misr

جaaمaaهaaوaaرaaيaaة مaaصaaر اaaلaaعaaرaaبaaيaaة
jmhuriyyat misr al-arabiyyaah

misr ka arab ganatantr
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtravaakya: -
raashtragaan: bilaadi, bilaadi, bilaadi
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
kaahira
30°a2′aN 31°a13′aE / 30.033°aN 31.217°aE / 30.033; 31.217
raajabhaasha(eain) arabi1
nivaasi misri
sarkaar senya shaasan
- senya koainsal ke chaiyaramen muhammad hasan tantaavi
- pradhaan mantri kamaal gnajori
sthaapana
- pratham saamraajya c.3150 E.poo.
- UK se svatantrata 28 fravari 1922
- ganaraajya ghoshit 18 June,1953
kshetrafal
- kul 1,002,450 varg kilometer (30vaan)
387,048 varg meal
- jal (%) 0.632
janasankhya
- November 2008 janaganana 75,500,662 (16vaan)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2007 praakkalan
- kul
$404.293biliyn (27vaan)
- prati vyakti $5,495 (97vaan)
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Red Arrow Down.svg 0.682[1]
madhyam · 110vaaain
mudra misri pound (EGP)
samay mandal iiti (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+2)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) iiesadi (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+3)
doorabhaash koot 20
Internet teeeladi .eg
bolachaal ka prakaar ijiptiyn arebik.

misr (arabi; مaaصaaر, angreji:Egypt), aadhikaarik taur par misr arab ganaraajya, ek desh hai jiska adhikaansh haalaanki uttari Africa mein sthit hai jabki iska sinaai praayadveep, dakshinpashchim Asia mein ek sthal pul banaata hai. is prakaar misr ek antaramahaadveepeeya desh hai, tatha Africa, bhoomadhya kshetr, madhya poorv aur islaami duniya ki yeh ek pramukh shakti hai. iska kshetrafal 1010000 varg kilometer hai aur iske uttar mein bhoomadhya saagar, poorvottar mein gaaja patti aur Israel, poorv mein laal saagar, dakshin mein soodaan aur pashchim mein Libya sthit hai.

misr, Africa aur madhya poorv ke sabse adhik janasankhya vaale deshon mein se ek hai. iski anumaanit 7.90 karod janasankhya ka adhiktar hissa neel nadi ke kinaare vaale hisse mein rahata hai. neel nadi ka yeh kshetr lagbhag 40000 varg kilometer (15000 varg meal) ka hai aur poore desh ka sirf isi kshetr mein krushi yogya bhoomi paayi jaati hai. sahaara marusthal ke ek bade hisse mein virl janasankhya nivaas karti hai. misr ke lagbhag aadhe nivaasi shaharon mein vaas karte hain jinmein neel nadi ke muhaane ke kshetr mein base saghan janasankhya vaale shahar jaise ki kaahira, sikndariya aadi pramukh hain.

misr ki maanyata usaki praacheen sabhyata ke liye hai. geeja piraamid parisar aur mahaan sfinks jaise prasiddh smaarak yaheen sthit hai. misr ke praacheen khandahar jaise ki memfis, thebis, karanaak aur raajaaon ki ghaati jo laksar ke baahar sthit hain, puraataatvik adhyayan ka ek mahatvapoorn kendra hain. yahaan ke shaasak ko faaro naam se jaana jaata tha. is padavi ka prayog isaai aur islaam kaal ke poorv kaal me hota tha. ise faaroh bhi likhte hain. faaro ko misr ke devata horasaka punarjanm maana jaata tha. horas dyau (aakaash) ka devata tha aur ise soorya bhi maana jaata tha. misr ki kaaryashakti ka lagbhag 12% hissa paryatan aur laal saagar rivera mein kaaryarat hai.

madhya poorv mein, misr ki arthavyavastha sabse adhik viksit aur vividh arthavyavasthaaon mein se ek hai. paryatan, krushi, udyog aur seva jaise kshetron ka utpaadan star lagbhag ek samaan hai. 2011 ke shurooaat mein misr us kraanti ka gavaah bana, jiske dvaara misr se hosni mubaarak naam ke taanaashaah ke 30 saal ke shaasan ka khaatma hua.

