misr ki sanskruti

misr ki sanskruti ka hajaaron varshon ki likhit itihaas praapt hota hai. praacheen misr vishv ki praacheenatam sabhyataaon mein se ek thi. ek sahasraabdi tak misr ki atyant jatil aur sthir sanskruti bani rahi. isne Europe, madhya Asia tatha Africa ki paravarti sanskrutiyon ko prabhaavit kiya. fairokaal ke uparaant misr yoonaanavaad (Hellenism) ke prabhaav mein aaya, uske baad laghu kaal ke liye isaaiyat ke prabhaav mein tatha ant mein islaami sanskruti ke prabhaav mein aa gaya.

parichay

misri shaasan vyavastha poornat: dharmataantrik thi. misri naresh sooryadev re ke pratinidhi hone ke kaaran swayam devata maane jaate the. mrutyu ke baad unki pooja unke piremid ke saamane bane mandir mein hoti thi. yeh vishvaaaas kaalaantar mein itna drudh ho gaya ki chauthi shataabdi i0 poo0 mein sikandar ko bhi apne ko eman-re ka putr ghoshit karke misri janta ko santusht karna pada tha. unke prajaajan unka naam tak lene se jhijhkate the, isaliye inhein praaya: 'achha devata' athva 'per O' (baaibil ka ferao) kaha jaata tha. raajya ki aay ka ek bahut bada bhaag unke haram aur parivaar ke bharan-poshan par vyaya kiya jaata tha. siddhaantat: ve raajya ke sarvesarva hote the. ve na keval raajyaadhyaksh hote the varan sarvochch, senaapati, sarvochch pujaari aur sarvochch nyaayaadheesh bhi hote the. lekin vyavahaar mein saamanto, purohiton, prabhaavashaali padaadhikaariyon aur chaheti mahaaraaniyaaain ki ichhaaeain tatha raajya ki paranparaaeain unki nirankushata par niyantran rakhati theen. ve kaanoon ke nirmaata na hokar uske sanrakshak maane jaate the. feraon ke baad raajya ka sarvaadhik shaktishaali vyakti pradhaan mantri tha. vah raajya ka pradhaan vaastukaar, pradhaan nyaayaadheesh aur raajaabhilekh sangrahaalaya ka adhyaksh hota tha. teesare vansh ke teen mantri imhotep, kegegne tatha ta:hotep ne apne gyaan ke bal par atul keerti arjit ki. misri raajya ka ek anya mahatvapoorn padaadhikaari 'pradhaan koshaadhyaksh' tha. vah sampoorn desh ki vitt vyavastha ko niyantrit rakhata tha. shaasakeeya suvidha ke liye misr lagbhag 40 praanton me vibhaajit tha. ye vaastav mein ve praacheen raajya the jinko ekeekrut karke pratham vansh ke pehle do raajya---uttari aur dakshini--sthaapit kiye gaye the. lekin ab in par svatantr raajaaon ke sthaan par ferao dvaara niyukt Governor raajya karte the. madhya raajya yug mein praanteeya gavarnaron tatha saamanton ki shakti vishesh roop se badhi aur saamraajya yug mein samraat ki.

misri samaaj paaainch vargo mein vibhaajit tha : raajaparivaar, saamant, pujaari, madhyamavarg tatha sarf aur das. bhoomi siddhaantat: ferao ke haath mein thi. vyavahaar mein usane ise adhikaanshat: pujaariyon, puraane raajaaon ke vanshajon aur saamanton mein vibhaajit kar diya tha. unki badi-badi jaageeron mein das aur sarf kaam karte the. madhyam varg mein lipik, vyaapaari, kaareegar aur svatantr kisaan sammilit the. praacheen raajya yug mein sabse adhik pratishtha raajaparivaar, saamanto aur pujaariyon ki thi. madhya raajya yug mein saamanton ke saath madhyam varg ko mahatva mila tatha saamraajya yug mein sainik varg ko. varg vyavastha aashcharyajanak roop se lacheeli thi. har vyakti koi bhi pesha apna sakta tha. keval raajaparivaar ke sadasya is adhikaar se vanchit the. sarf bhi praaya: uchch padon par pahunch jaate the. lekin uchch aur nimn varg ke logon ke rahan sahan mein bhaari antar tha. dhani log vishaal havaadaar bhavanon mein rahate the aur nirdhan gande mohalle ki chhoti chhoti jhopadiyon mein.

