motaravaahan

kaarl benj's "velo"model (1894) -sabse pehle gaadiyon ke hod mein I
2000cardistribution.svg
vishv maanachitr prati 1000 log

gaadi, motaravaahan , car, motarakaar ya automobile ek pahiyon wala vaahan hai, jo yaatriyon ke parivhan ke kaam aata hai; aur jo apna engine ya motor bhi swayam uthaata hai. is shabd ki adhikaansh paribhaashaaon ke anusaar motaravaahan mukhya roop se sadkon par chalaane ke liye hain, ek se aath logon kon baithaane ke liye hain, aamtaur par jinke chaar pahiye hote hain, jinka nirmaan mukhya roop se saamaan[1] ke upeksha logon ke parivhan ke liye kiya jaata hai.

motarakaar shabd ka prayog vidyutikrut rel pranaali ke sandarbh mein, ek aisi car ke liye prayukt hota hai, jo ek chhota lokomotiv hone ke saath hi, isame logon aur saamaan ke liye jagah bhi hoti hai. ye lokomotiv car upanagareeya maargon mein antarnagareeya rel pranaaliyon mein istemaal ki jaati hain.

2002 tak, 590 million yaatri karein duniya bhar mein thi (mote taur par ek car prati gyaarah log).[2]

anukram

itihaas

yadyapi nikolas-Yusuf Cugnot (Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot) ko aksar pehli swayam chalne waali mekenikl vaahan ya automobile ko 1769 mein banaane ka shreya diya jaata hai, jo ek maujooda ghodon ke sankarshan vaahan se kiya, par ye vivaadit hai aur kuchh ka yeh daava hai, Cugnot ke teen vheelar kabhi chal nahi paayi aur sthir thi. kuchh daava karte hain, frdinaand Verbiest (Ferdinand Verbiest), jo ek sadasya the cheen ke isaai meeshan par (Jesuit mission in China), unhonne pehli bhaap dvaara chale vaale vaahan ka nirmaan kiya 1672, jo chhote paimaane par ki gayi thi aur cheen ke samraat ke liye ek khilauna ke roop mein tha, jo ek driver ya ek yaatri uthaane mein asamarth tha, lekin ye mumkin hai ki vo pehla nirmaan tha ek bhaap-vaahan ka ('auto mobile ')[3][4].ni:sandeh richrd terivetikk ne (Richard Trevithick) nirmaan aur pradarshan kiya puffing devil road lokomotiv ka 1801 mein, kai logon ka ye maanana tha ki ye pehla pradarshan tha bhaap dvaara chale waali sadak vaahan ka, haalaaainki ye asamarth thi der tak steem preshar ko bana ke rakhane mein aur jiska ham koi bhi uchit prayog nahi kar sakte the.

roos mein 1780 mein ivaan kulibin (Ivan Kulibin) ne hyooman pedaalled vaahan par bhaap engine dvaara kaam shuroo kiya. vah us par 1791 mein kaam khatm kar diya.iski kuchh visheshataaon mein shaamil tha flyvheel (flywheel),break (brake),giyr box (gear box), aur bearing (bearing), jo ek aadhunik automobile ki bhi visheshataaen hain. unke design mein teen pahiye the. durbhaagya vash, unke aur bhi aavishkaaron ke tarah, sarkaar sambhaavit baajaar ko dekhne mein vifal rahi aur ise aage viksit naheen tha.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

frankois isaak di rivaaj (Françaois Isaac de Rivaz), ek Swiss aavishkaarak the jinhonne pehla aantarik dahan engine, ko dijaain kiya 1806 mein, jismein tel mishran tha haaidrojan aur aakseejan ka aur iska istemaal vishv ki pehli vaahan, albit rudimeintaari, ka vikaas karne mein hua .ye design bahut safal naheen rahi, yahi kissa in logo ke maamale mein bhi raha jaise shamooel brown (Samuel Brown), shamooel more (Samuel Morey) aur eteen lenoir (Éaatienne Lenoir), jahaaain pratyak ne vaahan banaaya (carriages, gaadiyaan, ya naukaaon ko leke) jo sanchaalit the uddand aantarik dahan injano dvaara .[15]

November 1881 mein freinch aavishkaarak Gustave Trouvé (Gustave Trouvé) ne pradarshan kiya teen pahiyon wala aatomobaail jo bijli dvaara chalti thi. ye antarraashtreeya pradarshani tha vidyut ka peris mein .[16]

yadyapi kai anya jarman engineer (Gottlieb Daimler (Gottlieb Daimler), vilhem Maybach (Wilhelm Maybach) aur Siegfried maakrs (Siegfried Marcus)) is samay issi samasya par kaarya kar rahein the, kaarl benj ko aamtaur par aadhunik automobile ke aavishkaarak ke roop mein sveekaar kiya gaya hai.[15]

kaarl beinj ne 1885 mein Germany ke mainahem (Mannheim) sehar mein, apne hi chaar stroke cycle gaisoleen enagine (four-stroke cycle gasoline engine) dvaara sanchaalit ek automobile banaai, jise agale saal January me pateint diya gaya uske pramukh company, beinj & Cie. (Benz & Cie.) ke tatvaavadhaan mein, jiski sthaapana 1883 mein hui thi. yeh ekintegral (integral) dijaain tha jismein kissi bhi maujooda ghatakon ka prayog kiye bina anya nae praudyogikeeya tatvon ka istamaal kiya ek nai avadhaarana banane ke liye .yahi ise peteint yogya banaaya .unhonne 1888 mein apne utpaadan vaahanon ko bachana shuroo kiya.

kaarl benj
ek mool tasveer beinj peteint Motorwagon, jo pehli baar 1885 me banaaya gaya tha aur is avadhaarana ke liye peteint se sammaanit kiya gaya tha

