaaraashtri aur aavanti ke bhavya nidrshan yahaaain upalabdh hote hain. griyrsan ke anusaar is prakaran mein shaakaari vibhaasha mein takki praakrut ka bhi prayog paaya jaata hai. shabdachayan mein maadhuri evam arthavyakti ki or kavi ne savishesh dhyaan diya hai, jisse aavanti evam vaidarbhi reeti ka nirvaah poorn roop se hua hai.

mruchhakatik mein do kathaaeain hain. ek chaarudatt ki, doosari aaryak ki. gunaadhya ki bruhatkatha mein gopaal daarak aaryak ke vidroh ki katha hai. bruhatkatha apne mool roop mein paishaachi bhaasha mein 'baddakaha' ke naam se likhi gayi thi. isse prakat hota hai ki yeh naatak isvi pehli shati ya doosari shati ka hai.

yeh naatak sanskrut saahitya mein apna vishesh sthaan rakhata hai. isamein–

  • (1) ganika ka prem hai. vishuddh prem, dhan ke liye naheen; kyonki vasantasena daridr chaarudatt se prem karti hai. ganika kalaaeain jaanane waali ooainche darje ki veshyaaeain hoti theen, jinka samaaj mein aadar hota tha. greek logon mein aisi hi 'hitaayara' hua karti theen.
  • (2) ganika gruhasthi aur prem ki adhikaarini banti hai, vadhoo banti hai aur kavi use samaaj ke sammaanya purush braahman chaarudatt se byaahata hai. byaah karaata hai, rakhail naheen banaata. stri-vidroh ke prati kavi ki sahaanubhooti hai. paaainchavein ank mein hi chaarudatt aur vasantasena mil jaate hain, parantu lekhak ka uddeshya vaheen poora naheen hota. vah dasvein ank tak katha badhaakar raaja ki sammati dilvaakar premapaatr naheen, vivaah karaata hai. vasantasena ant:pur mein pahuainchana chaahati hai aur pahuainch jaati hai. lekhak ne iraadatan yeh nateeja apne saamane rakha hai.
  • (3) is naatak mein kachahari mein hone vaale paap aur raajakaaj ki pol ka bada yathaarthavaadi chitran hai, janta ke vidroh ki katha hai.
  • (4) is naatak ka naayak raaja naheen hai, vyaapaari hai, jo vyaapaari-varg ke utthaan ka prateek hai.
  • (5) ismein do bhaashaaon ka prayog hai, jaisa ki praay: sanskrut ke aur naatakon mein hai. raaja, braahman aur padhe-likhe log sanskrut bolte hain aur striyaan aur nichle tabake ke log praakrut.

ye iski visheshataaeain hain. is naatak ki raajaneetik visheshata yeh hai ki ismein kshatriya raaja bura bataaya gaya hai. gop-putr 'aaryak' ek gvaala hai, jise kavi raaja banaata hai. yadyapi kavi varnaashram ko maanata hai, par vah gop ko hi raaja banaata hai.

aisa lagta hai ki yeh moolakatha puraani hai aur sambhavat: yeh ghatna koi vaastavik ghatna hai jo kinvadanti mein rah gayi. daasapratha ke ladkhadaate samaaj ka chitran bahut sundar hua hai aur yeh hamein chaanakya ke samay mein milta hai, jab 'aarya' shabd 'naagrik' (roman : 'Citizen') ke rup mein prayukt milta hai. ho sakta hai, koi puraani kinvadanti chaanakya ke baad ke samay mein is katha mein utar I ho. buddh ke samay mein vyaapaariyon ka utkarsh bhi kaafi hua tha. tab ujjayini ka raajya alag tha, kosal ka alag. yahaaain bhi ujjayini ka varnan hai. ek jagah lagta hai ki us samay bhi Bhaarat ki ekta ka aabhaas tha, jab kaha gaya hai ki 'saari pruthvi aaryak ne jeet li' – vah pruthvi jiski kailaas pataaka hai. dekha jaae to kavi yathaarthavaadi tha aur nishpaksh tha. usane sabki achhaaiyaaain aur buraaiyaaain dikhaai hain aur badi gaharaai se chitran kiya hai. yahi usaki safalta ka kaaran hai.

rachanaakaar evam rachanaakaal

yeh mahaaraaj shoodrak ki kruti maani jaati hai jo bhaas aur kaalidaas ki bhaanti raaj kavi hue hai. mruchhakatik isavi pratham shati ke lagbhag ki rachana kahi ja sakti hai. kaha jaata hai, bhaasapraneet 'chaaroodatt' naamak chaturangi roopak ki kathaavastu ko parivrdhit kar kisi paravarti shoodr kavi ke dvaara mruchhakatik ki rachana hui hai. vastut: iski kathaavastu ka aadhaar bruhatkatha aur kathaasaritsaagar mein varnit kathaaon mein milta hai.

praacheenata

mruchhakatik' ki katha ka kendra hai ujjayini. vah itna bada nagar hai ki paataliputr ka sanvaahak usaki prasiddhi sunakar basane ko, dhandha praapt karne ko, aata hai. us samay vah paataliputr ko mahanagar naheen kehta. iska matlab hai ki us samay paataliputr se adhik mahatva ujjayini ka tha. spasht hi paataliputr buddh ke samay mein paataliputr (gram) tha, jabki ujjayini mein mahaasen chand pradyot ka samruddh raajya tha. doosari praacheenata hai ki ismein das pratha bahut hai. das-daasi dhan dekar aajaad kar liye jaate the. us samaaj mein ganika bhi vadhoo ban jaati thi. yeh sab baatein aise samaaj ki hain, jahaaain zyaada kadaai naheen milti, jo baad mein chaaloo hui thi. balki kavi ne ganika ko vadhoo banaakar samaaj mein ek naya aadarsh rakha hai. usamein vidroh ki bhaavana hai. atyaachaari ko vah pashu ki tarah maravaata hai, stri ko ooaincha uthaata tatha das sthaavarak ko aajaad karta hai. yon kah sakte hain ki yeh naatak joki shaastreeya shabdon mein prakaran hai – bahut hi mahattvapoorn hai. kaun jaanta hai, aise na jaane kitne saamaajik naatak kaal ke gaal mein kho gaye. hoonon se lekar turkon tak ke vidhvanson ne na jaane kitne granth-ratn jala daale !

anuvaad evam teekaaeain

mruchhakatik par anek teekaaeain likhi gayi. iske anek anuvaad bhi hue hai aur anek sanskaran bhi prakaashit ho chuke hain. unamein se sarvapraacheen teeka pruthveedhar ki hai. jeevaanand ne bhi ek vyaapak teeka likhi. haridaas ki vyaakhya atyant maarmik hai. aarthar raayadar dvaara iska angreji anuvaad Harvard yunivrsiti series mein prakaashit hua hai.

baahari kadiyaaain