samaaj ki ikaai parivaar tha. vidhyanusaar pratyek vyakti ki keval ek patni ho sakti thi aur usi ki santaan ko parivaarik sampatti uttaraadhikaar mein milti thi. ferao bhi is niyam ke apavaad naheen the. lekin samruddh purush anek upapatniyaaain rakhate the. misri samaaj ke pratyek varg mein bhaai bahin ke vivaah ki pratha thi, isaliye pati patni mein baalyaavastha se hi sneh sambandh rahata tha. samaaj mein striyon ko atyant pratishthit sthaan praapt tha. maiksamoolar ke anusaar kisi anya jaati ne striyon ko utana uchch vaidhaanik sammaan pradaan naheen kiya jitna misriyon ne. misriyon ke aarthik jeevan ka aadhaar krushikrm tha. ve mukhyat: gehooain, jau, matar, sarason, anjeer, khajoor, san tatha angoor aur anya anek falon ki kheti karte the. misr mein krushikrm, apekshaya aasaan tha. bina hal chalaae bhi misri kisaan kai fasalein paida kar sakte the. sinchaai vyavastha ka aadhaar neel nadi thi. kisaanon ko upaj ka 10 se 20 pratishat bhaag kar ke roop mein dena hota tha. kar, khaadyaann aadi ke roop mein diye jaate the. doosra pramukh udyam pashu-paalan tha. unke pramukh paalatoo pashu the gaaya, bhed, bakari aur gadha. aseeriya aur noobiya se ve devadaaru, haatheedaaaint aur aabanoos ka aayaat karte the aur inse apne ferao aur saamanton ke liye bahumoolya furniture banaate the. ve kai prakaar ke jalapot banaane ki kala mein bhi kushal the. chamade aur khaalon se ve bhaaainti bhaaainti ke vastr aur dhaal ityaadi tatha pepaairas paudhe se kaagaj, halaki naavein, chappalein, chataaiyaaain aur rassiyaaain aadi banaate the. uttam koti ke linn vastron ki bahut maaaing thi. misriyon ke in udyog dhandhon ko jhaaainki unke rileef chitron mein surakshit hai.

misr nivaasi ati praacheen kaal se bahudevavaadi the. unhonne apne devataaon ki kalpana praaya: manushyon athva pashupakshiyon athva milejule roop mein ki. unke adhikaansh devata praakrutik shaktiyon ke daivi roop the. soorya, chandra tatha neel nadi ko hi naheen varan jharanon, parvaton, pashupakshiyon, lataakunjon, vrukshon aur vividh vanaspatiyon tak ko ve daivi shakti se abhihit maanate the. aakaash ki kalpana unhonne noot naam ki daivi athva hathaur naam ki daivi gau ke roop mein ki thi. meinfis ka pramukh devata ta: kisi praakrutik shakti ka daiveekaran na hokar kalaaon aur kalaakaaron ka sanrakshak tha. soorya ki upaasana misr mein lagbhag sabhi jagah vibhinn naamon aur roopon mein hoti thi. uttari misr mein usaki pooja ka mukhya kendra on (yoonaaniyon ka heliyopolis) naam ka sthaan tha. yahaaain use re kaha jaata tha aur usaki kalpana pashchim ki or gaman karte hue vruddh purush ke roop mein ki gayi thi. theebij mein usaka naam eman tha. dakshini misr mein usaka pramukh kendra edafoo naamak sthaan tha. vahaaain usaki upaasana baaj pakshi ke roop mein horus naam se hoti thi. sanyukt raajya ki sthaapana hone par soorya ke in vibhinn roopon ko abhinn maana jaane laga aur usaka sanyukt naam eman-re lokapriya ho gaya. usaka prateek 'pakshayukt soorchachakr' misr ka raajachihn tha. misriyon ke vishvaas ke anusaar sabse pehle usi ne feraon ke roop mein shaasan kiya tha. sooryadev ke aakaashagaami ho jaane par pruthvi par uske pratinidhi feraon raajya karne lage. inmein sabse pehla sthaan osiris ko diya gaya hai. yadyapi kaheen-kaheen usako soorya ka putr bhi kaha gaya hai, tathaapi vah moolat: neel nadi, pruthvi ki urvar shakti tatha hareetima ka daiveekaran prateet hota hai. ek naresh ke roop mein vah atyant paropakaari aur nyaayapriya siddh hua. shaasanakaarya mein use apni bahin aur patni aaisis se bahut sahaayata mili. uske dusht bhraata set ne usaki dhokhe se hatya kar di. baad mein aaisis ne horus naamak putr ko janm diya. usaka paalan-poshan usane muhaane vaale pradesh mein gupt roop se kiya. yuvaavastha praapt karne ke baad horus ne ghor sangharsh karke set ko paraajit kiya aur apne pita ke apamaan aur vadh ka pratishodh liya.