1879 me benj ko usaki pehli engine ke lae pateint diya gaya, jisko usane 1878 me dijaain kiya tha. uske anya kai aavishkaaron me bhi aantarik dahan engine ke istemaal ko sambhav banaaya,

unki pehli motorwagon (Motorwagon) 1885 me banaaya gaya tha aur unhein iske aavishkaar aur ऍplikeshan ke liye pateint se samaanit kiya gaya tha January 29, 1886 mein .July 3 (July 3)1886 mein benj ne apne vaahan ka prachaar shuroo kiya aur lagbhag 25 benj ke vaahan beeke 1888 aur 1893 ke bich, isi samay unki pehli chaupahiya gaadi I jo ek sahooliyt vaahan ke roop mein darshaayi gayi .ve bhi apne hi chaar stroke engine dijaain ke dvaara sanchalit the. fraans ke emile Roger (Éaamile Roger), jo pehle se hi license ke tahat beinj injanon ka nirmaan karte the, ab benj automobile ko apne product line mein shaamil kar liya .kyonki France praarambhik automobile ke liye adhik khula tha, isi liye Roger France mein jyaada banta aur bechata tha benj ke Germany mein bechne ke apeksha .

1896 mein benj ne pehla aantarik-dahan flat engine (flat engine) ka dijaain kiya aur peteint karaaya jise jarman mein boksermotar bola gaya .unneesaveen sadi ke antim varshon ke dauraan, beinj duniya ka sabse badi automobile company jo 572 vaahan ka 1899 mein utpaadan kiya aur issi sankhya ke kaaran, benj end kai ek sayunkt - stock company (joint-stock company) bani .

1890 mein Daimler aur Maybach ne Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft) (Daimler motor company, DMG) ki sthaapana ki kaannstaatt (Cannstatt) mein, Daimler naam ke tahat, unhonne apni pehli automobile 1892 mein becha, jo ek ghode se chalne waali staagekoch jise kissi aur nirmaata nein banaaya tha, jismein unhonne apne dijaain kiye hue engine laga di thi. 1895 tak daimler aur maybach ne 30 vaahane banaai, jinhein ve daimler vorks ya hotel hermann mein banaai, jahaaain voh apni dukaan ki sthaapana ki apne samarthakon ke jaane. k baad .benj aur maybach aur daimler team, ek doosare k pehle k avishkaaron se avagat nahi the. vo kabhi bhi saath kaam nahi kiye the kyoonki jab donon companiyaan ek hui, to daimler aur maybach DMG ke hisse nahi the.

daimler ka dehaant 1900 mein hua aur usi varsh k ant mein maaybaik ne ek engine dijaain kiya jiska naam tha, Daimler-marsideej, use sthaapit kiya gaya ek vishesh model mein jo emil Jellinek (Emil Jellinek) dvaara banaaya gaya tha. yeh utpaadan kaafi choti sankhya mein jellinek ne ki thi apne desh k baajaar k liye .do saal baad, 1902 mein, ek nai model DMG automobile ka utpaadan kiya gaya jiska naam marsideej rakha gaya maaybaik engine ke oopar jo 35 HP utpann karti thi. sheegra hi maaybaik ne DMG chhod di aur apna khud ka ek vyapaar shuroo kiya. Daimler brand naam ka adhikaar anya nirmaataaon ko bech diya gaya .

kaarl benj ne DMG aur beinj & Cie.ke beech sahayog banaaye rakhane ka prastaav rakha, jab Germany ki aarthik paristhitiyaaain khraab hone lagi pratham vishv yuddh ke uparaant, par DMG ke nirdarshak isse shuroo mein maanane se inkaar kar diye .donon companiyon ke beech baatcheet ke kai saal baad shuroo hue jab ye haalat aur bhi badatar ho gaye aur 1924 mein unhonne ek aapasi sahayog ka dastaavej banaaya jiski maanyata saal 2000 tak thi. donon udyamon ne standardize kiya apna dijaain, utpaadan, khareed aur bikri aur voh sayunkt roop se vigyaapan aur maarketing karte the apne automobile modelon ka, par vo apne brand barakraar rakhe hue the.

28 June 1926 ko beinj & Cie. aur DMG antat: marj hoke Daimler-beinj company bani aur apne sabhi motor vaahanon ka naamakaran kiya, marsideej beinj, ek aise brand ke taur par jisne samaanit kiya sabse mahatvapoorn model DMG automobiles ka, baad mein maaybaik dijaain ko jan gaaya 1902 marsideej-35hp ke taur pe benj ke naam ke saath . 1929 mein benj ki mrutyu tak voh daimler - benj ke nideshak mandal ke sadasya bane rahe aur kabhi kabhi unke donon putr bhi company ke kaam kaaj mein haath bataate the.

1890 mein, France ke Emile Levassor (Éaamile Levassor) aur aarmand Peugeot (Armand Peugeot) ne daimler engine ko lekar vaahanon ka utpaadan shuroo kiya aur is prakaar France mein automobile udyog ki neev daali .

1877 mein, rochestar, New York (Rochester, New York) ke George Selden (George Selden) ne sabse pehla dijaain banaaya ek ameriki automobile ka jisme gaisoleen aantarik dahan engine thi, jinhonne uske peteint ke liye darakhvaast daali 1879 mein, par ye darakhvaast khaarij ho gayi kyonki is vaahan ka nirmaan kabhi hua hi nahi na hi kabhi kaam mein aaya . solaah saalon ke vilamb ke baad aur kai shrrunkhalaaon ko uske aavedan mein jodne ke baad, 5 November 1895, mein seldon ko American peteint diya gaaya () uske do stroke (two-stroke) automobile engine ke liye, jo jyaada baadhak saabit hui bajaaye protsaahit karne ke, America mein, vaahanon ke vikaas mein . inki peteint ko chunauti henari Ford aur anya ne di aur 1911 mein vaapis le li gayi .

Britain mein kai prayaas kiye gaeain bhaap karein banane ki par sab kuchh hi had tak safal rahe, Thomas Rickett (Thomas Rickett) ke saath jinhonne 1860 mein utpaadan bhi shuroo kiya tha.[17]Santler (Santler) Malvern ki pehchaan great britn ke vetaran kar club ne ki, sabse pehle petrol se chalne wala kar banane ke liye, 1894 mein,[18] jasake uparaant fredarik William Lanchester (Frederick William Lanchester) ne 1895 mein ye banaaya, par donon ek saamaanya the. [18] great Britain mein pehli vaahanon ka utpaadan kiya daimler motor company (Daimler Motor Company) jiski sthaapana Harry J lausan (Harry J. Lawson) ne 1896 mein ki, jab unhonne engine ke naam ko istemaal karne ka hak khareed liya tha. lausan ki company ne 1897 mein apni pehli automobile banaaya aur iska naam Daimler rakha .[18]

1892, jarman engineerrudolf diesel (Rudolf Diesel) ko "nai rashanal dahan engine" ke liye .1897 mein unhonne pehli diesel engine (Diesel Engine).[15] banaaya.bhaap, bijli aur gaisoleen-shakti se chalne waali vaahane dashakon tak ek doosari ki partidvandi rahi aur 1910 mein gaisoleen aantarik dahan engine is hod mein sabse jyaada maanyata praapt curry .

yadyapi vibhinn pistonles rotari engine (pistonless rotary engine) design paaramparik pistan (piston) aur krankshaft (crankshaft) ke saath pratispardha karne ka prayaas kiya, keval majda (Mazda) jiska sanskaran vaankel engine (Wankel engine) ko bahut simit safalta praapt hui .

utpaadan

ransom E .olds (Ransom E. Olds).

bade paimaane par kifaayati motaravaahanon ka vinirmaan, utpaadan line (production-line) ke maadhyam se karne ki shuruaat reinsam olds ne apne oldsamobaail kaarkhaane se 1920 mein ki. 1914 mein shuruaat karte hue, henari Ford dvaara ye avadhaarana kaafi vistaarit ki gayi.

parinaamasvaroop, Ford ki kaarein pandrah minute ke antaraal mein utpaadan line se bankar baahar aa jaati theen, jo pichhle tareekon se kaafi tej thi. jahaaain utpaadan aath guna badh gaya (jahaaain pehle 12.5 shramik ghante lagte the aur baad mein sirf 1 ghanta 33 minute) aur vaheen maanavashakti bhi kam lag rahi thi.[19] yeh kaafi safal raha, par pralep (peint) ek rukaavat ban gaya. keval 'Japan black' pralep hi jaldi sookhata tha, jiske kaaran, 1914 ke pehle upalabdh vividh rangon ko najaraandaaj karne par company ko majaboor hona pada, jab tak ki 1926 mein, jaldi sookhane vaale pralep 'duko lekar' ka vikaas nahi ho gaya. yahi Ford ki apramaanit tippani "koi bhi rang jab tak vo kaala ho" ka srot bana.[19] 1914 mein, ek utpaadan line mein kaarya karne wala shramik apne chaar maheene ke vetan se Ford ki car 'model ti' khareed sakta tha.[19]

chitr henari Ford ka (ca .1919)

Ford ki jatil suraksha prakriyaaen, jo vishesh roop se har shramik ko ek sunishchit sthaan pradaan karti thi, jiske kaaran vah idhar udhar ghoom nahi paate the, jiske kaaran ghaayal hone ki dar bahut had tak kam ho gayi. uchch majadoori aur uchch dakshata ki is aarthik aur saamaajik pranaali ko "foirdasm (Fordism)" kaha gaya aur adhiktar pramukh udyogon ne iska anusaran kiya. is samaanukram line se jo dakshata mein laabh hua vah America ke aarthik vruddhi ke samay hi hua. samaanukram line mein shramikon ko ek nishchit gati se doharaavadaar kriyaaeain karni padti thi, jiske kaaran prati shramik utpaadan badh gaya, jabki anya raashtra kam utpaadak vidhiyon ka istemaal kar rahe the.

motor vaahan udyog (automotive industry) mein, unki safalta sab pe haavi thi, aur jald hi poore vishv mein sthaapana hui, 1911 mein Ford France aur Britain Ford, Ford Denmark 1923, Ford Germany 1925 aur 1921 mein,sitroeain (Citroen) pehla yooropeeyan nirmaata tha jisne is utpaadan paddhati ko apnaaya . jald hi, companiyon ko assembly line kaarya vidhi apanaani padi aur jinhonne ye nahi kiya un companyon ko kaafi nuksaan ka saamana karan pada, 1930 tak, 250 kampaniyaaain gaayab ho gayi .[19]

motor vaahan praudyogiki vikaas teji se chal rahi thi aur iska shreya duniya bhar ke chhote nirmaataaon ko jaata hai. pramukh ghatnaakramon mein shaamil thi bijli ignishn (ignition) aur bijli ke self staartar (donon laayi gayeen thi Charles kettering (Charles Kettering) dvaara, kaadillaak (Cadillac) motor company ke liye 1910 - 1911 mein ki) indepeindeint suspeinsan (suspension), aur chaar pahiya break.

1927 mein

Ford model ti (Ford Model T) ko pehli sasti ameriki automobile

maana gaya .

