mobile fon

is anuchhed ko vikipeediya lekh Mobile phone ke is sanskaran se anuvaadit kiya gaya hai.

anu-flip mobile phone ke kai udaaharan.

mobile fon ya mobile (ise selafon aur haathafon bhi bulaaya jaata hai,[1] ya sel phone, selular phone, sel, wireless phone, selular telephone, mobile telephone ya sel telephone) ek lambi doori ka electronic upakaran hai jise vishesh base stationon ke ek network ke aadhaar par mobile aavaaj ya deta sanchaar ke liye upayog karte hain inhein sel saaiton ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. mobile phone, telephone, ke maanak aavaaj kaarya ke alaava vartamaan mobile phone kai atirikt sevaaon aur upasaadhan ka samarthan kar sakte hain, jaise ki paath sandesh ke liye SMS, imel, Internet ke upayog ke liye packet sviching, geming, blootooth, infra red, video rikaurdar ke saath camere aur tasveerein aur video bhejane aur praapt karne ke liye MMS, MP3 player, radio aur GPS. adhikaansh vartamaan mobile phone, base stationon (sel saaiton) ke ek selular network se judte hain, jo badle mein saarvajanik telephone svichit network (PSTN) se judta hai (saitailaait phone iska apavaad hai).

antararaashtreeya doorasanchaar sangh ne anumaan lagaaya tha ki 2008[2] ke ant tak vishvavyaapi mobile selular sadasyataaeain lagbhag 410 karod tak pahunch jaaega aur mobile phone aarthik piraamid ke nichle sthar ki logon par pahuainch rahi hai.

anukram

itihaas

1908 mein, ameriki peteint 8,87,357 ek wireless telephone ko Nathan bi stabblafeeld moorre, keintaki ke liye jaari kiya gaya tha. unhonne is peteint se "radio telephone ke nipaat" ka aavedan kiya tha aur seedhe selular telephone ke liye naheen jaisa vartamaan mein samjha jaata hai.[3] AT&T ke bail leboretareej ke injeeniyron dvaara mobile phone base stationon ke liye sel ka aavishkaar 1947 mein kiya gaya tha aur 1960 ke dashak ke dauraan bail leboretareej ne ise aage viksit kiya. rediyofon ka ek lamba aur vividh itihaas hai jo reginaald fesseinden ke aavishkaar aur radio teleefoni ke poora pradarshan tak jaata hai, dviteeya vishv yuddh aur 1950 ke dashak mein civil sevaaon ke dauraan sena mein radio teleefoni link ka upayog hota tha, jabki haath ke selular radio upakaran 1973 ke baad se upalabdh hain. jaise ki ham aaj jaante hain, ohaayo, yooklid ke George sveigart ko 10 June 1969 mein pehle wireless phone ka America mein peteint number 3449750 jaari kiya gaya tha.

1945 mein, mobile telephone ki shoonya peedhi (0G) shuroo ki gayi thi. us samay ki anya takaneekon ki tarah, ismein ekal, shaktishaali base station shaamil tha, jo ek vyaapak kshetr ko kavar karta tha aur pratyek telephone prabhaavi roop se ek channel ko poore kshetr par ekaadhikaar karta tha. aavrutti ka pun: prayog aur antaran ki avadhaarana, tatha anya avadhaaranaaon ki sankhya jo aadhunik sel phone takaneek ke gathan ka aadhaar hai, usako ameriki peteint 41,52,647 mein sabse pehle varnit kiya gaya tha, jo Charles A. galaidn aur Martin H. pairelaman ko 1 May 1979 mein jaari kiya gaya, donon hi loss Vegas, nevaada ke the aur unke dvaara sanyukt raajya America ki sarkaar ko saunpa gaya tha.

yeh sabhi avadhaaranaaon ka pehla avataar hai jo mobile teleefoni mein agale bade kadam, enaalaug selyular telephone ke gathan ka aadhaar bana. is peteint mein shaamil avadhaaranaaon ko (kam se kam 34 anya peteinton mein uddhrut) baad mein kai upagrah sanchaar pranaali mein vistaarit kiya gaya tha. baad mein selular pranaali se digital pranaali mein adyatan, is peteint ko kredit deta hai.

ek motorola anusandhaanakarta aur shaasanaatmak,Martin koopar, ko vyaapak roop se anu vaahan seting mein haath ke upayog ke liye pehla vyaavahaarik mobile phone ka aavishkaarak maana jaata hai. 17 October, 1973 mein "radio telephone pranaali" mein America ke peteint kaaryaalaya ke dvaara koopar ko aavishkaarak ghoshit kiya gaya aur baad mein America peteint 3906166 jaari kiya gaya tha. ek aadhunik, kuchh bhaari vahaneeya choga ka prayog karke, koopar ne 3 April 1973 ko bail leboretareej ke ek pratidvandvi dau॰ yoel S. engel ko ek haath ke mobile phone par pehli call curry.

1979 mein, NTT dvaara Japan mein poore shahar mein pehla vaanijyik selular network shuroo kiya gaya tha. poori tarah se svachaalit selular network ko palahi baar 1980 ke dashak ke shuroo se madhya tak (1G peedhi) shuroo kiya gaya tha. 1981 mein naurdik mobile telephone (NMT) pranaali Denmark, Finland, naarve aur sveedan mein shuroo hui thi.

niji haath-phone pranaali mobaailon aur Japan mein 1997-2003 ke aaspaas prayukt hue modem