madhya raajya yug mein osiris ka mahatva bahut badha aur yeh maana jaane laga ki pratyek mrutaatma paralok mein osiris ke nyaayaalaya mein jaati hai. vahaaain ausiris apne 42 adheen nyaayaadheeshon ki sahaayata se uske karmo ki jaaainch karta hai. jo mrutaatmaaeain is jaaainch mein khari utarati theen unhein yaaroolok mein svargeeya sukhon ka upabhog karne ke liye bhej diya jaata tha aur jinka paarthiv jeevan dushkarmon se paripoorn hota tha unhein ghor yaatanaaeain di jaati theen.

saamraajya yug mein pujaari varg atyant dhani aur sattaadhaari ho gaya. isse madhya raajya yug mein dharm aur sadaachaar mein jo ghanishth sambandh sthaapit hua tha vah toot gaya. ab swayam dharm ke sanrakshak bhog-vilaas ka jeevan vyateet karne lage. 'devataaon' ke manoranjak ke hetu niyukt devadaasiyaaain vastut: unka hi manoranjan karti theen. ab unhonne mrutakon ko paralok ka bhaya dikhaakar yeh daava karna shuroo kiya ki agar ve chaahein to apne jaadoo ke jor se paapishthon ko bhi svarg dila sakte hain. itna hi naheen, ve khule aam aise paapamochak pramaanapatr bechate the. in pramaanapatron ki tulana madhyakaaleen Europe mein isaai paadariyon dvaara beche jaanevaale paapamochak pramaanapatron (indaljeinsej) se ki ja sakti hai. misri dharm ki yeh vah avastha thi jab 1375 i0 poo0 mein amenahotep chaturth misr ka adheeshvar bana. usane praarambh se hi pujaari varg mein faile bhrashtaachaar aur raajaneeti par unke avaanchhaneeya prabhaav ka virodh kiya aur etan naamak ek naye devata ki upaasana ko lokapriya banaane ka prayaas kiya. usaki prashansa mein usane apna naam bhi akhnaatan rakh liya. etan moolat: sooryadev re ka hi naam tha. lekin akhnaatan ne use keval misr ka hi naheen, samast vishv ka ekamaatr devata bataaya. kyonki etan niraakaar tha, isaliye akhnaatan ne usaki moortiyaaain naheen banavaain. lekin janasaadhaaran usaki mahima ko hrudayangam kar sake, isaliye usane 'sooryachakr' ko usaka prateek maana. etan ki upaasana mein na bahut adhik chadhaave ki aavashyakta thi, na jatil karmakaand, tantramantr aur pujaariyon ki bheed ki. keval hrudaya se etan ke aabhaar ko maanana aur usaki stuti karte hue shraddha ke prateek roop kuchh patra, pushp aur fal chadhaana paryaapt tha. uske paralokavaad mein narak ki kalpana naheen milti kyonki vah yeh soch bhi naheen sakta tha ki dayaalu pita etan kisi ko naarakeeya peedaaeain de sakta hai.

akhnaatan ne praarambh mein anya devataaon ke prati sahishnuta ka vyavahaar kiya kintu pujaariyon ke ugr virodh par usane anya devataaon ke mandiron ko band karva diya. unke pujaariyon ko nikaal diya, apni praja ko keval etan ki pooja karne ka aadesh diya aur saarvajanik smaarakon par likhe hue sab devataaon ke naam mitva diye. lekin akhnaatan ke vichaar aur kaarya uske samay ke anukool naheen the. isaliye usaki mrutyu ke saath usaka dharm bhi samaapt ho gaya. uske baad, uske daamaad tootenakhaatan ne puraane dharm ko pun: pratishthit kiya, pujaariyon ke adhikaar lauta diye aur apna naam badalkar tootenakhaamen rakh liya.

misr ki praacheen lipi chitraakshar lipi (haairauglaaifik) kahi jaati hai. 'haairoglaaif' yoonaani shabd hai. iska arth hai 'pavitra chinh'. is lipi mein kul milaakar lagbhag 2000 chitraakshar the. inmein kuchh chitron mein manushya ki vibhinn aakrutiyaaain aadi hai. ye chinh teen prakaar ke hain: bhaavabodhak, dhvanibodhak tatha sanketasoochak. chitraaksharon ko banaate samay vastuon ke yathaarth roop ko ankit karne ka prayaas kiya jaata tha, isaliye ise likhne mein bahut samay lagta tha. is kathinaai ko door karne ke liye pratham vansh ke shaasanakaal mein hi misriyon ne ek prakaar ki drut athva ghaseet (haairetik) lipi ka vikaas kar liya tha. misriyon ne praacheen raajya yug mein 24 aksharon ki ek varnamaala ka aavishkaar karne mein bhi safalta praapt ki thi. unhonne varnamaala ko bhaavabodhak aur ghvanibodhak chitroein se sahaayak roop mein prayukt kiya, svatantr maadhyam ke roop mein naheen. aathaveen shtaabdi i0 poo0 ke lagbhag misriyon ne 'haairetik lipi' se bhi sheeghratar likhi jaanevaali lipi ka aavishkaar kiya jise 'dimaatik' kaha jaata hai. yeh ek prakaar ki shaartahaind lipi kahi ja sakti hai.

misr mein praacheen raajya kaal se hi pepaairas (narakul ke goode se bana kaagaj) likhne ka saamaanya saadhan tha. charmapatron ko tatha mrudbhaandon ke tukadon ko bhi likhne ke liye kaam mein laaya jaata tha. un par chitraakshar narakul ki lekhani se bhi banaae jaate the aur brush se bhi.

misri saahitya prakrutya vyaavahaarik tha. unki adhikaansh krutiyaaain aisi hain jo kisi na kisi vyaavahaarik uddeshya ki poorti karne ke liye likhi gayi theen. iseeliye ve mahaakaavyon, naatakon aur yahaaain tak ki saahityak drushti se aakhyaanon ki bhi rachana kabhi naheen kar paae. unke jin aakhyaanon ki charcha ki gayi hai, ve sab saamraajya yug ke ant tak keval janakathaaon ke roop mein prachalit the. unako kabhi pruthak saahityik krutiyon ke roop mein lipibddh naheen kiya gaya. piremid yug ki vishisht dhaarmik rachanaaeain piremid teksats hain. inmein mrutak sanskaar mein kaam aane vaale ve mantra, poojaageet aur praarthanaaeain aadi sammilit hain jinhein mrut ferao ke paaralaukik jeevan ko sankat rahit karne ke liye uske piremidon ki bhittiyon par utkeern kar diya jaata tha. inse hi kaalaantar mein 'kaufin teksats' tatha 'book ov di ded' ka vikaas hua. shesh saahitya bhi prakrutya vyaavahaarik hai. udaaharanaarth imhotep, kegemne tatha ta:hotep ityaadi mantriyon ne apne anubhavajanit gyaan ko lekhabaddh kiya. ye krutiyaaain 'neetigranth' kahalaati hain. madhya raajyayugeen rachanaaon mein 'mukhar krushak ka aavedan', 'ipuver ki bhavishyavaani' 'emenamhet ka upadesh' tatha 'veenaavaadak ka gaan' pramukh hain tatha saamraajyayugeen krutiyon mein akhnaatan ke stotr.

