mithila

mithila' praacheen dakshin esiya mein ek raajya tha. maana jaata hai ki yeh vartamaan uttari Bihar aur Nepal ki taraai ka ilaaka hai jise mithila ke naam se jaana jaata tha. mithila ki lokashruti kai sadiyon se chali aa rahi hai jo apni bauddhik parampara ke liye Bhaarat aur Bhaarat ke baahar jaana jaata raha hai. is ilaake ki pramukh bhaasha maithili hai. dhaarmik granthon mein sabse pehle iska ullekh raamaayan mein milta hai. mithila ka ullekh mahaabhaarat, raamaayan, puraan tatha jain evam bauddh granthon mein hua hai.

anukram

vyaapaarik sambandh

ganga-ghaati ke nagaron ke saath mithila ka vyaapaarik sambandh sada se hi tha. shraavasti evam kaashi ke vyaapaari yahaaain aate the. vahaaain ke naagrik banaarasi silk ke bade hi shaukeen the. jaatak granthon ke anusaar mithila-nareshon ke darabaari kaashi ke silk ki dhoti, pagadi aur mirjai pahanate the. mithila-naagrik bade hi utsaahi the. vahaaain ke jijnyaaasu navayuvak adhyayan ke liye pehle takshashila jaaya karte the, jo is nagar se saikadon meal ki doori par sthit tha. ataev lagta hai ki bahut praarambh mein mithila-puri shiksha-kendra na thi. par baad mein vahaaain bauddhik vikaas badi sheeghrata ke saath aarambh hua. baahya aakramanon se surakshit hone ke kaaran is nagar ka vaataavaran shaantimya tha. falat: vahaaain shiksha evam uchch sanskruti ki abhivruddhi sambhav hui. yeh puri panditon ki Khan samajhi jaane lagi. mithila-mandal ke vidvaanon mein mandanamishr ullekhaneeya hain, jinhonne shankaraachaarya se takkar li thi jayadev evam vidyaapati mithila ki vibhooti the.

mahattv

kuchh dinon tak yahaaain teer-bhukti (tirhut) ki bhi rajdhani sthit thi. iseeliye log kabhi-kabhi is pur ko teerabhukti bhi kehte the. is naam ke padne ka kaaran yeh tha ki yeh pradesh badi gandak aur baagamati, in donon nadiyon ke teer (taton) ke beech sthit tha. aaj ke yug mein bhi hamaare dhaarmik evam saanskrutik jeevan mein mithila ka ek vishesh sthaan hai. is nagar ka pratinidhitv aadhunik janakapur karta hai, jiske darshanaarth bhaaratavaasi door bhaagon se bhi prabhoot sankhya mein vahaaain ekatr hote hain.

mithila ke pramukh shahar

Bhaarat mein prastaavit mithila raajya (jila sahit)

janakapur, Nepal (rajdhani)

mithila anveshan

pro॰ Krishna Kumar jha “aanveshak"

bha. vi. bhavan sanskrut mahaavidyaalaya, Mumbai-7

puraan pramaanit mithila

desheshu mithila shreshtha gaङagaadi bhooshita bhuvi:.

dvijeshu maithil: shreshth: maithileshu ch shrotriya : .

gaङaga-koshi - gandaki-kamala-triyuga-amruta-vaagamati-lakshmana aadi nadi sain bhooshit mithilaak shreshthata ved-puraan-upanishd-darshan aa rishi pramaan sain sarvatha pramaanit achhi. ehi praantak sabhyata - sanskrutik praacheenata svat: siddh achhi. shad‍ darshan (nyaaya-vaisheshik-saankhya-yog- meemaansa-vedaant) me sain chaari darshanak ud‍aabhav sthali mithila anek maithil mahaapurushak sudeergh manirt‍aanak parampara sain poorn achhi. apan maanasamanthan sain maithil maneeshi lokani J kichhu praapt kaelanhi O samagr vish‍aav ke lel anukaraneeya achhi. mithilaak vaishisht‍aaya evam prashasti moolak shlok me teerabhuk‍aatik (tirhutak) mahaatmya varnit achhi.

jaata sa yatr seeta saridmal jala vaagvati yatrapunya.

yatraaste sannidhaane surnagar nadi bhairavo yatr liङgam‌ .

meemaansa-nyaaya vedaadhyayan patutarai: panditemarndita ya.

bhoodevo yatr bhoopo yajan-vasumati saasti me teerabhuk‍aati: .

jagat-janani seetaak utpat‍aati bhoomi tirhut arthaat‌ vaidik maanyata ke anusaar teen vedak (rigved, saamaved, yajurved) jnyaaata athva trived sain aahuti devayavala jaahi bhoobhaag par nivaas karait chhathi O nirmal jal sain paripoorn aa meemaansa-nyaaya vedaadi adhyayan me patu sain patutar-vidvat maneeshi sushobhit jaahi bhoobhaagak shaasak yajnyaakartta pandit chhathi O tirhut dhanya achhi.

devi Bhagwat me mithilaak prajaak sadaachaar aa samruddhik manoram varnan kael Gale achhi :-

pravishto mithila madhye pashyan‌ savarddhimuttamaam‌.

prajaash‍aach sukhitaa: sarvaa: sadaachaaraa: susansthita .

videharaaj janak, mandan, ayaachi-yaajnyaavalkyak mithila me aadikaal sain adhyayan-adhyaapan aa lekhan-manan ke yajan ke sammaan praapt achhi. vyaakaran vedaant-meemaansa-nyaaya-tantr-saahitya-sangeet aadi vishyak paandityapoorn paramparaak Akshay gyaan kosh sain sadaiv navanavonmesh shaalini prajnyaa, gyaan-vijnyaaanak granth sain paripoorn achhi mithilaak vidyaagaar.

ayaachi mishrak gaam sariso paahi

“akalau sthaanaani poojyante"

ehi aarshavaakya pramaan sain gyaat hoit achhi J kalikaal me vyak‍aati bhooshit sthaanak garima sarvopari achhi. devasthaanak prati lokak aseem anuraag aaor gaam-teerthak pooja ehi tathya ke paripusht karait achhi. pandit ayaachi-shankar aa sachal mishrak janmabhoomi mithila madhya avasthit paahi yuk‍aat sariso gaam ke naman karait ohi thaamak sudeergh viddhat parampara ke koti-koti pranaam.

sarisvak gauravamaya itihaas ateetak jeevan darshan bani ekhanahu viraajamaan achhi. sarisb shabdak shaabdik arth sanskrutak sarshap shabd sain nishpann achhi evam ekar paryaayavaachi siddhaarth hoit achhi. tain ehi kshetr ke siddhaarth kshetr arthaat‌ maithili sarisbak khet kahal Gale achhi. gaamak naamakaran sain gyaat hoit achhi J ehi thaamak bhoomi upajaaoo chhal, urvara yuk‍aat ehi praant me sarisvak kheti prachur maatra me hoit chhal. saat khand (tol) me viraajamaan ehi gaamak sameepavarti koilakh, bhaur-raiyaam-lohana, pandaul-bhagavateepur aadi un‍aanat paramparaak dyotak achhi. sarisv ehi sav me praacheen achhi aa Bhagwan shri krushnak agraj shri balabhadr jeek saadhana sthali achhi. skand puraanak naagar khand me Kapil munik-aashram siddhaarth kshetrak sameep hoyabaak varnan bhetait achhi. tadanusaar vartamaan kapilesh‍aavar sthaan sauraath sabha sain doo kos dakshin pash‍aachim me viraajamaan achhi aaऽ ekhanahu mithila praant me shraddhaak sthaan praapt kene achhi. jahina baabaadhaam (devadhar) me shivbhak‍aat sultaan ganj sain gaङagaak jal bhari kaaainvar lऽ kऽ jaait chhathi tahina asankhya shraddhaalu shivbhak‍aat jayanagar me kamala sain jal bhari shraavanak sav som kऽ kapilesh‍aavar sthaan jaait chhathi. sariso ehi sthaan sain doo yojan pash‍aachim me avasthit achhi. ehi gaamak sameep madhubani sain poorv bhagavateepur me bhuvanesh‍aavaranaath mahaadev viraajamaan chhathi aa i sthaan mithilaak praacheen siddhapeeth me sain ek achhi. praacheenakaal me ehi gaam ke amaraavateek prateek maanal jaait chhal.

ekhanahu ehi thaamak bhoomi sain yada-kada utkhananak parinaam svaroop praacheen svarnamudra, poojanasaamagri aa gruhasthaashramopayogi vastu praapt hoit rahait chhaik, J ehi baatak dyotak achhi ki praacheen kaal me ehi thaam gaam-nagar-mandir tadaag sain yuk‍aat aarya sabhyata viraajamaan chhal. ek anumaanak anusaar harshavardhan ke saamraajyak patan bhela par mahaaraaj arunaash‍aach ke viruddh tibbati aakraman ke samay ehi praant me bhayankar narasanhaar bhel chhal. aakramanakaari apaar dhan-sampatti looti kऽ lऽ Gale chhal, paranch mithilaak ehi praantak maati me vyaapt vidya vaibhav ke lऽ jaeba me samarth nahi bhऽ sakal.