1983 mein, motorola dynaaTAC, sanyukt raajya America mein FCC ke dvaara anumodit pehla mobile phone tha. 1984 mein, bail leboretareej ne aadhunik vyaavasaayik selular praudyogiki ko viksit kiya (jyaadaatar galaidn ke, pairelaman peteint par aadhaarit), jisne ekaadhik kendra niyantrit base stationon (sel saaiton) ko niyojit kiya, pratyek chhote kshetr (ek sel) ko seva upalabdh karta tha. sel saaitein is tarah se sthaapit hui ki sel aanshik roop se atichhaadan karte the. ek selular pranaali mein, ek base station (sel site) aur ek terminal (phone) ke beech signal keval itna prabal hona chaahiye ki vah in donon ke beech pahuainch sake, taaki vibhinn koshikaaon mein baatcheet ko alag karne ke liye vahi channel ek saath istemaal kiya ja sake. selular pranaali ko kai praudyogiki uchhaal ke aavashyak thi, havaale sahit, jisse mobile phone ko sel ke beech kooch karte hue baatcheet jaari rakhane ki gunjaayash thi. is pranaali mein base stationon aur telephone donon mein char sancharan shakti shaamil hain (base stationon dvaara niyantrit), jisne range aur sel ke aakaar mein bhinn sambhav banaaya. jab is pranaali mein vistaar aur kshamata ke nikat pahuncha, vidyut paareshan ko kam karne ki kshamata ne nai koshikaaon ka judna mumkin banaaya, jiska parinaam adhik, chhote koshika aur is prakaar adhik kshamata. is vruddhi ka saboot ko abhi bhi kai puraane mein, lambe sel site taavaron dekha ja sakta hai jinke taavaron ke oopari hisse par koi enteena naheen tha. in site ne moolat: bade koshika banaae aur isliye unke enteena oonche taavaron ke oopar sthaapati the; tauvar is tarah se design kiye gaye the taaki pranaali ka vistaar ho-sel ka aakaar sikud sakein- enteena ko kam kiya ja sakta hai unke mool mastool par seema ko kam karne ke liye.

ek 1991 GSM mobile phone

digital 2G (doosari peedhi) selular praudyogiki par pehla "aadhunik" network praudyogiki 1991 mein Finland mein rediyolinja (ab Elisa samooh ka hissa hai) dvaara shuroo ki gayi thi GSM maanak par jisne mobile doorasanchaar mein pratiyogita ki shurooaat ko chihnit kiya jab rediyolinja ne avalanbi doorasanchaar Finland (ab teliyaasonera ka hissa hai) ko chunauti di jo ek 1G NMT network chala rahe the.

mobile phone par prakat hui pehli data sevaaen 1993 mein vyakti se vyakti ko likhit sandesh ke roop mein shuroo hui. ek mobile phone ke upayog se ek koka kola machine ke liye pehla pareekshan bhugataan Finland mein 1998 mein kiya gaya tha. sveedan mein mobile parking parikshan pratham vyaavasaayik bhugataan tha lekin ise pehli baar Norway mein 1999 mein shuroo kiya gaya tha. mimik bankon aur kredit card ke liye pratham vyaavasaayik bhugataan pranaali fileepeens mein 1999 mein shuroo hui thi mobile oparetaron globe aur smart ke saath. mobile phone ko bechi gayi pehli saamagri thi ring ton, jo 1998 mein Finland mein shuroo ki gayi thi. i-mod mobile phone par pehli poorn Internet seva thi jo NTT dokomo dvaara Japan mein 1999 mein shuroo ki gayi thi.

san 2001 mein 3G3G (teesari peedhi) ki pehli vaanijyik shuruaat fir se Japan mein NTT dokomo ke dvaara WCDMA maanak mein ki gayi thi.

1990 ke dashak ke shuroo mein, motorola mikroTAC ki shurooaat ke baad, sabhi mobile phone jacket jeb mein le jaane ke liye bade the, isliye ve aam taur par vaahanon mein car phone ke roop mein sthaapit kiye gaye. digital ghatakon ke laghuroop aur adhik parishkrut baitari ke vikaas ke saath, mobile phone chhote aur halake ho gaye.

haindaset

chitr:MobilePhone.JPG
box ke saath ek nokiya phone.
mobile fon ke andar ek mudrit sarkit board

mobile fonon ki kai shreniyaaain hain, moolabhoot phone se lekar laakshanik phone tak jaise sangeet phone aur camera phone aur smaartafon tak. nokiya 9000 kamyooniketar pehla smaartafon tha jo 1996 mein aaya, jismein us samay ke mobile phone ke mukaabale mein PDA kaaryasheelata ko shaamil kiya gaya tha. laghuroopakaran tatha microchip ki prasanskaran shakti ki vruddhi ne phone mein jodne ke liye adhik suvidhaaeain saksham curry, smaartafon ki avadhaarana ko viksit kiya aur panyach saal pehle jo ek uchch smaartafon tha, vo aaj ek maanak phone hai. kai phone shrrunkhala ek baajaar khand ke liye shuroo kiye gaye the, jaise ki RIM blackberry keindrit / kaurporet graahak ke imel ki jaroorat ke udyam par dhyaan deta hai; soneeeriksan vaukamen shrrunkhala ke sangeetafon aur saaibarashot shrrunkhala ke kaimaraafon; nokiya N-series ke malteemeediya phone; aur eppal ifon jo web ka upayog aur malteemeediya kshamata poorn-visheshataaeain pradaan karta hai.

visheshataaeain

mobile phone mein aksar paath sandesh bhejane aur aavaaj phone feature ke alaava kai feature hote hain, jismein shaamil hai- call rajistar, GPS nevigeshan, sangeet (MP3) aur video (MP4) plebaik, RDS radio riseevar, alaarm, gyaapan aur dastaavej rikaurding, niji aayojak aur vyaktigat digital sahaayak prakaarya, streeming video dekhne ki kshamata ya baad mein dekhne ke liye video daaunalod, video kaalling, nirmit camere (3.2+ Mpx) aur kaimakordar (video rikaurding), otofokas aur flaish ke saath, ringaton, khel, pat, smruti card paathak (SD), USB (2.0), avarakt, blootooth (2.0) aur WiFi kanektiviti, tvarit sandesh, Internet imel aur braaujing aur PC ke liye ek wireless maudem ke roop mein seva aur jaldi hi yeh online khel aur anya uchch gunavatta khel ke liye saantvana ke roop mein kaam kareinge.

kuchh phone mein sparshaskreen shaamil hain.

moibaail sevaao ki sabse badi shreniyaaain hain sangeet, tasveer daaunalod, video game, vayask manoranjan, juaa, video/TV.

nokiya aur Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya ek modne yogya selafon ka dikhaava kar rahe hain jisko morf kaha jaata hai.[4]

anuprayog

chitr:Nokia 5800.JPG
sparshaskreen suvidha ke saath ek phone.
mobile phone graahakon prati 100 nivaasi 1997-2007

mobile fon par sabse saamaanya prayukt data anuprayog hai SMS likhit sandesh, jismein mobile phone prayoktaaon ke 74% sakriya upayogakartaaon mein se hain (2007 ke ant mein kul 3.3 arab mein se 2.4 arab se adhik) samas likhit sandesh ka moolya 2007 ke vaarshik raajasv mein 100 arab dollar se adhik tha aur mobile fon upayogakartaaon ki kul sankhya ke aadhaar par sandesh bhejane ka vyaapak ausat 2.6 SMS prati din prati vyakti hai. (srot inaforma 2007). UK mein 1992 mein ek computer se ek mobile fon ko pehla SMS likhit sandesh bheja gaya tha, jabki 1993 mein Finland mein pehla vyakti se vyakti ko fon se fon SMS bheja gaya tha.

2007 mein mobile phone ke dvaara prayog kiye jaane vaale anya anu SMS data sevaaon ki keemat 31 arab dollar thi aur yeh mobile sangeet, logo daaunalod aur chitr, game, juaa, vayask manoranjan aur vigyaapan dvaara netrutv kiya gaya (srot: Informa 2007). pehla daaoonalod yogya mobaail saamagri ko Finland mein 1998 mein ek mobile fon ko becha gaya tha, jab rediyolinja (ab Elisa) ne daaoonalod yogya ringaton seva shuroo curry thi. 1999 mein Japani mobile oparetar NTT dokomo ne apni mobile Internet seva, i-mod ki shuruaat curry, jo aaj duniya ki sabse badi mobile Internet seva hai aur lagbhag Google ki vaarshik raajasv jitni badi.

pehli mobile samaachaar seva, jo SMS ke maadhyam se upalabdh karaai gayi, vah finleind mein 2000 mein shuroo ki gayi thi. mobile samaachaar sevaaeain kai sangathanon ke saath SMS se "maaaing-pradaan" samaachaar sevaaon ke dvaara bad rahe hain. kuchh SMS dvaara "pal ki" khabar bhi pradaan karte hain. mobile teleefoni sakriyta suvidha bhi pradhaan karti hai aur raayatars aur Yahoo! dvaara khoj ki hui saarvajanik patrakaarita [5] aur chhote svatantr samaachaar kanpaniyaaain jaise ki Sri Lanka mein jaismeen samaachaar.

monastar.com jaisi companyon ne naukri ki khoj aur kairiyr par salaah ke liye mobile seva pradaan karna shuroo kar diya hai. upabhokta anuprayog vruddhi par hai aur inmein sab kuchh shaamil hai, sthaaneeya gatividhiyon aur ghatnaaon par jaankaari gaaid se lekar, mobile koopan aur diskaaunt bheint tak, jo kisi bhi khareed par paise bachaane ke liye upayog kar sakte hain. mobile fonon ke liye web saaiton ke nirmaan hetu aujaar adhik upalabdh ho rahe hain.

1998 mein Finland mein mobile bhugataan ki pehli koshish ki gayi thi, jab espo mein do koka-kola vikraya machine, SMS ke bhugataan ke saath kaam karne mein saksham the. antat: yeh vichaar faila aur 1999 mein fileepeens ne mobile oparetar globe aur smart par pehli vyaapaarik mobile bhugataan pranaali ki shuruaat curry. aaj mobile bhugataan, mobile banking se mobile kredit card se mobile vyaapaar tak, Asia aur Africa aur chune hue Europeeya baajaaron mein bahut hi vyaapak roop se prayog kiye jaate hain. udaaharan ke liye, fileepeens mein yeh asaamaanya naheen hai ki kisi ki poori tanakhvaah ka mobile bill ke bhugataan mein kiya gaya ho. kenya mein ek mobile banking khaate se doosare mein dhan ke hastaantaran ki seema 10 lakh Amreeki dollar hai. Bhaarat mein, upayogita bill ko mobaail se chukaane par 5% diskaaunt milta hai. estoniya mein sarkaar ne aparaadhiyon ko nakad parking shulk lete hue paaya, isliye sarkaar ne ghoshit kiya ki parking ke liye keval SMS ke maadhyam se hi mobile bhugataan maanya hoga aur aaj estoniya mein poorn parking shulk mobile ke dvaara niyantrit kiya jaata hai aur is kriya mein se aparaadh khtm ho chooka hai.

mobaail anuprayogon ka vikaas chh: M (pehle paaainch M) seva-vikaas siddhaant ke upayog se hua hai, jo nokiya ke jo barret aur motorola ke paul golding ke saath lekhak tomi ahonen ke dvaara nirmit kiya gaya tha. yeh chh: M hain- chalan (sthaan), pal (samay), mai (nijeekaran), bahu-upayogakarta (samudaaya upayogakarta), dhan (bhugataan) aur machine (svachaalan). chh: M / paaainch M siddhaant ka upayog teleekom anuprayog saahitya mein vyaapak roop se aur adhikaansh mukhya udyogon ke dvaara kiya jaata hai. UMTS ke liye sevaaeain, is siddhaant par charcha karne waali pehli kitaab thi jo 2002 mein ahonen aur barret dvaara likhi gayi thi.

shakti aapoorti

yugaanda mein mobile phone chaarj karne ki suvidha

aamtaur par mobile phone baitari se oorja praapt karte hain, jisko ek USB port dvaara, portebal baitari se, bijli ki mukhya taar se ya gaadi mein ek anukoolak ka upayog karke cigarette laaitar gartika se (aksar baitari chaarjar ya deevaar massa bulaaya jaata hai) ya ek saur panel se ya ek daainamo se (jo phone ko lagaane ke liye ek USB port ka upayog kar sakta hai) punarbharan kiya ja sakta hai.

17 fravari 2009 ko, GSM association ne ghoshana curry[6] ki ve mobile phone ke liye ek maanak chaarjar par sahamat hue hain. 17 nirmaata, jismein nokiya, saimasang aur motorola shaamil the, unke dvaara apnaaya jaane wala maanak chaarjar micro USB sanbandhak hona chaahiye (kai media riporton ne glati se ise mini-USB bataaya).nae chaarjar, maujooda chaarjaron se adhik yogya honge. sabhi fonon ke liye ek maanak chaarjar hone ka matlab hai ki nirmaataaon ko ab har nae fon ke liye ek chaarjar ki aapoorti naheen karni padegi.

poorv mein, nikal dhaatu-haaidraaid, mobile phone ki betriyon ka sabse saamaanya roop tha, kyonki unka aakaar aur vajan kam hota hai.leethiym-aayan betriyaan kabhi kabhi upayog kiye jaate hain, kyonki ve halki hoti hain aur nikal dhaatu-haaidraaid betriyon ki tarah inmein voltej avanati naheen hoti hai. kai mobile fon nirmaataaon ne puraani leethiym-aayan ke vipreet leethiym-bahulak betriyon ka upayog shuroo kar diya hai, bahut kam vajan aur ghan ke aalaava kisi bhi anya aakaar mein banaana hi iska mukhya laabh hai. mobile fon nirmaata, saur sel sahit, oorja ke viklpi sroton par prayog kar rahe hain.


sim card

aam mobile phone sim card

baitari ke alaava, GSM mobile phone ko kaam karne ke liye ek chhoti si microchip ki aavashyakta hoti hai, jise graahak pehchaan maapdand ya sim card kaha jaata hai. lagbhag ek daak ticket ke aakar ka sim card saamaanyataya betari ke neeche unit ke peechhe rakha jaata hai aur (jab theek prakaar se sakriya hota hai) phone ka vinyaas deta tatha phone ke baare mein jaankaari ko sangrahit karta hai, jaise upayogakarta kaun sa aahvaan yojana istemaal kar raha hai. jab graahak sim card ko hata deta hai, to ise pun: doosare phone mein daal kar saamaanya roop se upayog kiya ja sakta hai.

pratyek sim card ko ek adviteeya sankhyaatmak pahachaanakarta ke upayog ke dvaara sakriya kiya jaata hai; ek baar sakriya ho jaane par, pahachaanakarta ko lok kar diya jaata hai aur sakriya network mein sthaayi roop se card aalingan ho jaata hai. is kaaran se, adhikaansh khudara vikreta ek sakriya kiye gaye sim card ko vaapis lene se inkaar kar dete hain.

ve sel phone jo sim card ka upayog naheen karte hain, unki memori mein deta kramaadeshit hota hai. ek vishesh aankik kram ka upayog karke is deta ka upayog kiya jaata hai hai, "NAM" ko "naam" ya number kramaadesh soochi ke roop mein upayog karne ke liye.yahaaain se, koi bhi jaankaari daal sakta hai jaise ki apne fon ke liye ek number, nae seva pradaata ka number, nae aapaat ka number, unke pramaaneekaran kunji ya A-kunji code ka parivartan aur unke pasandeeda ghoomane ke liye soochi ya parl. haalaanki, galati se unke phone ko nishkriya ya network se hataane se kisi ko rokane ke liye, seva pradaata is data par ek master sahaayak band ya MSL galaate hain.

MSL yeh sunishchit karta hai ki seva pradaata khreede gaye ya patte par liye gaye phone ke liye bhugataan praapt karein.udaaharan ke liye, motorola RAZR V9C ki keemat CAD $500 se adhik hai. lagbhag $200 mein, vaahak ke aadhaar par, aapko ek mil sakti hai. antar ko graahak ke dvaara maasik bill ke roop mein chukaaya jaata hai. yadi graahak ne ek MSL ka upayog naheen kiya, to ve $300 - $400 ka antar kho deinge jo unke maasik bill mein bhugataan kiya jaata hai, kyoonki kuchh graahak maujooda seva ko radd karke doosare vaahak ke paas fon le jaate hain.

MSL sim par laagoo hota hai sirf isliye ek baar anubandh poora hone ke baad MSL fir bhi sim par laagoo rahata hai. phone haalaanki, shuroo mein bhi seva pradaata MSL mein nirmaata dvaara band kiya jaata hai. yeh taala nishkriya kiya ja sakta hai taaki yeh phone anya seva pradaata ke sim card ka upayog kar sake.America ke baahar khareede gaye phone khule fon hain kyonki vahaaain jyaadaatar phone ek doosare ke niktata mein kai seva pradaata ya ativyaapi vyaapti hai. ek phone ka taala kholne ka laagat bhinn hota hai lekin aamtaur par bahut hi sasta aur kabhi kabhi svatantr phone vikretaaon dvaara pradaan kiya jaata hai.

saamaanya vyaapti kshetr ke baahar MSL seva pradaata ke upayog mein uchch laagat ki vajah se ek khula phone yaatriyon ke liye behad upayogi hota hai. yeh kabhi kabhi saamaanya seva kshetr mein videshi ke roop ek band phone ke upayog karne ke 10 guna moolya ka ho sakta hai, riyaayati daron ke saath bhi.T-mobile apne khaata dhaarakon ko 90 dinon ke achhe sthiti ke baad ek sim kholne ka code pradaan karte hain FAQ ke anusaar.

udaaharan ke liye, jamaika mein, ek AT&T graahak bhunaai antararaashtreeya seva ke liye $1.65 prati minute ka atirikt bhugataan kar sakta hai jabki ek B-mobile (jamaika) graahak ko samaan antararaashtreeya seva ke liye $0.20 prati minute ka bhugataan karna padega.kuchh seva pradaata apne bikri ko antararaashtreeya bikri par kendrit karte hain jabki kuchh kshetreeya bikri par kendrit karte hain. udaaharan ke liye, jamaika ke raashtreeya phone C&W (kebal aur betaar) company ki jagah vahi B-mobile graahak sthaaneeya kaulon par kam lekin antarraashtreeya call par adhik bhugataan karega.yeh moolya antar mukhyat: mudra parivartan ke kaaran hota hai kyonki sim ki khareed sthaaneeya mudra mein hoti hai. America mein, is prakaar ki sevaaon mein pratiyogita maujood naheen hai kyonki kuchh pramukh seva pradaata bhugataan-jab-tum-jaao ki seva prastaav naheen karti hai.[bhugataan-jab-tum-jaao aavashyakataaeain sandarbh, T-mobile afavaah, Verizon ek ko pradaan, AT&T 12/2008 tak naheen]


baajaar

Q3/2008 mein mobile phone vinirmaataaon ke baajaar ka hissa

Q3/2008 mein, Nokia duniya ki sabse badi mobile phone nirmaata thi, 39,4% ke vaishvik upakarn baajaar hissedaari ke saath, iske baad Samsung (17.3%), Sony Ericsson (8.6%), Motorola (8.5%) aur LG Electronics (7.7 %).us samay beche gaye mobile phone mein se 80% se oopar in nirmaataaon ne becha hai.[7]

anya nirmaataaon mein shaamil hain Apple Inc., Audiovox (now UTStarcom), Benefon, BenQ-Siemens, CECT, High Tech Computer Corporation (HTC), Fujitsu, Kyocera, Mitsubishi Electric, NEC, Neonode, Panasonic, Palm, Matsushita, Pantech Wireless Inc., Philips, Qualcomm Inc., Research in Motion Ltd.(RIM), Sagem, Sanyo, Sharp, Siemens, Sendo, Sierra Wireless, SK Teletech, T&A Alcatel, Huawei, Trium and Toshiba.[tathya vaanchhit] mobile phone se sambandhit (lekin alag se) visheshagya sanchaar pranaaliyaaain bhi hain


media

1998 mein mobile fon ek media channel ban gaya jab Finland mein rediyolinja dvaara pehli ring ton becha gaya tha. jald hi anya media avayav prakat hui jaise ki samaachaar, video game, chutakule, janamapatri, TV saamagri aur vigyaapan.2006 mein mobile phone bhugataan media avayav ki kul keemat ne Internet bhugataan media avayav ko paar kar diya aur iski keemat 3100 karod dollar thi (srot Informa 2007).2007 mein phone par sangeet ka moolya 930 karod dollar thi aur khel ki keemat 500 karod dollar thi (srot Netsize Guide 2008[8]).

mobile phone ko aksar chautha chitrapat kaha jaata hai (yadi pehle teen ke roop mein cinema, TV aur PC chitrapat ko gina jaae) ya teesara chitrapat (yadi keval TV aur PC chitrapat ko gina jaae).ise maas media mein saatavaaain bhi kaha jaata hai (pehle chh: mein print, rikaurding, cinema, radio, TV aur Internet ke saath).mobile ki shurooaati avayav hain viraasat media ki pratiyaaain, jaise ki banner vigyaapan ya TV samaachaar ujaagar ke video kartan.haal hi mein, mobaail ke liye adviteeya avayavon ka vikaas hua hai, ring ton aur vaapas ring karne vaale ton se lekar "mobeesod" tak, video avayav jo vishesh roop se mobile fonon ke liye taiyaar ki gayi hai.

mobile phone par media ke aagaman se alfa upayogakarta ya kendron ka pata lagaane aur unhein pahachaanane ka avsar utpann hua hai, jo kisi bhi saamaajik samudaaya ke sabse adhik prabhaavi sadasya hain.AMF veinchars ne 2007 mein teen maas media ki saapeksh sateekata ka maapan kiya aur paaya ki mobile par darshak ka aankana, Internet se theek no guna aur TV se theek 90 guna adhik sateek tha.

shabdaavali

sambandhit anu-mobile-phone pranaali

gaadi phone
ek prakaar ka telephone jo ek vaahan mein sthaayi roop se rakha jaata hai, inmein aksar adhik shaktishaali preshit hota hai, ek baahari aintena aur haathon ke vimukt ke liye dhvani-vistaarak yantr hota hai. ve aamtaur par niyamit mobile phone ki tarah ek hi network se judte hain.


taararahit telephone (vahaneeya phone)
taararahit fone aise telephone hain jo ek taar yukt choga ke sthaan par ek ya adhik radio heindaset ka upayog karte hain. yeh choga bina taar ke ek base station se judta hai, jo badle mein call karne ke liye ek paramparaagat laind line ke saath judta hai. mobile phone ke vipreet, taararahit phone, niji base stationon ka upayog karte hain (jo laind line graahak ka hota hai) aur jo baanta naheen jaata hai.


vyaavasaayik mobile radio
unnat vyaavasaayik mobile radio pranaali mobile phone pranaali ke bahut samaan ho sakti hai. vishesh roop se, IDEN maanak ko ek niji trank radio pranaali aur kai bade saarvajanik pradaataaon ke liye praudyogiki, donon ke roop mein upayog kiya gaya hai. saarvajanik mobile network ko laagoo karne ke liye, TETRA, ek Europeeya digital PMR maanak, ka upayog karne ka samaan prayaas kiya gaya hai.


radio phone
yeh shabd aise radio ke liye hai jo telephone network mein jud sakta hai. ye phone shaayad mobile na hon; udaaharan ke liye, unhein mukhya taar bijli ki aapoorti ki jarurat hoti hai, unhein ek PSTN phone sthaapit karne ke liye ek maanav oparetar ke sahaayata ki aavashyakta ho sakti hai.


upagrah fon
is prakaar ka phone pratyaksh roop se ek krutrim upagrah ke saath sanchaar karta hai, jo fir base station ko ya anya upagrah phone ko call prasaaran karta hai. ek maatr upagrah, sthaaneeya base station ki tulana mein jyaada bade kshetr ke liye vyaapti upalabdh kara sakta hai. kyoonki upagrah phone mahange hote hain, unka istemaal aamtaur par dooradaraaj ke ilaakon tak seemit hai, jahaaain koi mobile phone vyaapti naheen hoti hai, jaise ki pahaad parvataarohi, khule samudra mein mallaah aur aapada sthalon par samaachaar patrakaaron. --Sneha Chinnamma (vaarta) 17:30, 1 fravari 2014 (UTC)

upayog

aaj kal ke vyasth jindagi main ham athyadhik chaalafon ki zaroorat mahasoos karte hain. kisi bhi rishtedaar, bhaai bandhu se vartaalap karne ke praya ham is yantr ka upyog kar sakte hain. kisi bhi dhurgaghatana main ham is yantr se kisi ki madad pa saktte hain. is yantr se ham duniya ke kisi bhi kone mai aasani se apni aavaj pahuaincha sakte hain. is yantr ko isteemaal karene vaale vidhyaarthi, udhyogi, ofis karmachaari, adhyaapak anya karmachaari is yantr se apna kaam aasaani se kar sakte hain.

is yantr ko sakriya karne ke liye kaii kanpaneeyaaain sim card ki uplabdhi karatein hain, jaise airtel, vodaafon, bi S N L, varjin, aidiya, tata dokomo, M ti S, rilaayans, aadi. in mai kuchh kanpaneeyaaain niji aur kuchh sarkaari hain, udaaharan ke liye airtel, vodaafon, aidiya, tata dokomo, ityaadi niji kanpaneeyaaain hain aur bi S N L sarkaari hai.

graahak is chaalafon ko kai dukaan se khareed sakatein hain aur ek din main laakho phone ki bikri hoti hai. graahak apne-apne ichha aur jroorato ke anusaar alag-alag brand ke chaalafon khareed sakte hain jaise nokiya, saimasang, vargin mobail, rilaayans, maikromyaaks, anya brand apni bajat ke hisaab se khareed sakte hain.

chaalafon ke kai laabh hain:

  1. 1 chaalafon hamaare liye bahut upayogi saabit hota hain. ismein ham roj-roj ki kaam kar sakatein hain jaise alaarm rak sakatein hai, calendar mein kuchh mukya dino ka hisaab rakh sakatein hain.
  2. 2 ham chaalafon se S.M.S (sandesh), fon calls (baat-cheet), M.M.S, gems, blootooth, ji.pi.S, antarajaal, saamaajik network, chitr, video, dhvani rikaurding, ityaadi ke liye prayog kar sakatein hain.
  3. 3 chaalafon se ham kisi ke jeevan mein ho rahe shaareerik shoshan ka video bana kar pramaan ke rup mein nyaayaalaya mein prastut kar sakatein hain
  4. 4 chaalafon se ham sandesh ya baat-cheet kar sakte hain. hame meelo door chalne ya prayaan karne ki aavashakta bhi naheen padti. har kaam ko chhutakeeyon main kar sakte hain.
  5. 5 har bank aaj kal chaalafon par A.ti.M se paison ke lautaav, bank main paise jama karna, bhugataan karne par, chaalafon par suchit karte hain.
  6. 6 Bhaarat main chaalafon ka upayog badi hi anokhi hai. graameen ya shahari Bhaarat ke kuchh parivaaron main ek ya adhik se adhik do chaalafon hoti hain. kisi aapatakaal ya sandesh soochhana kerane ke liye poora gaanv is chaalafon ki madadgaar paatain hain
  7. 7 chaalafon par ham bas ticket, rel ticket, vaayu vimaan main aarakshan kar sakte hain.
  8. 8 chaalafon par kai kanpaneeyaaain phone anuprayog (aplikeshan) daaunalod karne ki suvidha upalabdhi karte hain, phone kandha thapathapaata (traikar), sachche kaular, vatasyaap, ityaadi se hamare fone ki shaan badha deti hai.
  9. 9 chaalafon ka aakar chhota hota hai, isleee vah aasaani se jeb main daala ja sakta hai, yeh parivrtaneeya, sugathit hai.

chaalafon ke kai upayog aur dhurupayog hain. upayog se zyaada dhurupayog adhik hain. hamein chaalafon niyantran roop main apni zaroorat ke liye isthmaal karna chahiye. yeh yantr hamare zaroorat ko puri karne ke liye banaai gayi hain na ki ham kisi ko vyaakul karein.


sandarbh truti: <ref> taig ke liye samaapti </ref> taig naheen mila[9]

saamaanyat: mobile phone bhi sthaan deta ekatr karne ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai. ek mobile phone ki bhaugolik sthiti ko aasaani se nirdhaarit kiya ja sakta hai (chaahe vah istemaal ho ya naheen), malteelaitareshan kahalaane waali ek takaneek ka upayog karte hue jisse ek sanket ko sel phone se phone ke maalik ke paas ke kai sel taavaron ke pratyek tak yaatra karne mein samay ke antar ki ganana hoti hai.[10][11]


Christ University Hosur road Bangalore 4820.JPG yeh sadasya vikipriyojana kraaist vishvavidyaalaya ka hissa hai..