vigyaan ke keval unheen kshetron mein misriyon ki ruchi thi jinki vyaavahaarik jeevan mein aavashyakta padti theen. jijnyaaasa ke seemit hone ke baavajood unhonne kuchh kshetron mein aashcharyajanak safalta praapt ki. udaaharanaarth unhonne grahon aur nakshatron ki sthiti ka kaafi sahi andaaj karke aakaash ka maanachitr bana liya tha. saur panchaang ka aavishkaar unki mahatvapoorn safalta thi. ganit ke mukhya niyam jod, ghataana aur bhaag vyaapaar aur prashaasan sambandhi aavashyakataaon ki poorti ke liye kaafi pehle aavishkrut ho chuke the. lekin guna se ve ant tak aparichit rahe. iska kaam ve jod se chalaate the. shoonya aur dashamlav vidhi se bhi ve aparichit the. beejaganit aur rekhaaganit ki praathamik samasyaaon ko hal karna unhein aa gaya tha, lekin visham chaturbhuj ka kshetrafal nikaalne mein dikkat ka anubhav karte the. vrutt, arddhagolaak aur silindar ka kshetrafal nikaalne mein kaafi safalta praapt kar li thi. bhavanon ki aadhaarayojana banaane mein ve asaadhaaran roop se kushal the. unke kaareegar stambhon aur meharaaton ke prayog se parichit the. chikitsaashaastr mein bhi unhonne paryaapt pragati kar li thi.

misriyon ke liye kala unke raashtreeya jeevan ko abhivyakt karne ka maadhyam thi. iska sarvottam pramaan unke piremid hain. kuchh vidvaanon ka kehna hai ki misri nareshon ne inhein raajya ki aarthik vyavastha bigadne par janta ko rojagaar dene ke liye banavaaya tha. lekin yeh asambhav lagta hai. jis samay ye piremid banaae gaye the misr samruddh desh tha, isaliye inka nirmaan aarthik sangathan ke daurbalya ka kaaran maana ja sakta hai, parinaam naheen. vaastav mein misriyon ne piremidon ki rachana apne raajya aur uske prateek feraon ki anashvarata aur gaurav ko abhivyakt karne ke liye ki thi. agar feraon amar the to unki mrut deh ki suraksha aur uske nivaas ke hetu unki mahatta ke anuroop vishaal aur sthaayi samaadhiyon ka nirmaan aavashyak tha. herodotas ke anusaar gijeh ke 'vishaal piremid' ko ek lakh vyaktiyon ne bees saal mein banaaya tha. yeh terah ekad bhoomi mein bana hai aur 480 foot ooaincha tatha 755 foot lamba hain. ismein dhaai dhaai tan bhaar ke 23 paashaanakhand lage hain. ye itni chaturata se jode gaye hain ki kaheen kaheen to jod ki chaudaai ek inch ke hajaaravein bhaag se kam hai.