anukram

parichay

misr Africa ke uttar-poorvi bhaag mein sinaai praayadveep sahit neel nadi ki nichli ghaati mein, jiske donon aur registaan padte hain, ek vargaakaar desh hai. iska samudra tat sapaat hai. arab ki pahaadiyaaain yahaaain ki mukhya parvatashreni hai. desh ki adhiktam ooainchaai samudratal se lagbhag 8,600 foot tatha nimnatam ooainchaai lagbhag 100 foot tak hai. sansaar ki sabse lambi neel nadi yahaaain bahti hai tatha mukhya khaadiyaaain svej aur aibukir ki khaadi hain.

dharaatal- praakrutik lakshan ke vichaar se neel nadi ke chaaron or misr ke aabaad hisse ko do bhaagon mein baaaint sakte hain : (k) nichla misr, jo neel nadi ke delta vaale bhaag mein padta hai. ye uttari misr bhi kahalaata hai, jo bhoomadhya saagar se lekar kaahira tak vistrut hai. (kh) uchch misr, jo dakshini seema tak neel nadi ki ghaati ki patali patti mein vistrut hai. is prakaar misr ki dhaalash neel nadi ke anuroop saamaanyat: dakshin se uttar ki or hai.

misr ka bhooprushth keval neel nadi ke aas paas adhik chauras hai. nadi ke pashchim ki bhoomi dheere dheere ooainchi hoti gayi hai (lagbhag 1,000 foot tak), jahaaain hava ke prabhaav se nirmit chikni chattaanein tatha libiya ki registaani baaloo drushtigochar hoti hai. nadi ke poorvi or arab ke registaan ka vistaar paaya jaata hai, jo aur aage chalakar laal saagar ke nikat lagbhag 7,000 foot ooainchi pahaadiyon ke roop mein parint ho jaata hai. nadi ke pashchimi or kaahira ke uttar mein lagbhag 50 meal door faayoom ki upajaaoo nimnabhoomi hai.

mistr ka adhik bhaag jalaviheen hai. keval neel nadi hi jal ka srot hai. nichle mistr mein neel se naharein bhi nikaali gayi hain jinka upayog jalamaargo ke roop mein tatha kheton ki sinchaai ke liye kiya jaata hai. vishvavikhyaat svej nahar bhoomadhya saagar tatha laal saagar ko uttar-poorvi mistr mein sinaai praayadveep se hokar jodti hai. kaheen kaheen par maroodyaan bhi drushtigochar hote hain, jahaaain bhoomigat jal ke prabhaav ke kaaran atyadhik paudhe ug sakte hain.

mistr mein shushk tatha garam registaani jalavaayu pai jaati hai. din mein soorya ki prakharata ke kaaran atyadhik garami tatha raat mein baaloo ki sheetalata ke kaaran atyadhik thandak padti hai bhoomadhyasaagareeya tat ko chhodkar desh ke adhikaansh bhaag mein varsha naheen hoti. bhoomadhyasaagareeya tat ki ausat vaarshik varsha aath inch ke lagbhag hai. oopari neel ki or yeh ausat keval ek inch ke lagbhag rah jaata hai. mistr mein dakshin ki or se aane waali havaaon ko khaamasin kehte hain. in havaaon ke saath garami mein baaloo evam dhool ke bheeshan toofaan aate hain.

yahaaain ki 90% janasankhya neel nadi ke donon or ek patali patti mein nivaas karti hai. neel ke delton tatha ghaati mein kaheen kaheen janasankhya ka ghanatv 1,500 vyakti prati varg meal ho gaya hai. kuchh bhramanasheel jaatiyaaain libiya ke registaan mein ek maroodyaan se doosare maroodyaan mein ghoomti rahati hain, parantu mistr ke registaanon ke bahut se bhaag bilkul hi janaviheen hain.

kaarya aur rahan sahan ke aadhaar par mistr ke nivaasiyon ko teen samoohon mein vibhaajit kar sakte hai:

  • (k) felaahin athva krushak, inki sankhya kul janasankhya ka lagbhag 2/3 hai jo apne poorvajon ki bhaaainti saikadon varsho se kheti karte aa rahe hain. inki aakruti inke poorvajon ki hi bhaaainti bhinn-bhinn hai. ye arabi bhaasha bolne tatha saamanyat: muslim dharm ko maanane vaale hote hain, yadyapi kuchh log isaai dharm ko bhi maanate hain.
  • (kh) baddoo, inka varg bahut chhote paimaane par hain. ye registaan ke arabi bhaasha bolne vaale aadivaasi hote hain. kuchh baddoo nadi ke kinaare athva hare bhare maroodyaanon mein sthaayi khemon mein nivaas karte hain. kuchh log ek registaan se doosare registaan mein apni bhedon tatha ghodon ko lekar bhraman kiya karte hain aur chhote mote bhoobhaagon par nivaas karte hain.
  • (g) vyaapaari tatha vyavasaayi, yeh sabse chhota samooh hai jo shaharon mein nivaas karta hai. ismein adhiktar videshi khaaskar yoonaani, Turkey, itaalaveeya, angrej tatha fraanseesi sammilit hain.

krushi - mistr ke logon ka mukhya dhandha krushi hai. khet adhiktar neel nadi ke nikat lagbhag 12 meal ki chaudaai mein faile hain. kam varsha ya varshaarahit dinon mein neel ki ghaati mein krushi sinchaai par nirbhar karti hai. baadh ke samay nadi ka paani kheton mein fail jaane ke kaaran saal mein ek baar apne aap sinchaai ho jaati hai aur kheton mein baadh dvaara laai hui nai upajaaoo mitti bhi bichh jaati hai. isi samay sheegra fasalein ropakar mitti mein nami ke vidyamaan rahane tak aavashyak utpaadan kar liya jaata hai. ab to baadh ke jal ko niyantrit evam sanchit karne ke liye aar-paar bade bade baaaindh tatha faatak ban gaye hain aur aavashyakataanusaar paani ko naharon dvaara khaton mein pahuainchaakar do ya kabhi teen fasalein prati varsh uga li jaati hain. mistr ki mukhya fasalon mein lambi reshe waali kapaas, gehooain, dhaan, ganna, faliyaaain (been), pyaaj, masoor, shakarakand, khajoor aadi hain.

khanij padaarth - mistr ke poorvi parvaton se sona, aisvain aur ail bahaariya ke nikat se loha, jaste ki praacheen khaanon ke nikat sinaai praayadveep se mainganeej, neel delta ke daladal se namak aur poorvi tat ke kinaare tel ke atirikt fausfet, jasta, fitkari, jipsam, beril, grenaait, saidaston tatha choona patthar aadi praapt jaate hain.

yaataayaat - neel nadi mistr ke liye ek bahut bada jalamaarg hai. relein mistr ke aadhunik shaharon ko aapas mein jodti hai sadke desh ke aabaad bhaagon mein sthit hain. vaayuyaan desh ke mukhya shaharon ko ek doosare ke saath tatha Africa, Europe, Bhaarat evam sudoor poorv ke nagaron ko jodte hain. registaani baaloo ke kshetron mein, jahaaain yaatra ka anya koi saadhan sambhav naheen hai, vahaaain ooton dvaara yaataayaat sambhav hota hai.

kaahira, elegjeindreiya, asyoot, daimiyeta, L ailaamen, L mansoora, port Saeed, svej, meinfis, theebeej, tauntau aadi mistr ke aadhunik nagar hain. kaahira yahaaain ki rajdhani hai.