mobile fon ke haanikaarak prabhaav

mobile fon ka vikirn maanav svaasth aur vaataavarn par gahra prabhaav daalata hai. sansaar ke adhiktar log mobile fon ka upayog karte hain, isaliye mobile fon ka vikirn, charcha ka vishya ban gaya hai. kuchh logo ka maanana hai ki mobile fon jo vidyut chumbakeeya vikirn ka prayog karta hai, iske kaaran maanav jeev ke svaasthya ko nuksaan pahuainchata hai. 31 May 2011 me vishv svaasthya sangathan ke anusaar mobile fon ko lambe samay tak isatemaal karne se haaneekaarak ho sakta hai. vaijnyaaaniko ne mobile fon vikirn ko "manushya ke liye sanbhavat: kaaseenajan " naamak vargeekrut kiya hai. mobile fon aur kaufi, dono sanbhavat: kaaseenajan padaartho ke saath, varg 2 bi me shreneekaran kiya gaya hai. kuchh naye adhyayano se yeh soochi mili hai ki mobile phone ke prayog aur mastishk aur laar granthi ke tyoomar ke beech sambandh paaya gaya hai. lenaart haardel aur uske sahayogiyon ke 2009 meta vishrleshan jo gyaarah chhaatr pe kiya gaya tha, uske anusaar jo log mobile fon ko das varsh se adhik prayog karega to mastishk tyoomar ka khatra doguna ho jaata hai.

mornigan saaid rikvari punarvaas kendra ke anusaar America me log solaah ghante ki avadhi ke dauraan 144 minute mobile fon par bitaate hai. ek anumaan ke dvaara mobile fon ka chhh billion anumodan duniya bhar mein kiya gaya hai, jisse sel phone samaaj mein sanchaar ke maulik saadhan mein se ek ban gaya hai. sangheeya sanchaar aayog (efaseesi) ke anusaar mobile fon ke upyogakartaaon ko nyoonatam 20 seinteemeetar ki doori apne haindaset se rakhana zaroori hai usse vikirn ka prabhaav kam hota hai.

svaasthya ke upar padhne vaale mahatvapoorn prabhaav nimnlikhit ya niche diya gaya hai:

1) mobile fon nakaaraatmak bhaavanaao ko prabhaavit karta hai: jab do log ek doosare se baat karte hai tab agar ek vyakti fon k upayog karta ho to usse doosare vyakti ke nakaaraatmak bhaavanaae utpann hoti hai. do anusandhaano ke anusaar mobile fon ki upasthiti ke kaaran manushya ke rishton mein 2) tanaav k star badhata hai: mobile fon ke uchch aavruti ke kaaran star tanaav par nakaaraatmak prabhaav padne laga hai. lagaataar fon bajne se, alert aane se, anusmaarak aane se fon ke upayogakarta par tanaav padta hai. ek anusandhaan ke anusaar uchch mobile fon k istemaal k sambandh sone me gadbadi, tanaav, avaasaad ke lakshan dono purush aur mahila me paaya jaata hai. kul milaakar, atyadhik mobile fon ke upayog se yuva peedhi ke maanasik svaasthya par khatra ho sakta hai.

3) pratirksha pranali mein beemaariyo k khatra badh jaata hai : apne mobile fon ko lagaataar chhoone se rogaanu fon par lagte hi rahate hai. aap ek din ke upayog ke baad apne mobile fon par dekh sakte hai ki jo chikne, tel avasheshon dikhaai padhte hai usaki tulana un keetaanuon ki bimaariyo ke jaisi hai jo shauchaalaya ki seat par pai jaati hai. ek anusandhaan se yeh pata chala hai ki 92 pratishat mobile fon par keetaanoo jama hote hai -82 pratishat keetaanoo hamaare haato mein rahate hai - isse maleeya padaarth ek fon se doosare fon mein, ek vyakti se doosare vyakti mein sthaanaantarit kiya ja sakta hai.

4) mobile phone ke baanaane me kai haanikaaraak draavyo ka praayog kiya jaata hai. mobile phone ke baanaane me prayog kiya gaye draavya hai kaidamiyaam, lithiym, taanba, seesa, jasta aur paara, jo vishaatk maane jaate hai. in haanikaaraak padaarthao ke ghulane se aur mitti ke aandar reesane se mitti praadushit ho jaata hai, iske alaava bhoomi jal ko bhi jahareela baana deta hai. sirf mobile fonon ke danping hi nahi unke utpaadan se bhi paryaavaran par kai naakaaraatmak prabhaav hote hai. nae mobile fonon ke utpaadan jalavaayu parivartan aur green haus praabhaav ke liye bhi karaak hote hai. mobile fonon ke risaikiling se lagbhag nabbe pratisht tak grin haus gaises ko baachaaya ja sakta hai.

5) iske alaava mobile phone ke prayog se shareer ke kai ango mein dard ka uttpann ho sakta hai. E mail evam sandeshaon ke uttar teevr gati se dene ke kaaran jodon me dard aur soojan ka mehasoos hota hai. peeth me dard bhi mobile ke atyant prayog ke kaaran hi hota hai.

6) mobile ko adhik samay tak ghoorane par bhi hamaare drushti par galat prabhaav hota hai. unke adhiktar prayog se aaainkhon par tanaav bad jaata hai. mobile ke skrin computer se kai guna chhote hote hai aur unhe dekhne ke liye bheingana padata hai, is se aaainkhon me tanaav aur bhi aadhik ho jaata hai. aage jaake isi kaaran se netr sambandhit samasyon logon mai upastit hote hai. mobile ka atyannt upyog se hamare shareer ke mudra mai bhi parivrtan aa sakta hai jis se bhi peeth evam gardan par naakaaraatmak prabhav paaye ja sakte hai. 7) ham yeh bhi dekh sakte hai ki motor durgatanaon ke pramukh kaaran hai mobile phone ko ghaadi chalaane ke vakth upyog karna. kai deshon me ghaadi chalaate vakth fone ka upyog karna niyam virudh maana jaata hai.

