mirja gaalib

mirja gaalib
Mirza Ghalib photograph.jpg
gaalib
upanaam: asad, gaalib
janm: 27 December, 1796
Agra, uttar pradesh, Bhaarat
mrutyu: 15 February, 1869
Delhi, Bhaarat
kaaryakshetr: shaayar
raashtreeyata: bhaarateeya
bhaasha: urdoo evam faarasi
kaal: 1807-69
vidha: gadya aur padya
vishay: prem, virh

mirja asad-ullaah beg khaan urf “gaalib” (27 December 179615 February 1869) urdoo evam faarasi bhaasha ke mahaan shaayar the. inko urdoo ka sarvakaalik mahaan shaayar maana jaata hai aur faarasi kavita ke pravaah ko hindustaani jabaan mein lokapriya karavaane ka bhi shreya diya jaata hai. yaddapi isse pehle ke varsho mein meer taki meer bhi isi vajah se jaane jaata hai. gaalib ke likhe patra, jo us samay prakaashit naheen hue the, ko bhi urdoo lekhan ka mahatvapoorn dastaavej maana jaata hai. gaalib ko Bhaarat aur Pakistan mein ek mahatvapoorn kavi ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. unhe dabeer-ul-mulk aur najm-ud-daula ka khitaab mila.

gaalib (aur asad) naam se likhne vaale mirja mugl kaal ke aakhiri shaasak bahaadur shaah jfr ke darabaari kavi bhi rahe the. Agra, Delhi aur Calcutta mein apni jindagi gujaarne vaale gaalib ko mukhyat: unki urjoo gjlon ko liye yaad kiya jaata hai. unhone apne baare mein swayam likha tha ki duniya mein bahut se kavi-shaayar zaroor hain, lekin unka lahaja sabse niraala hai:

“ahain aur bhi duniya mein sukhnvar bahut achhe
kehte hain ki gaalib ka hai andaaj-A bayaan aura”

anukram

jeevan parichay

janm aur parivaar

gaalib ka janm Agra me ek sainik prushthabhoomi vaale parivaar mein hua tha. unhone apne pita aur chaacha ko bachapan me hi kho diya tha, gaalib ka jeevanayaapan moolat: apne chaacha ke maranoparaant milne vaale peinshan se hota tha[1] (vo british East India company me sainya adhikaari the).[2] gaalib ki prushthabhoomi ek turk parivaar se dhi aur inke daada madhya Asia ke samaraknd se san 1750 ke aaspaas Bhaarat aae the. unke daada mirja kobaan beg Khan Ahmad shaah ke shaasan kaal mein samarakand se Bhaarat aaye. unhone Delhi, Lahore va Jaipur me kaam kiya aur antat: Agra me bas gaye. unke do putr va teen putriyaan thi. mirja abdulla beg Khan va mirja nasarulla beg Khan unke do putr the.

mirja abdulla beg (gaalib ke pita) ne ijjt-ut-nisa begam se nikaah karne kiya aur apne sasur ke ghar me rahane lage. unhone pehle Lucknow ke navaab aur baad me Hyderabad ke nijaam ke yahaaain kaam kiya. 1803 mein alavar mein ek yuddh mein unki mrutyu ke samay gaalib maatr 5 varsh ke the.

jab gaalib chhote the to ek nav-muslim-vartit Iran se Delhi aae the aur unke saannidhya mein rahakar gaalib ne faarasi seekhi.

shiksha

gaalib ki praarambhik shiksha ke baare me spashtat: kuchh kaha naheen ja sakta lekin gaalib ke anusaar unhone 11 varsh ki avastha se hi urdoo evam faarasi me gadya tatha padya likhne aarambh kar diya tha.[3] unhone adhiktar faarasi aur urdoo me paaramparik bhakti aur saundarya ras par rachanaaye likhi jo gajal me likhi hui hai. unhonne faarasi aur urdoo dono mein paaramparik geet kaavya ki rahasyamaya-romantic shaili mein sabse vyaapak roop se likha aur yeh gajal ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.

vaivaahik jeevan

13 varsh ki aayu me unka vivaah navaab ilaahi bakhsh ki beti umaraav begam se ho gaya tha. vivaah ke baad vah Delhi aa gaye the jahaaain unaki tamaam umr beeti. apne peinshan ke silsile me unhein Kolkata ki lambi yaatra bhi karni padi thi, jiska zikr unki gjlon mein jagah–jagah par milta hai.

shaahi khitaab

1850 me shahanshaah bahaadur shaah jfr 2 ne mirja gaalib ko "dabeer-ul-mulk" aur "najm-ud-daula" ke khitaab se navaaja. baad me unhe "mirja nosha" k khitaab bhi mila. ve shahanshaah ke darbaar me ek mahatvapurn darabaari the. unhe bahaadur shaah jfar 2 ke jyeshth putr Rajkumar fkr-ud-din mirja ka shikshak bhi niyukt kiya gaya. ve ek samay me mugal darbaar ke shaahi itihaasavid bhi the.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain