moraaraji Desai

moraaraji Desai
मोरारजी देसाई

kaaryakaal
24 March 197728 July 1979
poorvavarti indira gaaaindhi
paravarti chaudhari charan Singh

janm 29 February 1896
bhadeli, Mumbai presideinsi
mrutyu 10 April 1995
raajanaitik dal janta party
hastaakshar मोरारजी देसाई's signature

moraaraji Desai (29 fravari 1896 – 10 April 1995) (gujaraati: મaaોaaરaaાaaરaaજaaી રaaણaaછaaોaaડaaજaaી દaaેaaસaaાaaઈ) Bhaarat ke svaadheenata senaani aur ke chhthe pradhaanamantri (san 1977 se 79) the. vah pratham pradhaanamantri the jo bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke bajaay anya dal se the. vahi ekamaatr vyakti hain jinhein Bhaarat ke sarvochch sammaan Bhaarat ratn evam Pakistan ke sarvochch sammaan nishaan-A-Pakistan se sammaanit kiya gaya hai.

vah 81 varsh ki aayu mein pradhaanamantri bane the. iske poorv kai baar unhonne pradhaanamantri banane ki koshish ki parantu asafal rahe. lekin aisa naheen hain ki moraaraji pradhaanamantri banane ke kaabil naheen the. vastut: vah durbhaagyashaali rahe ki varishthatam neta hone ke baavajood unhein pandit Nehru aur laalabahaadur shaastri ke nidhan ke baad bhi pradhaanamantri naheen banaaya gaya. moraaraji Desai March 1977 mein desh ke pradhaanamantri bane lekin pradhaanamantri ke roop mein inka kaaryakaal poorn naheen ho paaya. chaudhari charan Singh se matabhedon ke chalte unhein pradhaanamantri pad chhodna pada.

anukram

jeevan parichay

moraaraji Desai ka janm 29 fravari 1896 ko Gujarat ke bhadeli naamak sthaan par hua tha. unka sambandh ek braahman parivaar se tha. unke pita ranachhodji Desai bhaavanagar (Saurashtra) mein ek school adhyaapak the. vah avasaad (niraasha evam khinnata) se grast rahate the, at: unhonne kuen mein kood kar apni ihaleela samaapt kar li. pita ki mrutyu ke teesare din moraaraji Desai ki shaadi hui thi.

moraaraji Desai ki shiksha-deeksha Mumbai ke elafinstan college mein hui jo us samay kaafi mahanga aur kharcheela maana jaata tha. Mumbai mein moraaraji Desai ni:shulk aavaas gruh mein rahe jo gokuladaas tejapaal ke naam se prasiddh tha. ek samay mein vahaaain 40 shikshaarthi rah sakte the. vidyaarthi jeevan mein moraaraji Desai ausat buddhi ke vivekasheel chhaatr the. inhein college ki vaad-vivaad team ka sachiv bhi banaaya gaya tha lekin swayam moraaraji ne mushkil se hi kisi vaad-vivaad pratiyogita mein hissa liya hoga. moraaraji Desai ne apne college jeevan mein hi mahaatma gaaaindhi, baal gangaadhar tilk aur anya Congressi netaaon ke sanbhaashanon ko suna tha.

vyaavasaayik jeevan

moraaraji Desai ne Mumbai provinshal civil service hetu aavedan karne ka man banaaya jahaaain sarkaar dvaara seedhi bharti ki jaati thi. July 1917 mein unhonne university training course mein pravishti pai. yahaaain inhein british vyaktiyon ki bhaaainti samaan adhikaar evam suvidhaaen praapt hoti raheen. yahaaain rahate hue moraaraji afsar ban gaye. May 1918 mein vah pariveeksha par bataur up jilaadheesh Ahmedabad pahunche. unhonne chetafeeld naamak british collector (jilaadheesh) ke antargat kaarya kiya. moraaraji 11 varshon tak apne rookhe svabhaav ke kaaran vishesh unnati naheen praapt kar sake aur collector ke niji sahaayak pad tah hi pahuainche.