saamraajya yug mein misri vaastukala ka pradarshan mandiron ka nirmaan mein hua. piremidon ke samaan ye mandir bhi praaya: kathoratam paashaan se banaae gaye hai aur atyant vishaal hai. kaanaark ka mandir sambhavat: vishv ka vishaalatam bhavan hai. yeh 1300 foot (lagbhag chauthaai meal) lamba hai. iska madhyavarti kaksh 170 foot lamba aur 338 foot chauda hai. iski chhat chhah panktiyon mein banaae gaye 136 stambhon par tiki hai jinmein madhyavarti baarah stambh 79 foot ooainche hain aur unamein se pratyek ke sheershabhaag par sau vyakti khade ho sakte hain. misri noobiya mein nirmit Abu sinbel ka mandir vastut: ek guhaamandir hai. yeh 175 foot lamba aur 90 foot ooaincha hai. iske madhyavarti kaksh ki chhat 20 foot ooainche 8 stambhon par aadhaarit hai jinke saath osiris ki 17 foot ooainchi moortiyaaain bani hai. laksor ka mandir amenahotep truteeya ne banavaaya tha. kintu vah ise poora naheen kar paaya.

vaastukala ke samaan vishaalata, sudrudhta aur roodhivaadita bhi misri moortikla ki visheshataaeain theen. raajaaon ki moortiyaaain adhikaanshat: kathor paashaan se vishaal aakaar aur bhaav-viheen mudra mein banaai jaati theen. unhein praaya: kursi par pair lataka kar merudand ko seedha kiye aur haathon ko jaaainghon par rakhe baithane ki mudra mein athva haath latakaae baayaaain pair aage badhaakar chalne ki mudra mein dikhaaya gaya hai. thatamos truteeya aur remesis dviteeya ki moortiyaaain to aakaash ko chhooti lagti hai. khefe ke piremid ke saamane sthit vishaal 'sfiks' naamak moorti sambhavat: vishv ki vishaalatam moorti hai. iska shareer Singh ka hai aur sir ferao khafre ka. in sabse bhinn hain akhnaatan ke kaal mein bani kuchh moortiyaaain jinmein swayam akhnaatan aur usaki raani nafroeteeti ki moortiyaaain vishesh ullekhaneeya hain. iske nirmaata kalaakaar puraani paranparaaon ke bandhanon se mukt the. aisi kuchh moortiyaaain saamaanya janon ki bhi mili hain. inmein kaahira sangrahaalaya mein surakshit praacheen raajya ke ek ovarasiyr ki kaashth ki pratima, jiska keval sir avashisht hai, bahut prasiddh hai. yeh 'shekh ki moorti' naam se vikhyaat hai. loobre sangrahaalaya ki 'lipik ki moorti' bhi atyant praanavaan prateet hoti hai.

misr mein mandiron aur mastabaaon (samaadhiyon) mein rileef chitr banaane vaale kalaakaaron ki bhi bahut maaaing thi. aisi moortiyaaain banaate samay ankit vastu ki lanbaai chaudaai to aasaani se dikha di jaati thi, lekin motaai athva golaai dikhaane mein dikkat hoti thi. isaliye unke rileef chitron mein kaafi asvaabhaavikta aa gayi hai. lekin is dosh ke baavajood misri rileef chitr darshaneeya hain aur praacheen misri sabhyata aur reeti rivaajon par jnyaaanavarddhak prakaash daalte hain.

misr ki chitrakala ke adhikaansh namoone nasht ho chuke hai, lekin jo shesh hain, dhaarmik aur raajaneetik roodhiyon se aprabhaavit lagte hain. aisa lagta hai, misr mein chitrakala ka janm piremid yug mein ho jaane par bhi vikaas kaafi baad mein hua. isaliye yeh kala dharm ki paridhi se baahar rah gayi. misri chitrakala ke upalabdh namoonon mein sarvottam akhnaatan ke samay ke hain. chitrakala ke atirikt saamraajyayugeen misri anya anek lalit kalaaoein mein bhi daksh ho chuke the. tootenakhaamen ki 1922 i0 mein utkhanit samaadhi se ab se lagbhag 3300 varsh poorv chhode gaye bahumoolya kaashth, charm aur svarn nirmit furniture upakaran, aabanoos aur hastidant khachit box, svarn aur bahumoolya paashaanon se sajjit rath, svarnapatramandit sinhaasan, shvet paashaan ke sundar bhaand tatha jari ke sundar shaahi vastr, upalabdh hue hain. inse saamraajyayugeen misr ki kala ki pragati aur vaibhav ka pata chalta hai.