1920 ke dashak se, lagbhag sabhi kaarein baajaar ki jrooraton ko poora karne ke liye thok mein banaai gayi, isliye unki maarketing yojanaayein automobile dijaain se kaafi prabhaavit thi. vo alfred pi.sloan (Alfred P. Sloan) the jinhonne yeh vichaar sthaapit kiya ki ek company ko alag alag karein bane chaahiye, taaki khareedaar ki aarthik avastha mein sudhaar ke saath voh aage badh sake .

is tej parivartan ke parinaamasvaroop, jahaaain bani hui chhote chhote bhaag ek doosare ke saath batane se, utpaadan bade maatr mein hui, voh bhi kam keemat pe har ek bhaag ka .udaaharan ke liye, 1930 ke dashak mein, la saalle (LaSalle), jisne becha kaadillaak (Cadillac) ne, istamaal kiya saste yaantrik bhaagon ka olds mobile (Oldsmobile) dvaara bana hua ;usi tarah chervole ne apni hud, darvaajon, chhat saajha aur khidkiyaaain baanti pontiak (Pontiac) ke saath ; aur 1990 tak, kaurporet drive trens (drivetrain) aur saajha platform (platforms)(intar changaable break (brake), suspeinsan aur anya bhaag) ek aam baat ban gayi thi. fir bhi, keval pramukh nirmataayein hi sakham the itne uchche dam par nirmaan karne ke liye, kyonki companiyaan jo dashakon se utpaadan mein thi, jaise appersan (Apperson),kol (Cole), dorris (Dorris),haayanes (Haynes), ya premiyer (Premier), bhi yeh seh na saki, lagbhag kuchh do sau American car nirmaata the 1920 mein, jinmein se keval 43 bachi 1930 tak aur great dipreshan (Great Depression) ke saath, keval 17 hi bach pai .[19]

Europe mein bhi lagbhag yesa hi hoga .1924 mein, kaavale (Cowley) mein, mauris (Morris) ne apni utpaadan line ki sthaapana ki aur jald hi Ford ko bech diya, haalaaainki 1923 mein shuroo hui, Ford ki seedha ekeekaran (vertical integration), jisne khareeda hotchkis (Hotchkiss)(ki engine), vrigle (Wrigley)(ki giyr box), aur osberton (Osberton) (ke raadiators), us samay, saath hi partiyogi, jaise wolseley (Wolseley),1925 mein moris ke paas 41% kul british car utpaadan thi. adhikaansh chhote british car assemblers, abbe (Abbey) se lekar ekstra (Xtra) tak vaapis chale gaeain .sitroeain ne France mein bhi yahi kiya, jahaaain car ki baat hoti hai 1919 mein, unke aur doosari saste kaaron ke beech jaise renolt (Renault) ki 10 CV (10CV) aur payooget (Peugeot) ki 5 CV (5CV), unhonne 550,000 kaaron ka nirmaan kiya 1925 tak aur ismein mors (Mors),haratu (Hurtu), aur anya kai is car banane ke hod mein jeet nahi paayein.[19] Germany ki pehli saamoohik-nirmit car, opel 4PS"laubfrosch" (4PS Laubfrosch) (tri farog), ban ke tyre hui russelsheim (Russelsheim) mein 1924 mein aur ye jaldahi opel ko sheersh car nirmaata bana di Germany mein 37.5 % market share ke saath.[19]

urja aur propulsan takaneek

par chalti hai.

ek CNG powered high floor neoplan AN440 (Neoplan AN440)A, chalti thi kompressed naachural gas

par .

adhikaansh automobile jinka aaj ham prayog karte hain chalti hai gaisoleen (gasoline) dvaara (jise ham petrol bhi kehte hain) ya diesel aantarik dahan engine, jo vaayu pradooshan (air pollution) failaane ke liye bhi jaane jaate hain aur inhe jalavaayu parivartan (climate change) aur global vaarming ke liye bhi doshi thaharaaya gaya hai.[20] tail ki badhati keemat, sakht paryaavaran kaanoon aur greenahaaus gas (greenhouse gas) emission par pabandhiyon ne hame doosare oorja pranaaliyon ko dhooaindhane par majaboor kar diya .maujooda praudyogikiyon ko sudharane aur hataane ke prayaas mein humne doosare vikaas kiye jaise haaibrid vaahan (hybrid vehicle), aur bijli (electric) aur haaidrojan vaahan (hydrogen vehicle)s jo hava mein pradooshan nahi failaate the.

diesel

diesel engine kaarein lambe samay se Europe mein praseedh theen jiska pehla model laaya gaya 1930 ke dashak mein marsideej beinj (Mercedes Benz) aur Citroëan (Citroëan) dvaara .mukhya laabh diesel injanon mein ye thi ki unamein 50% fuel barn efficiency jyaada thi jab tulana kiya gaya sabse achhi gasoline engine se, jiski 27 %[21] thi. ek kami ka prayog karne mein yeh hai ki soot particulates maujood the exhaust gas mein, par isko hataane ke liye nirmaataaon ne ka prayog kiya. adhikaaainsh diesel se chalne waali karein biodiesel se bhi chalti thi, kutch maamooli sanshodhanon ke baad ya bina kisi sanshodhan ke.