itihaas

misr ke itihaas mein videshi shaktiyon aur aantarik raajaaon (fraao) ka ansh raha hai. isa ke 4000 saal pehle se chala aa raha saamraajya chhathi sadi isa poorv mein iraaniyon ke aakraman ke baad khtm hua. uske baad chauthi sadi isa poorv mein sikandar ke aakraman se greek yahaaain shaasan karne lage. is kaal mein yoonaani sanskruti ka asar yahaaain par pada. yoonaaniyon par roman kabje ke baad (isaapoorv san 30) yahaaain roman shaasan sthaapit hua. is kaal mein yahaaain kauptik bhaasha ka vikaas hua. roman saamraajya chauthi sadi mein toota to poorvi bhaag ke bijeintaain yahaaain ke shaasak bane. saataveen sadi mein faarasiyon ke alpakaalik niyantran ke baad misr bijeintaainon ke haath to laga par jald hi (san 639) muslim arabon ne is par apna adhikaar kar liya. iske baad arab saamraajya ka ye ang terahaveen sadi tak raha aur is dauraan yahaaain islaam ka prachaar hua. san 1250 mein maamalukon ne Syria tak faile saamraajya mein misr ko shaamil kiya aur ye mangol aakraman ke samay bhi bacha raha. solahaveen sadi mein usmaani turkon (otoman) ne misr par adhikaar kar liya. iske baad unneesaveen sadi mein yahaaain british aae.

aadhunik kaal mein misri vidya ka adhyayan nepoliyn ke misri abhiyaan (1897 i0) aur shaanpolyon (1790-1832 i0) naamak French vidvaan dvaara rojeta prastar ki sahaayata se misri chitraakshar lipi ke udvaachan se praarambh hota hai. misr ke adhikaansh smaarak dharaatal ke oopar hain, isaliye inapar utkeern abhilekhon ka adhyayan karne ke liye inki lipi se parichay maatr ki aavashyakta thi. mistri itihaas par prakaash daalanevaale praacheen lekhakon mein herodotas tatha daayodoras pramukh hain, parantu unke vivran vishesh jnyaaanavardhak naheen hain. sabse mahatvapoorn praacheen rachana hai teesari shati i0 poo0 ke manetho naamak misri pujaari ki. aajkal usaki kruti ka jooliys afreekenas, yooseebiys tatha josefas prabhruti paravarti lekhakon ki rachanaaon me udvaranon ke roop mein surakshit lagbhag aadha bhaag hi praapya hai. ismein manetho ne praacheen misri raajaaon ko soocheebaddh karke unhein tees vanshon mein vibhaajit kiya tha. yeh vibhaajan anek doshon ke baavajood atyant upayogi aur satya ke kaafi nikat siddh hua hai.

praagaitihaasik yug mein uttari misr mein leebiyn aur semetik jaatiyaaain nivaas karti theen. inke atirikt ek teesari jaati aur thi jiske sadasyon ka sir bada, chehara gol aur naak chhoti hoti thi. yeh jaati dakshini misr mein praagaitihaasik yug mein agyaat thi, parantu aitihaasik yug mein dheere-dheere vahaaain bhi fail gayi thi. dakshini misr mein nivaas karne waali jaati jiska gyaan hamein us yug ki samaadhiyon se praapt avasheshon aur moortiyon aadi se hota hai chhote sir waali thi. jaisa misr ki tyoobasam aakruti se spasht hai, neel ki uparali ghaati mein iska pravesh nishchit roop se misr ke dakshin se hua hoga.

saanskrutik vikaas ki drushti se misri itihaas ko kai bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiya jaata hai. pratham do vanshon ke shaasanakaal mein misri sabhyata se praagvansheeya sabhyata vishesh bhinn naheen theen, isaliye mistri sabhyata ke praacheenatam yug ka adhyayan karte samay pratham do vanshon ke shaasanakaal ko usi mein sammilit kar liya jaata hai. teesare vansh ki sthaapana se lekar beesavein vansh ke patan tak ke sudeergh yug mein misri sabhyata ke teen kaal maane gaye hain. 'praacheen raajya yug' athva 'piremid yug' jismein teesare se chhathe vanshon ne raajya kiya; 'madhya raajya yug' jismein 11vein aur 12vein vanshon ne raajaya kiya; tatha 'saamraajya yug' jismein 18 vein se lekar 20 vein vanshon ne shaasan kiya. in yugon ke madhyavarti yugon mein aur 20 vein vansh ke patan ke pashchaat misr praaya: aantarik daurbalya aur videshi aakramanon ka shikaar raha.