mithila me karnaat vansheeya kshatriya vanshak antim raaja panyaji pravartak mahaaraaj harisinh devak anusaar mithilaak ehi kshetr me viraajamaan sarisb me gyaarahavi shataabdik poorvaarddh bhaag me saamaved kauthum shaakhaak shaandil gotreeya mahaamahopaadhyaaya rat‍aanaapaanik nivaasak varnan bhetait achhi. O harisinh devak samay terahaveen shataabdeek maanal jaait achhi.

vishnu puraan aa harivansh puraan me syamantak mani upaakhyaan me shri balabhadrak mithila pravaasak varnan bhetait achhi. ek kathaak anusaar bhi balabhadr ji anuj shri Krishna sain rusi kऽ mithila aavi Gale chhalaah aa teen varsh dhari ehithaamak vibhinn kshetr me bhraman karait rahalaah. apna pravaasak samay mithilaak anek praant me devi-devataak sthaapana kaya saadhana kene chhalaah. mahaabhaarat yuddh sain poorv kichhu din tak siddhaarth kshetrak ehi sarisb gaam ke apan saadhana bhoomi banaune chhalaah evam ehi gaamak graamadevi maata siddhesh‍aavari aa gaamak pash‍aachim me siddhesh‍aavar naath mahaadevak sthaapana kaene chhalaah. ek kinvadanti ke anusaar ehi siddh kshetr me duryodhan shri balabhadr ji sain gadaak shiksha praapt kene chhalaah. vruhad‌ vishnupuraan me balabhadr dvaara sthaapit maata siddhesh‍aavareek varnan bhetait achhi.

mahaamahopaadhyaayak parampara sain poorn i gaam ekhanahu bhagavati bhaarateek abhyarthana me laagal achhi. sarasvateek krupaasthaleek maatik mahatva sudoor praantak lok ke dvaara apna putr-putreek abhilekh sanskaarak (aksharaarambh sanskaar) din uttam sanskaarak hetu ehithaamak maati l' jayavaak pratha sain pratipaadit achhi. janak, yaajnyaavalkya aadi rishi dvaara prashansit sarisv gaamak utkarshak varnan alp vishay mati sain sambhav nahi achhi, tathaapi svanaam dhanya shri bhavanaath mishr J apan tyaagapoorn ayaachit jeevan pranaali sain ayaachi mishrak upaadhi yuk‍aat sanjnyaa praapt kene chhalaah, hunakar gaam sarisbak varnan hetu ayaachi-shankar-sachal aa mahaamahopaadhyaaya dau॰ sar gaङagaanaath jha aadi preranaak shrot bani lekhani ke agrasaarit kऽ rahal chhathi.

dantakathaak anusaar hunaka maatr sava kattha jameen chhalainh jaahi me utpann saag-kandamool aa ann aadi sain nirvaah karait chhalaah. apna nirvaahak vaaste kakaro sain kono prakaarak yaachana nahin karait chhalaah, tain hukar naam ayaachi bhel. hunak putr shri shankar mishr jinka baal pratibha-arthaat‌ apoorn panyacham varsh me trilokak varnan karabaak gaurab praapt chhainh aa mithilaak paanditya paramparaak aadarsh purush maanal jaait chhathi. kinvadanti ke anusaar shri shankar mishrak ekata rochak katha mithila me prachalit achhi. tadanusaar hink janm ke samay ayaachi mishr ghaai ke puraskaar me baalakak pratham arjit dhan debaak vachan dene chhalkhinh. shri shankar mishr apan baalyaavastha me raajasabha me trilokak varnan kae raaja ke dvaara puraskaar me prachur dhan praapt kऽ jakhan O dhan ke pita ayaachi mishrak samaksh prastut kaelanhi takhan O baalakak janm ke samay ghaai ke del-Gale vachan ke paalan karabaak hetu ohi dhan ke ghaai ke samarpit kऽ delakhinh. ohi dhan sain O ghaai anek pokhari-inaar, mandir aadik nirmaan kaelak J ekhanahu vidyamaan achhi aa ayaacheek tyaagak katha kahi rahal achhi. shri shankar mishrak shishya parampara swayam ke lekhani sain sanketit achhi.

shlaadyaaspadan yadyapi netaresha miyankruti: svaaduhaayoऽya.

tathaapi shishyai gurugauraven par: sahastrai: samupaasaneeya .

shri shankar mishrak virchit shlok “arasaarnav" naam sain prasiddh achhi. pita putr satat‌ “akaavya shaastr vinoden kaalogachhati dheemataam‌" ke saarthak karait shaastr charcha me nimgn rahait chhalaah. shri shankar dvaara rachit vaisheshik sootropaskaar me sootrakaar kanaad aa apan pita bhavanaath (ayaachi) mishrak smaran karait likhait chhathi:-

ya bhyaan vaisheshike tantre samyak‌ vyutpaaditoऽsyaham‌.