gaisoleen

2007 mark dviteeya (BMW) mini koopar (2007 Mark II (BMW) Mini Cooper)

petrol engine ka faayda diesel engine ki tulana mein yeh hai ki voh halka hai aur uchch ghoorni gati par kaam kar sakti hai aur unhein hamesha maanyata milta hai jab bhi sports kar ki engine mein, unke achhe pradarshan ke liye .ek sau varsh se adhik gaisoleen injanon ke satat vikaas ne unke kaaryakushalata mein kaafi sudhar laayi hai aur pradooshan failaana bhi kam kar diya hai.kaarboretar (carburetor) 1980 ke dashak tak lagbhag sabhi sadak par chalne waali car injanon mein istemaal kiya jaata tha, iska istamaal khtam hua jab behtar niyantran mil paaya fuel aur hava ke mishran par, jise paaya gaya fuel injekshan (fuel injection) dvaara .apratyaksh fuel injekshan sabse pehle vimaan engine mein istamaal hua 1909 mein, resing car ke engine mein iska istamaal 1930 ke satak mein hua aur sadak kaaron mein 1950 ke dashak se istemaal kiya gaya tha.[21]gaisoleen daayarekt injekshan (GDI) (Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)) ab vaahanon ke utpaadan mein istamaal kiya jaane laga tha, misaal ke taur pe, 2007 (mark dviteeya) BMW mini (BMW Mini) mein .exhaust gas ki safaai exhaust system mein catalytic kanavartar laga ke bhi ki ja sakti thi. svachh hava kaanoon bahut saare kar industries, jo bahut mahatvapoorn baajaar thi, donon kaataalysts aur fuel injekshan ko saarvabhaumik fiting bana diya tha. sabse aadhunik gaisoleen engine bhi saksham hain chalne ke, 15% ithenaul (ethanol) jo mili hui thi gasoline ke saath chalne ki - puraane vehikl mein sials aur hoses hoti thi jinhein ethenaul nuksaan pahuncha sakta tha. ek chhoti si parivartan ke baad, gasoleen se chalne vaale vehikl, 85% ithenaul saandrata par chala sakte hain .00% ithenaul vishv ke kuchh bhaagon mein prayog kiya jaata hai (jaise Brazil), lekin vaahanon ko shuddh gaisoleen par shuroo kiya jaana chaahiye aur ithenaul par svich tab karna chaahiye jab engine chal rahi ho .jyaadaatar gasoleen se chalne waali karein LPG (LPG) se bhi chalti hain, jahaaain ek LPG tank (LPG tank) ko fuel storej ke liye aur LPG mikser kaarbuereshan ke liye istamaal kiya jaata hai.LPG kam jahareele utsarjan nikla karti th aur yeh ek lokapriya indhan thi fork lift truckon ke liye jo imaaraton ke andar sanchaalit ki jaati thi.

yeh haaidrojan se chalne waali FCHV (fuel sel haaibrid vaahan (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle)) viksit kiya gaya tha toyota (Toyota) dvaara 2005 mein

.

baayo alkohols aur baayo gasoleen

ithenaul (Ethanol), anya, alkohol fuel (alcohol fuel)(baayo butaanol (biobutanol)) aur baayo gasoleen (biogasoline), motor vaahan indhan ka vyaapak istemaal kiya hai. adhikaansh alkohols kam oorja deti hai prati liter apeksha gasoleen ke, isi se usase gasoleen ke saath milaaya jaata hai. alkohols kai kaaranon ke liye istemaal kiya jaata hai - okataain badhaane ke liye, utsarjan mein sudhaar karne ke liye aur ek vaikalpik petrolium nirdhaarit fuel ke jagah pe, kyonki ve krushi fasalon se banaaya ja sakta hai. braajeel ka ithenaul kaaryakram (ethanol program) desh ke 20% fuel jarorat poora karta hai, jismein shaamil hai dusare laakon karein jo sudh etaanol par chalti hain .

bijli

yeh Henney kilovaat (Henney Kilowatt), pehla aadhunik (traanjistar-niyantrit) ilektrik kaaratha.
2007 tesla bijli se chalne waali roadstar thi (Tesla electric powered Roadster)

sabse pehli bijli ki gaadi (electric car) bani 1832 ke aas paas, jo aantarik dahan se chalne waali gaadiyon se pehle aa gayi thi. [22] kuchh samay tak, ilektriks ko shresht man jaata tha uske mook prakruti ki vajah se, jab unki tulana ki jaati thi bahut shor machne vaale gasoline engine se .yeh laabh hataaya gaya heeraam parsi maiksim (Hiram Percy Maxim) ke aavishkaar mafalar (muffler) ke dvaara 1897 mein .iske baad aantarik dahan shakti kaaron ka do mahatvapoorn laabh tha :1) laung range aur 2) chch vishisht oorja (petrol ki kam vajan versus baitari ke vajan).baitari ilektrik vaahan (battery electric vehicle) ko banane se voh pratidvandvi hote aantarik dahan model ke aur unhein intajaar karna pada jab tak aadhunik ardhachaalak (semiconductor) niyantran aur sudhaar baitari ki shuruaat nahi hui. kyonki ve ek uchch tark (torque) vitrit kar sakte kam revolushans par, bijli kaaron ko itna jatil drive train ki jarurat nahi padti thi aur na hi traansmisn jo aantarik dahan kaaron ko chaahiye tha. kuchh 2000 ke baad ke bijli kar dijaain jaise, veinchuri fetish (Venturi Féatish) jo saksham the 0 - 60 ke teji se chalne ke liye;mph (mph) (96 & nbsp;kimi / ghanta (km/h)) 4.0 &nsbp ;sekands, jismein sabse uchch gati thi 130 mph (210 km/h). doosaron ka range tha 250 ;meal (mile)(400 km) EPA (EPA) par haai ve cycle ko aavashkata tha 3-1/2 ;ghante puri tarah se chaarj karne ke liye .[23] aantarik dahan ke baraabar indhan dakshata ko theek tarah se paribhaashit nahi kiya gaya hai par kuchh press report ne iske aas paas tak bataaya hai .