praagvansheeya misr praarambh mein chhote chhote nagar raajyon mein vibhaajit tha. ye nagar 4000 i0 poo0 ke lagbhag sanyukt hokar do raajyon mein ekeekrut ho gaye:-uttari athva neel ke muhaane ka raajya aur dakshini athva neel ki ghaati ka raajya. nekheb (aadhunik alakaab) dakshini raajya ki rajdhani thi. iske raaja lamba shvet mukut dhaaran karte the. unka raajapraasaad nekhen aur koshaagaar 'shvet bhavan' kahalaata tha. unka raajachihn lili paudhe ki shaakh evam sanrakshika grudhradevi nekhabat thi. uttari raajya ki rajdhani booto, sanrakshika isi naam ki naagadevi aur usaka vishisht rang laal thi. isaliye uske raaja laal mukut dhaaran karte the aur unke raajapraasaad aur koshaagaar kramash: 'pe aur raktabhavan' kahalaate the. unke raajachihn pepaairas ka guchha aur madhumakkhi the.

uttari aur dakshini raajyon ko sanyukt karke raajaneetik ekta aur pratham vansh ki sthaapana dakshini misr mein ebaaidos ke sameep sthit teni (yoonaani this athva thinis) naamak sthaan ke nivaasi mena (yoonaani menij) ne ki thi. uske baad pratham do vanshon ke 18 nareshon ne 420 varsh (lagbhag 3400-2980 i0 poo0 tak) raajya kiya. truteeya sahasraabdi i0 poo0 ke praarambh mein dviteeya vansh ke patan aur joser ke netrutv mein truteeya vansh ki sthaapana (2980 i0 poo0) se misr ke itihaas ke piremid athva praacheen raajya yug ka praarambh hua jo 2475 i0 poo0 mein chhathe vansh ke patan tak chala. joser ke shaasanakaal mein meinfis (main no fer) ka prabhutv drudhroopen sthaapit hua aur uske mantri imhotep ne sakkar ke seedheedaar piremid ka nirmaan karke paashaan vaastukala ko janm diya. joser ke ek uttaraadhikaari nefu ne videshi vyaapaar ko protsaahan diya, uttari noobiya mein vidrohi jaatiyon ko paraast kiya tatha pehle dhlavaaain piremid ka nirmaan karaaya. misr ke chauthe vansh ke sansthaapak khoofoo ne misr ka vishaalatam piremid banavaaya tatha uske putr khefe ne ek laghutar piremid aur sambhavat: vishaal sfinkas bhi banavaaya. pancham vansh ke sansthaapak yooserakaaf tatha uske putr sahure ne misr ki naushakti mein vruddhi ki tatha fineeshiya aur devabhoomi 'punt' par safal aakraman kiye. parantu iske baavajood unke shaasanakaal mein re ke pujaariyon, saamanton aur senaapatiyon ki mahatvaakaankshaaeain badh jaane ke kaaran feraao ki shakti shanai: shanai: kam hoti gayi. raajapad ki is hraasonmukhi pratishtha ko badhaane ka mahaaneeya kaarya kiya chhathe vansh ke pratham do feraao teti dviteeya aur pepi pratham ne. pepi pratham ke ek uttaraadhikaari pepi dviteeya ne, jo raajyaarohan ke samay shishu maatr tha, manetho ke anusaar 94 varsh raajya kiya. vishv itihaas mein uske shaasanakaal ko deerghatam maana ja sakta hai.

2475 i0 poo0 mein chhathe vansh ke patan ke baad lagbhag teen sau varsh tak misr mein ghor avyavastha rahi aur sthaaneeya saamant lagbhag svatantr roopen shaasan karne lage. unki shakti todne mein kuchh safalta gyaarahavein vansh (2160-2000 i0 poo0) ke raajaaon ne praapt ki. lekin lagbhag samast misr ke svaami hote hue bhi ve saamantavaadi vyavastha ko badalne mein asamarth rahe. unase adhik safalta baarahavein vansh (2000-1788 i0 poo0) ke shaasakon ko mili. is vansh ka sansthaapak emen mhet pratham tha. in do vanshon ke raajaaon ka shaasanakaal saanskrutik pragati ke liye prasiddh hai.