8) iske alava ham yeh bhi dekh sakte hai ki mobile phone ke upyog se garbhavati mahilaaon ko vyavahaar ki samasyaaon ke saath paida hone vaale bachchon ki sambhaavaana ki suchana bhi diya gaaya hai. unke ek din mai do ya teen baar mobile ke upyog se unke bachchau mai bhaavaanaatmak samasyaon ke utpann hone ki soochana bhi diya gaaya hai. vah bachche agar saath saal ke umr se pehale agar mobile fone ka upyog kare to samasyao ki badane ki soochan bhi di gayi hai.

9) mobile ke upyog se mastishk ke taapamaan me bhi utaar chadaav hota hai. mobile fonon se utpann hone vaale vikirn ke kaaran hi mastishk me taapamaan ka utaar chadaav hota hai.

10) vaise to abhi poori tareeke se mobile fon tower se hone vaale svaasthaya par bura prabhaav ke vishay mein poori prushti naheen ho pai hai. kintu kuchh reports ke anusaar mobile fon tower se kai prakaar ki svaasthaya haani ho sakti hai jaise ! koshikaaon mein asaamanya vruddhi, mastisk tyoomar, pratirksha pranaali ki kshamata mein kami, neend mein kami aur chinta, bachchon mein rakt ka Cancer, baaainjhapan aur garbhapaat tatha anya kai prakaar ki svaasthaya se judi hue asuvidhaaen.[12]

[13][14][15]

vivaadaaspad anirmit saamagri

mobile phone aur anya electronic utpaadon mein uchch gunavatta sandhaaritr hote hain, jismein taintaalam shaamil hota hai. taintaalam ka ek pramukh srot koltan ki kachchi dhaatu hai jo lokataantrik ganaraajya kaango mein gruh yuddh kosh ke liye paise laane ke liye kuchh avaidh khaanon se vidrohi guton dvaara sanchaalit hai.[16] ek theth mobile phone mein 40 mileegraam taintaalam hota hai.Australia ke Perth ke paas pilbara kshetr ke vodagina ke Khan mein taintaalam ka ek sangharsh-mukt srot hai.[17]


yeh bhi dekhein

Wiktionary-logo-en.png
mobile phone ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.
  • anuneya kunjeepatal
  • mobile teleefoni
  • mobile doorasanchaar
  • Harvard vaakya
  • mobile phone upayog ki sankhya dvaara deshon ki soochi.
  • mobile Internet upakaran (MID)
  • mobile vipnan sangh
  • ReCellular ink.
  • OpenBTS
  • soochana aur sanchaar praudyogiki ke vikaas ke liye


sandarbh

  1. Ulyseas, Mark (2008-01-18). "Of Cigarettes and Cellphones". The Bali Times. http://www.thebalitimes.com/2008/01/18/of-cigarettes-and-cellphones/. abhigman tithi: 2008-02-24.
  2. International Telecommunication Union. (2009). Measuring the Information Society: The ICT Development Index. International Telecommunication Union. pp. 108. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9261128319. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/idi/2009/material/IDI2009_w5.pdf.
  3. "Special History Issue" (PDF). Speleonics 15 IV (3). October 1990. http://wgbush.com/splncs/splncs15.pdf.
  4. Http://news.cnet.com/8301-10784_3-9878005-7.html
  5. tum samaachaar ke gavaah ho
  6. [11]
  7. Http://www.rcrwireless.com/article/20081030/WIRELESS/810309997/
  8. http://www.netsize.com/downloads/intro.aspx
  9. Odell, Mark (August 1, 2005). "Use of mobile helped police keep tabs on suspect" (English mein). Financial Times. http://news.ft.com/cms/s/7166b8a2-02cb-11da-84e5-00000e2511c8.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-03-14.
  10. "Tracking a suspect by mobile phone" (English mein). BBC News. August 3, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4738219.stm. abhigman tithi: 2009-03-14.
  11. Miller, Joshua (March 14, 2009). "Cell Phone Tracking Can Locate Terrorists - But Only Where It's Legal" (English mein). FOX News. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,509211,00.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-03-14.
  12. "mobile fon ke faayde aur nuksaan Advantages and Disadvantages of Mobile Phones in Hindi". 1Hindi. 2016-01-31. http://www.1hindi.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-mobile-phones-in-hindi/.
  13. "Do mobile phones cause cancer?". Cancer Research UK. 2008-12-05. http://www.cancerhelp.org.uk/help/default.asp?page=5265. abhigman tithi: 2009-05-27.
  14. Interlandi, Jeneen (2007-12-19). "How Safe Are Cell Phones?". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/80966. abhigman tithi: 2009-05-27.
  15. saaaincha:Cite web=http://www.medicaldaily.com/5-reasons-why-cellphones-are-bad-your-health-247624
  16. http://www.theage.com.au/news/home/technology/blood-tantalum-in-your-mobile/2009/05/08/1241289162634.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1
  17. http://www.theage.com.au/news/home/technology/blood-tantalum-in-your-mobile/2009/05/08/1241289162634.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1


iske atirikt pathan

  • agar, John, nirantar sampark: mobile fon ka ek vaishvik itihaas, 2004 ISBN 1-84046-541-7
  • ahonen, Tommy, m-laabh: 3G seva ke saath dhan kamaana, 2002, ISBN 0-470-84775-1
  • ahonen, kaispar aur melkko, 3G vipnan 2004, ISBN 0-470-85100-7
  • glotj, Peter aur bartashach, Stefan, eds.aaingootha sanskruti : samaaj ke liye mobile fonon ka arth, 2005
  • kaatj, James E. aur aakhus, mark, eds.satat sampark: mobile sanchaar, niji baat, saarvajanik pradarshan, 2002
  • kaavoori, aanandam & aarkeneauks, noaah, eds.sel fon ke paathak: saamaajik parivartan par nibandh, 2006
  • kopoma, timo.shahar aapki jeb mein, gaudeaamus 2000
  • levinsan, paul, selafon: duniya ke adhikaansh mobile maadhyam ki kahaani aur kaise isne sab kuchh badal diya hai

!, 2004 ISBN 1-4039-6041-0

baahari link