bhaap

esteem power, jyaadaatar istemaal karti thi aayal - ya gas - heted baayalar, iska istemaal kiya gaya 1930 ke dashak tak, par iska pramukh nuksaan yeh tha ki yeh kar ko bijli nahi de sakti thi jab tak baayalar preshar nahi milti thi (yadyapi nae model ye pa sakte the minton ke andar).ise ka laabh yeh hai ki ye bahut kam utsarjan deta hai aur iske chalte dahan prakriya ko niyantrit kiya ja sakta hai bahut saavadhaani se .iska nuksaan shaamil karti hai kamjor heet kaaryakushalata aur vistaar jarooratein bijli aukslaarij ke.[24]

hava

tata / MDI OneCAT air car (Tata/MDI OneCAT Air Car)

ek kompressed hava kar ek vaikalpik indhan car hai jo upayog karta hai kompressed hava (compressed air).car keval hava, ya sanyukt hava dvaara sanchaalit kiya ja sakta hai (jaise haaibrid ilaiktrik vaahan mein) gasoline /diesel /ethenaul ya bijli sanyantr ke roop mein aur reejeinraativ breking (regenerative braking) dvaara .iske bajaay hava ke saath indhan ke mishran kiya jaae aur use jalaaya jaae pistan chalne ke liye garam failati hui hava se ;kompressed hava karein ne istemaal kiya failana (expansion) kompressed hava ka apne pistan ko chalne mein .kai prototaaip pehle se hi upalabdh hain aur duniya bhar mein bikri ke liye 2008 ke ant tak anusoochit kiya gaya hai. is prakaar ke kar jari karne waali companiyon mein shaamil hain tata motors aur motor vikaas antararaashtreeya (Motor Development International) (MDI).

gas tarabaain

1950 ke dashak mein vahaaain bahut kam roochi thi gas tarabaain (gas turbine) jet) injanon ke istemaal mein aur kai nirmaataaon ne jaise rovar (Rover) aur krislar (Chrysler) prototaaip ka utpaadan kiya. haalaaainki paaver units bahut kompakt tha, uchch indhan ki khapat aur doosare throttale ki javaab mein der ke chalte aur engine breking ke kami ka matlab ye tha ki koi bhi car utpaadan tak nahi pahuainch pai .

rotari (vaankel) engine

rotari vaankel engine (Wankel engine) ko shuroo kiya gaya sadak kaaron mein NSU (NSU) dvaara, saath Ro 80 (Ro 80) ke aur baad mein ye dekha gaya sitroeain GS birotar (Citroëan GS Birotor) aur kai majda (Mazda) model mein .unke prabhaavashaali smoothanes ke baavajood, unke khraab nirbharata aur indhan ki arthavyavastha unke gaayab hone ka kaaran thi. majda, jo shuroo hui R100 (R100) fir RX-2 (RX-2), in injanon par, anusandhaan jaari rakha, isse pehle ki pareshaaniyaaain kaafi had tak jhujhi ja saki RX-7 (RX-7) aur RX-8 (RX-8) ke madad se .

rocket aur jet kaarein

ek rocket car (rocket car) rikaard haasil ki hai drag resing (drag racing) mein .haalaaainki, unamein se sabse tej kaaron ko upayog kiya jaata tha bhoomi rikaard ki gati (Land Speed Record) set karne mein aur aage badhnevaala jet vimaanon se utsarjit rocket (rocket), turbo jet (turbojet) dvaara, ya sabse aadhunik aur sabse turbo fen (turbofan) engine dvaara.yeh thrust SSC (ThrustSSC) car jo istemaal kar rahi kar do rol-royas spe (Rolls-Royce Spey) turbo fans ri heet (reheat) ke saath saksham tha dhvani ki gati (speed of sound) ko paar karne mein, ground leval par 1997 mein.

suraksha

ek gambhir parinaam motor durghatana (automobile accident) ka .

yaataayaat sadak durghatanaaen darshaati hai ki 25% duniya bhar ki yaataayaat choton se hone waali maut (ka mukhya kaaran hai), anumaanit kiya gaya hai 1.2 million maut (2004) tak prati varsh hui .[25]

motor durghatana (Automobile accident) lagbhag utana hi puraana hai jitna motor vaahan khud .sabse puraani udaaharan hai marri vard (Mary Ward) jo sabse pehli pralekhit automobile ghaatak bani 1869 mein, Parsonstown, Ireland (Parsonstown, Ireland) mein,[26] aur henari blis (Henry Bliss) jo sanyukt raajya (United State) ke pehle paidal yaatri (pedestrian) jo automobile ghatna mein 1899 mein new yaark mein,[27]

kaaron mein bahut suraksha samasyaaye thi - udaaharan ke taur pe, unamein maanav draaivar hote hain jo galatiyaaain kar sakte hain, pahiyon karshan kho sakte hain break lagaane ke samay, ghumaane aur tej karne waali baalein kaafi jyaada ho sakti hain aur mekanikl system vifal bhi ho sakti hain .Collisions bahut gambhir ya ghaatak parinaam vaale ho sakte hain .kuchh vaahanon ka sentar of graiviti (center of gravity) jyaada hota hai aur unki pravrutti ulatane ki badh jaati hai.

shuroo ki suraksha anusandhaan break ki nirbharata par jyaada dhayaan deti re aur indhan pranaali ki flammability ko kam karne par keindrit thi. udaaharan ke taur pe, aadhunik engine dibbon neeche se khuli hui hain taaki indhan vapors, jo bhari hoti hain hava se, nikal jaae khuli hava mein .break hydraulik aur duaal sarkit waali hoti hain taaki poori taara se break fail hone ki sambhaavana bahut kam ho .vyavasthit anusandhaan durghatana suraksha par shuroo hui 1958 mein Ford motor company (Ford Motor Company) mein .tab se, adhikaansh anusandhaan keindrit hain avashoshit karne mein eksternal kresh enarji ko crushable painalon ke saath aur kam karne mein maanav shareer ki gati ko pesseinjer kompartmeint mein .yeh parilkshit hai adhiktar kaaron mein jo abhi banaain jaati hai.