1788 i0 poo0 mein 12vein vansh ke patan ke saath saamanton mein satta hadapne ke liye pun: sangharsh praarambh ho gaya. is araajakata ke kaaran ve 1765 i0 poo0 mein Asia se aane vaale hiksos naamak aakramanakaariyon ko naheen rok paae. hiksos saanskrutik drushti se misriyon se bahut pichhde the. lekin ve ashvon aur rathon ke prayog se parichit the, isaliye misriyon ko lagbhag do sau varsh tak apne adheen rakhane mein safal rahe (13 vaaain-17vaaain vansh). unako desh se khadedne ka mahaneeya kaarya kiya ahamos pratham ne. uske dvaara athaarahavein vansh ki sthaapana se misri itihaas ka 'saamraajya yug' praarambh hota hai. uske ek uttaraadhikaari thatamos pratham ne apni satta kaarshaimish tak sthaapit ki. unki putri hatashepashut vishv itihaas ki pehli poorn sattaasanpann shaasika thi. hatashepashut ke uttaraadhikaari thatamos truteeya ko 'praacheen misr ka nepoliyn' kaha jaata hai. usane pashchimi Asia par pandrah baar aakraman kiye the. unneesavein vansh ke shaasakon mein remesis dviteeya sarvaadhik prasiddh hai. vah saahasi aur balavaan tha. yuddhakala mein bhi usaki utani hi ruchi thi jitni premavyaapaar mein. filisteen vijay ke baad usane hittiyon ke viruddh kaadeshaaain ki prasiddh ladaai ladi. 1261 i0 poo0 mein usane hittiyon se itihaasaprasiddh sandhi ki. vah mahaan bhavan nirmaata bhi tha.

beesavein vansh ke kaal mein feraao remesis truteeya ke shaasan kaal tak misr ka kuchh Asiaee praanton par niyantran bana raha. lekin uske baad sthiti sheeghrata se bigdi aur baarahaveen shati i0poo0 ke madhya tak misr ka Asiaee saamraajya ateet ki kahaani rah gaya. is vansh ka patan aur 21 vein vansh ki sthaapana 1090 i0 poo0 mein hui. uske baad misr ek shati tak durbal parantu, svatantr raha. dasveen shati ke madhya usaki svatantrata ka bhi ant ho gaya aur kai shati tak kramash: leebiynon, ithiyopiynon aseeriynon ka prabhutv use maanana pada.

663 i0 poo0 mein neel ke muhaane ke pashchimi bhaag mein sthit saais sthaan ke ek mahatvaakaankshi shaasak saamtik ne aseeriyn senaaon ko nikaal baahar kiya aur kai shati baad misr mein ek svatantr raajya (26 vaaain vansh) ki sthaapana ki. uske uttaraadhikaari 525 i0 poo0 tak raajya karte rahe. neeko dviteeya ke shaasanakaal mein to unhonne Asia par bhi aakraman kiye. unke shaasanakaal ko saaitayug kaha jaata hai. 525 i0 poo0 mein unka patan ho gaya aur misr hakhaamashi saamraajya mein mila liya gaya. faarasi aadhiptya ke ant (332 i0 poo0) ke baad misr par pehle yoonaaniyon (332-48 i0 poo0) aur tatpashchaat romanon ne shaasan kiya. 30 i0 poo0 mein ise rom saamraajya ka ek praant bana liya gaya. is prakaar misr ki paaainch sahasr varsh puraani sabhyata aur pruthak raajaneetik astitv ka ant hua.

misr ki sanskruti

misr ka dharm

kaafare ka piraamid

(chautha raajavansh) aur [[geeja ka m

sandarbh

  1. "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-summary-en.pdf. abhigman tithi: 27 July 2014.

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