raajaneetik jeevan

1937 mein moraaraji Desai

moraaraji Desai ne 1930 mein british sarkaar ki naukri chhod di aur svatantrata sangraam ke sipaahi ban gaye. 1931 mein vah Gujarat pradesh ki Congress committee ke sachiv ban gaye. unhonne akhil bhaarateeya yuva Congress ki shaakha sthaapit ki aur sardaar Patel ke nirdesh par uske adhyaksh ban gaye. 1932 mein moraaraji ko 2 varsh ki jail bhugatani padi. moraaraji 1937 tak Gujarat pradesh Congress committee ke sachiv rahe. iske baad vah Mumbai raajya ke Congress mantrimandal mein sammilit hue. is dauraan yeh maana jaata raha ki moraaraji Desai ke vyaktitttv mein jatiltaaen hain. vah swayam apni baat ko oopar rakhate hain aur sahi maanate hain. is kaaran log inhein vyangya se 'sarvochch neta' kaha karte the. moraaraji ko aisa kaha jaana pasand bhi aata tha. Gujarat ke samaachaar patron mein praaya: unke is vyaktitv ko lekar vyangya bhi prakaashit hote the. kaartoonon mein inke chitr ek lambi chhadi ke saath hote the jismein inhein gaaaindhi topi bhi pahane hue dikhaaya jaata tha. ismein vyangya yeh hota tha ki gaaaindheeji ke vyaktitv se prabhaavit lekin apni baat par ade rahane vaale ek jiddi vyakti.

svatantrata sangraam mein bhaageedaari ke kaaran moraaraji Desai ke kai varsh jelon mein hi gujre. desh ki aajaadi ke samay raashtreeya raajaneeti mein inka naam vajnadaar ho chuka tha. lekin moraaraji ki praathamik ruchi raajya ki raajaneeti mein hi thi. yahi kaaran hai ki 1952 mein inhein Mumbai ka mukhyamantri banaaya gaya. is samay tak Gujarat tatha Maharashtra Mumbai provins ke naam se jaane jaate the aur donon raajyon ka pruthak gathan naheen hua tha. 1967 mein indira gaaaindhi ke pradhaanamantri banane par moraaraji ko up pradhaanamantri aur gruh mantri banaaya gaya. lekin vah is baat ko lekar kunthit the ki varishth Congress neta hone par bhi unke bajaay indira gaaaindhi ko pradhaanamantri banaaya gaya. yahi kaaran hai ki indira gaaaindhi dvaara kiye jaane vaale kraantikaari upaayon mein moraaraji nirantar baadha daalte rahe. daraasal jis samay shri kaamaraaj ne sindeeket ki salaah par indira gaaaindhi ko pradhaanamantri banaae jaane ki ghoshana ki thi tab moraaraji bhi pradhaanamantri ki daud mein shaamil the. jab vah kisi bhi tarah naheen maane to party ne is mudde par chunaav karaaya aur indira gaaaindhi ne bhaari mataantar se baaji maar li. indira gaaaindhi ne moraaraji ke ahan ki tushti ke liye inhein up pradhaanamantri ka pad diya.

pradhaanamantri pad

pandit Jawahar laal Nehru ke samay Congress mein jo anushaasan tha, vah unki mrutyu ke baad bikhrane laga. kai sadasya swayam ko party se bada samajhte the. moraaraji Desai bhi unamein se ek the. shri laalabahaadur shaastri ne Congress party ke vafaadaar sipaahi ki bhaaainti kaarya kiya tha. unhonne party se kabhi bhi kisi pad ki maang naheen ki thi. lekin is maamale mein moraaraji Desai apavaad mein rahe. Congress sangathan ke saath unke matabhed jagajaahir the aur desh ka pradhaanamantri banana inki praathamiktaaon mein shaamil tha. indira Gandhi ne jab yeh samajh liya ki moraaraji Desai unke liye kathinaaiyaaain paida kar rahe hain to unhonne moraaraji ke par katarana aarambh kar diya. is kaaran unka kshubdh hona svaabhaavik tha. November 1969 mein jab Congress ka vibhaajan Congress-aar aur Congress-O ke roop mein hua to moraaraji Desai indira Gandhi ki Congress-I ke bajaae sindeeket ke Congress-O mein chale gaye. fir 1975 mein vah janta party mein shaamil ho gaye. March 1977 mein jab Loksabha ke chunaav hue to janta party ko spasht bahumat praapt ho gaya. parantu yahaaain par bhi pradhaanamantri pad ke do anya daavedaar upasthit the-chaudhari charan Singh aur jagajeevan Ram. lekin jayaprakaash Narayan jo swayam kabhi Congressi hua karte the, unhonne King mekar ki apni sthiti ka laabh uthaate hue moraaraji Desai ka samarthan kiya.

iske baad 23 March 1977 ko 81 varsh ki avastha mein moraaraji Desai ne bhaarateeya pradhaanamantri ka daayitv grahan kiya. inke pradhaanamantritv ke aarambhik kaal mein, desh ke jin nau raajyon mein Congress ka shaasan tha, vahaaain ki sarkaaron ko bhang kar diya gaya aur raajyon mein nae chunaav karaaye jaane ki ghoshana bhi kara di gayi. yeh alokataantrik aur asamvaidhaanik kaarya tha. janta party, indira Gandhi aur unki samarthit Congress ka desh se safaaya karne ko krutasankalp nazar I. lekin is krutya ko buddhijeeviyon dvaara saraahana praapt naheen hui.

yeh bhi dekhein