ullekhaneeya katauti maut aur chot lagne mein, I hai suraksha peti (Safety belt) ke aane se aur kaanoon bhi banaai gayi hai isse pahanane ke liye kai deshon mein .air bags (Airbags) aur vishesheekrut bachche sanyam pranaaliyon ne us mein sudhaar kiya hai. sanrachanaatmak parivartan jaise side impakt suraksha salaakhaayein darvaajon mein aur side panel kaaron ke kam ki kaafi had tak prabhaav jo vehikl ke side se padti thi. kai kaarein ab radaar ya sonaar ditektaron ko car ke peechhe lagaaya ki driver ko chetaavani di ja sake agar chaalak kisi baadha ya futapaath par ja rahein ho to .kuchh vaahan nirmaataaon ne aisi yantron ka nirmaan kiya apni gaadiyon mein jisse ham aane waali baadhaaon ka anumaan ya koi aur doosari vaahan agar saamane ho to usaka pata laga sakte the aur is prakiya ka istemaal break lagaane ke liye kiya ja sakta tha agar takaraav tala nahi ja sakta tha to .vahaan par bahut simit prayaas bhi kiya gaya tha prayog karne ka head up disple (heads up display) aur tharmal imejing (thermal imaging), yeh technique sainya vimaan mein prayog kiya jaata tha taaki raat ko sadak saaf deekhaai de .

nai automobile mein suraksha ke liye staindard test bhi kiye jaate the, jaise EuroNCAP (EuroNCAP) aur America NCAP test.[28] kai pareekshan sangathanon dvaara chalaae ja rahe the jaise IIHS (IIHS) jise bima companiyaan samarthan de rahi thi. [29]

takaneeki pragati ke baavajood, car durghatanaaon se jeevan ka nuksaan fir bhi ho raha tha ; lagbhag 40,000 log har saal mar rahein the sanyukt raajya America mein, yahi akada Europe mein bhi tha. yeh aankada saalaana badhti aabaadi aur yaatraaon ke saath badhati jaaegi, agar is aur koi kadam nahi badhaaya gaya to, lekin dar prati vyakti (per capita) aur prati meal yaatra karna lagaataar kam ho rahein the. marne vaalon ki sankhya lagbhag doguna hone ki ummeed hai, duniya bhar mein 2020 tak .kaafi had tak durghatanaaon ka parinaam chot lagana ya viklaangata (disability) hoti hai. sabse jyaada rghatana aankadon ko cheen aur Bhaarat mein soochit kiya gaya hai. Europeeya sangh ne ek kathor kaaryakram laagoo kiya hai marne vaalon ki sankhya aadhi karne ke liye 2010 tak aur sadasya deshon ne in upaayon ko laagoo karna shuroo bhi kar diya hai.

svachaalit niyantran (Automated control) ko gambheerta se pratsavit kiya hai aur safalataapoorvak apnaaya gaya hai. shauladaar -belted yaatriyon ne bardaasht ki ek 32 g (g) imarjeinsi staap (jo 64 guna safe intar -vehikl gap ko kam kar di) aur agar uchch gati sadkein thi to steel rel kako laaya gaya imarjeinsi break maarane ke liye .sadak ke donon suraksha sanshodhanon ko bahut mahanga paaya gaya adhikaaainsh paisa lagaane vaale adhikaariyon dvaara, haalaanki in sanshodhanon ko upayog mein laaya ja sakta tha un vaahanon ki sankhya mein vruddhi karne ke liye jinhein haai speed haai ve (highway) pe chala sake .yeh spasht ho gaya ki aksar najrandaaj kiya gaya sadak design (road design) aur yaataayaat niyantran (traffic control) ko jo bahut bada hissa bani car vrechks mein ;aspasht yaataayaat sanket, aparyaapt sanket prakaash plesing, khraab yojana (mude hue pul drushtikon jo sardiyon mein barfeele ho jaate hain, uddharan ke taur pe), bhi yogadaan bani inmein .

arthashaastr aur prabhaav

laagat aur upayog ke laabh

automobile upayog ki laagat, jismein shaamil hai laagat :vaahan praapt karna,marammat (repair), rakharakhaav (maintenance), indhan (fuel), moolyahraas (depreciation), parking shulk (parking fee), tyre (tire) badalne, karon (tax) aur beema (insurance) praapt karne ki,[30] aur in sab ko naapa gaya hai vikalp ki laagat ke khilaaf aur hame jo faayda hua hai jitna humne socha tha aur jitna hame mila - vaahan ke istemaal mein .laabhon mein shaamil hai -parivhan ki maang, gatisheelata, svatantrata aur suvidha.[31]

laagat aur samaaj ko laabh

usi prakaar se samaaj ki laagat automobile ke istemaal karne pe, in sab ko bhi shaamil karti hai jaise :sadkon ki vayavastha (maintaining road),bhoomi ka upayog (land use),pradooshan,saarvajanik svaasthya (public health),svaasthya dekhbhaal (health care), aur chhutakaara pa lena vaahan se uske jeevan ke ant mein, yeh santulit kiya ja sakta hai jab ham automobile se hone waali samaaj ke laabh ko dekhein .is saamaajik laabh mein shaamil ho sakte hain:arthavyavastha laabh, jaise naukri aur dhan srujan, automobile utpaadan aur rakharakhaav, parivhan vyavastha, saamaajik khush haali jise ham pa sakte hain aaraam aur yaatra ke avsaron se aur revenue generation kar avsar se .insaanon ki kshamata lacheelepan ke saath ek sthaan se doosare sthaan par pahuainch jan, kaafi door tak samaaj ki pravruti ko darshaata hai.[32]

samaaj aur paryaavaran par prabhaav

rivhan ek pramukh yogadaanakarta hai vaayu pradooshan (air pollution) jyaadaatar audyogik desh mein.ameriki bhootal parivhan neeti pariyojana (American Surface Transportation Policy Project) ke anusaar lagbhag aadhe amerikaans asvaasthyakar hava mein saaains le rahe hain. unke adhyayan darshaata hai ki vaayu gunavatta darjanon mahaanagareeya kshetr mein badatar ho gayi hai, pichhle dashak se .[33] sanyukt raajya America mein ausat yaatri car niklati hai 1,450 lbs (5 tan (tonne)) kaarban daaioksaaid ke, saath mein chhoti maatra mein kaarban monooksaaid, hydrokaarbons aur naaitrojan bhi the. [34] resideints of lo -densiti, resideintial -keval spravling samudaaya ke marne ki sambhaavana jyaada thi car takkar (car collision) mein, jismein 1.2 million log duniya bhar mein maarein har varsh aur iska 40 guna jyaada ghaayal hue .[25] spravl ek vistaar kaaran thi nishkriyta aur motaapeka, jo baad mein ja ke kai tarah ke bimaariyon ka kaaran ban sakti thi. [35]

sakaaraatmak ko sudharane mein aur nakaaraatmak prabhaav ko kam karti hai

indhan kar (Fuel tax) kaam kar sakta hai ek protsaahan ke roop mein jyaada kushal utpaadan ke liye, to kam pradushan, car dijaain (udaaharan haaibrid vehikl (hybrid vehicles) aur vaikalpik indhan (alternative fuel) ke vikaas ke liye .uche indhan kar kharidaaron ko protsaahit karti hai ki voh halaki, chhoti aur adhik fuel kushal kaarein, ya fi car hi na chalaayein .ausat taur par, aaj ki automobile 75 pratishat fir se banaai ja sakti hai aur punarnaveeneekaran ispaat ka upayog ham oorja prayog aur pradooshan kam karne mein car sakte hain .[36] sanyukt raajya mein Congress, federaalli anivaarya banaai indhan dakshata, jispe niyamit roop se bahas hua, haalaaainki yaatri car maanakon ko isse jyaada nahi sudhaar ja saka jo maanak 1985 mein bana diya gaya tha usase . halaki truck maanakon mein bhi bahut jaldi parivartan aaya hai aur inhe bataaya gaya 2007 mein.[37]vaikalpik indhan vaahanon (Alternative fuel vehicles) ek aur vikalp hai jo kam pradooshan failaane waali hai, apeksha paaramparik petrolium (petroleum) se chalne waali vaahanon ke .

bhavishya car praudyogikiyon

automobile propulsan (Automobile propulsion) praudyogiki vikaas ke antargat aata hai gasoline /bijli (gasoline/electric) aur plag -in haaibrid (plug-in hybrid), baitari ilaiktrik vaahan (battery electric vehicle),haaidrojan kaarein (hydrogen car),biyo fuel (biofuel), aur anya vaikalpik indhanon (alternative fuel).

anusandhaan bhavishya ke vaikalpik indhan ke roopon mein shaamil karti hai vikaas, fuel sales (fuel cells),homo genious chaarj kompression ignishn (HCCI) (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)),starling engine (stirling engine)[38], aur yahaaain tak ki stored urja kompressed hava ki ya taral naaitrojan (liquid nitrogen) bhi istemaal kiya.

nai saamagri, jo ispaat car nikaayon ki jagah le li, shaamil karti hai duraaluminiym (duraluminum),fibrer glaas (fiberglass),kaarban faaibar (carbon fiber), aur kaarban naano tube (carbon nanotube).

teleemaitiks (Telematics) technique ne jyaada se jyaada logon ko kar share karaaya, pe -as-you -go (pay-as-you-go) basis par, in sab skeemon dvaara jaise city car club (City Car Club),UK mein, mobiliti (Mobility)main laind europ (mainland Europe) aur jip car (Zipcar)US mein .

automobile ke vikalp

automobile istemaal ke kuchh pahaluon ke liye sthaapit ki vakaalpik jismein shaamil tha publik traansit (public transit)(basein (bus),trolle bas (trolleybus), trene,sab ve (subway),mono rel (monorail),traam ve (tramway)),cycle chalaana (cycling),chalana (walking),rolar baalding (rollerblading), sket boarding (skateboarding) aur velo mobile (velomobile) ka istemaal .car-share (Car-share) vyavastha aur car poolaing (carpool) bhi teji se lokapriya hote ja raheen thi ;car sharing mein US baajaar ke neta ne anubhav kiya double dijit mein laabh aur iski sadasyata badha 2006 aur 2007 ke beech, jo ek peshakash thi jahaaain shahari nivaasiyon ne khud ka car khareedne ke bajaaye share ki padosiyon ke saath, bheed bhaad vaale ilaake mein .[39]baaik-share (Bike-share) system kuchh Europeeya shaharon mein koshish ki gayi hai, jinmein kopenahegan aur emstardam bhi hain .isi tarah ke kaaryakramon ko America ke kai shaharon mein prayog kiya gaya hai.[40] addishnal indeevisual parivhan ke tareeke jaise, vyaktigat raipid traanjit (personal rapid transit) ek vaikalpik ke roop mein automobiles ke jagah prayog kiya ja sakta hai agar saamaaj isse sveekaar car li to .[41]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

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  3. http://www.carseller.ru/articles/10-01-2008.1350.html
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  16. Michelle, ti. (2003)"AC Propulsion Debuts tzero with LiIon Battery" AC Propulsion, Inc. ki press release hui acpropulsion.com jo ham tak pahunchi 5 sitmbar 2007 tak .
  17. Setright, LJK "bhaap: di romantic ilusan ", ward, Ian, Ed mein ., world of automobile (London: Orbis prakaashan, 1974), pp.2168-2173.)
  18. a aa
  19. |accessdate=2007-04-10}} -->
  20. ;
  21. |accessdate=2007-04-10}} -->

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