kanaad bhavanaatha bhyaan taabhyaan mam nam: sada .

shri shankar mishrak vidvattaak prateek hunak paathashaalaak naam 'chaupaadi' chhalanhi. ehi chaupaadi par ud‍aabhat sain ud‍aabhat vidvaan abait chhalaah aa satat‌ shaastraarth hoit rahait chhal. door-door sain adhyayanaarthi ehi paathashaala me adhyayanaarth abait rahait chhalaah. ayaachi shankarak mahima samagr vish‍aav me prasarit achhi. ekhanahu ehi parivaarak vanshaj nahi ki maatr Bhaarat varsh me apitu samagr vish‍aav me prasaarit bhऽ kऽ adhyavasaayi jeevan vyateet kऽ rahal chhathi.

maithil braahman aa panyaji vyavastha

mahaaraaj harisinh Dave ke dvaara maithil braahman ke aachaar vichaar aa vyavahaarak anusaar shreneebaddh karabaak satprayaas kael Gale chhal. etadarth ek samay mahaaraaj harisinh Dave mithilaak sampoorn braahman samaaj ke ek vishisht bhoj me aamantrit kaelanhi. aamantranak raajyaadesh me spasht roop sain kahal Gale chhal J sav kiyo apan-apan nitya karm samaapt kae bhojan ke lel aabathi. bhojanoparaant samaagat braahman ke shreni kramak ghoshana kael jaaet. ehi aamantranak charcha sain samast maithil braahman samaaj utsaahit chhalaah. sabahak jijnyaaasaak vishay banal ehi aamantran me apan-apan upasthitik aakulata samast maithil braahman samaaj me chhal. aamantranak utkashtha me ohi din sab kiyo praat: kaal sabha me upasthit bhऽ panyaji (upasthiti-pustika) me apan naam likhvaaya aasanasth hoit gelaah. ehi prakaar sain saayankaal dhari aagantukak aagaman hoit rahal. paranyach terah vilkshan karmakaandi braahman saayan sandhya upaasana kaelaak pash‍achaat‌ sabhaasthal par aelaah. bhojanoparaant “apoorvaagaman adh: nyaaya" ke anusaar sab sain poorv upasthit hovaya vala braahman ke naam shreni kram me sab sain neecha raakhal Gale aa sab sain baad me aabaya wala braahmanak kram sab sain upar ghoshit bhel. E kram braahmanochit sandhya upaasana aadik aadhaar par del Gale chhal J ekhanahu maithil braahman me vaivaahik sambandhak samay koti nirdhaaranak aadhaar maanal jaait achhi.

ehi kram me saayan sandhyaak pash‍achaat‌ upasthit terah vilkshan, karmakaandi, pratibhaashaali, trikaal sandhya upaasak vedajnya aa vedok‍aat reeti sain jeevan yaapan karayabala braahman ke avadaat (arthaat‌ poorn shuddh) sanjnyaa del gelanhi. avadaat sanjnyaaak E terah kul vedaadhyaayi aa shrutimaargasain jeevan yaapan karait chhalaah tain maithil braahmanak ehi vishisht shaakha ke shrotriya kahal jaait achhi. aapastamb ke anusaar:- “avedasyaikaikaan shaakhaamadheetya shrotriyo bhavati", arthaat‌ shrotriya upaadhi ehi baatak pramaan achhi ki kakar dhaarak kam sain kam vedak ek shaakha me nishnaat chhathi. paranyach kaalakram sain vedaadhyaayeek parijan ke shrotriya kahayavaak parampara chali rahal achhi. aa ekhanahu shrotriya parijan shuddhatar dekhal jaait chhathi. E shrotriya parivaar raaainti-mangarauni-pilkhavaad-sarisopaahi aadi sthaan me avasthit chhalaah aa ohi thaam sain anyatr seho visthaapit bhelaah.

vastut: panyaji vyavasthaak uddeshya praay: visthaapit parivaarak mool aavaas, sanskruti aa parampara ke rekhaankit karab chhal tai braahmanak mool me moolagaamak samaavesh kael Gale achhi aa kaalaantar me pun: visthaapit bhelaak pash‍achaat‌ ohi gaamak naam seho jodi del Gale achhi. jena paali gaaainv me rahanihaarak mool bhel palivaad aa ohithaam sain J mahishi gelaah se palivaad mahishi. tahina sarisb gaamak nivaasi sarisve. darihd ke rahanihaar darihde adai gaamak nivaasi adaivaad aadi moolak vyavastha panyajeeroop me harisinh devak dvaara kael Gale achh J panyajeeprabandh ke naam sain vikhyaat achhi.

inhein bhi dekhein

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