milaano

Milan
Milano
kaumyun
kamyoon di milaano

Flag

Coat of arms
upanaam:
Italy ki naitik rajdhani[1]
Italy ki fashion rajdhani
मिलानो is located in इटली
Milan
Milan ki sthiti Italy mein
nirdeshaank : 45°a27′a51″aN 09°a11′a25″aE / 45.46417°aN 9.19028°aE / 45.46417; 9.19028Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 45°a27′a51″aN 09°a11′a25″aE / 45.46417°aN 9.19028°aE / 45.46417; 9.19028
desh Italy
kshetr lombaardi
praaaint Milan (MI)
shaasan
• Mayor letijiya morraati (peedeeel)
kshetr
• kul 183.77
ooainchaai 120
janasankhya (30 April 2009)[2]
• kul 13,01,394
• ghanatv <
vaaseenaam milaaneej
samay mandal seeiti (UTC +01:00)
• greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) sest (UTC+02:00)
daak koot 20100, 20121-20162
daayal koot 02
Patrick sant aimbroj
sant diwas December 7
jaalasthal milaano ka aadhikaarik jaalasthal

Milan (itaalavi : Milano,itaalavi uchchaaran: [miˈaala(ː)no]; pashchimi lombaard: Milan , ) Italy ka ek shahar aur lombaardi kshetr aur Milan praant ki rajdhani hai. mool shahar ki janasankhya lagbhag 1,300,000 hai, jabki shahari kshetr 4,300,000 ki anumaanit janasankhya ke saath Europeeya sangh mein paanchava sabse bada hai.[3] Italy mein sabse bade, Milan mahaanagareeya kshetr ki aabaadi, OECD dvaara anumaanit taur par 7,400,000 hai.[4]

shahar ki sthaapana meediyolenam naam ke tahat keltik log inasabares dvaara ki gayi thi. ise baad mein E.poo. 222 mein roman dvaara kabje mein le liya gaya aur roman saamraajya ke adheen shahar kaafi samruddh hua. baad mein Milan par viskaunti, sforja aur 1500 mein Spanish 1700 mein ostriya ka shaasan chala. 1796 mein, Milan par nepoliyn pratham ne vijay praapt ki tatha usane 1805 mein use apne saamraajya Italy ki rajdhani banaaya.[5][6] romantic yug ke dauraan, Milan Europe ka ek pramukh saanskrutik kendra tha, jisne kai kalaakaaron, sangeetakaaron aur mahatvapoorn saahityikaaron ko apni or aakarshit kiya. baad mein, dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan shahar buri tarah se sahabaddh bamabaariyon se prabhaavit hua aur 1943 mein Germany ke kabje mein aane ke baad, Milan Italy ke pratirodh ka mukhya kendra ban gaya.[5] iske baavajood, Milan ne yuddhottar aarthik vikaas dekha, jisne dakshini Italy aur videshon se hajaaron aapravaasiyon ko aakarshit kiya.[5]

ek antarraashtreeya aur mahaanagareeya shahar Milan ki aabaadi ke 13.9% log videshon se hai.[7] shahar Europe ka pramukh parivhaneeya[8] aur audyogik kendra hai aur Milan 115 billion dollar sakal ghareloo utpaad sahit kraya shakti ke maamale mein vishv ki 26veen sampann arthavyavastha (dekhein Milan ki arthavyavastha) ke saath,[9] Europeeya sangh ke vyaapaar aur vitt ke sabse mahatvapoorn keindron mein se ek hai. Milan mahaanagareeya kshetr ka sakal ghareloo utpaad 2004 mein Europe ka chautha sarvaadhik raha hai: € 241.2 billion (US$ 312.3 billion). Milan ke paas Italy ka sarvochch sakal ghareloo utpaad (prati vyakti) lagbhag € 35,137 (US$ 52,263) hai, jo Europeeya sangh ke ausat sakal ghareloo utpaad prati vyakti ka 161.6% hai.[10] iske alaava, duniya ke pravaasi karmachaariyon ke liye Milan 11vaan sabse mahanga shahar hai.[11] duniya mein bhi Milan ko vishv ke 28vein sabse samarth aur prabhaavashaali shahar ke roop mein bhi vargeekrut kiya gaya hai.[12]

Milan ko vaishvik faishan aur dijaain rajdhani ke roop mein bhi maanyata praapt hai, jo vaanijya, udyog, sangeet, khel, saahitya, kala aur media par pramukh vaishvik prabhaav ke saath, GaWC ke pramukh alfa world siteej mein se ek ban gaya hai.[13] lombaard mahanagar apne faishan gharon aur dukaanon (jaise mauntenaapoleen sadak par) aur piyaaja dyumo ke gailariya vittoriyo imaanuel (duniya ka sabse puraana pratishthit shopping mall) ke liye vishesh roop se prasiddh hai. shahar ki bahut samruddh saanskrutik parampara aur viraasat hai aur iska bhojan adviteeya hai (yeh peneton christmas cake aur risotto ala milaaneej jaise asankhya lokapriya vyanjanon ka ghar hai). shahar vishesh roop se opera aur paaramparik sangeet ke liye prasiddh hai, jo kai mahatvapoorn sangeetakaar (jaise jyujepi verdi) aur thiyetaron (jaise tiyetro ala skaala) ka ghar hai. Milan kai mahatvapoorn sangrahaalaya, vishvavidyaalaya, academy, raajamahal, church aur pustakaalaya (jaise brera academy aur kaistelo sforjesko) tatha do naami futabaul teemein: A.si.Milan aur ef.si. intaranejnal milaano ke liye vikhyaat hai. iski vajah se Milan Europe ke sarvaadhik lokapriya paryatan sthalon mein se ek bana hai, jahaan 2008 mein 1.914 million videshon se shahar dekhne aae the.[14] shahar ne 1906 vishv pradarshani ka aayojan kiya aur 2015 mein saarvatrik pradarshani ka aayojan karega.[15]

Milan ke nivaasiyon ko "milaaneej" ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai (itaalavi:Milanesi ya anaupachaarik Meneghini ya Ambrosiani). Milan ke nivaasiyon dvaara shahar ko "naitik rajdhani" ka upanaam diya gaya hai.[5]

anukram

itihaas

inhein bhi dekhein: List of rulers of Milan evam Governors of the Duchy of Milan

vyutpatti

shabd Milan laitin naam meediyolenam se vyutpann hai. yeh naam fraans ke kai gailo-roman sthalon, jaise meediyolenam saintonam (seintas) aur meediyolenam olerakoram (evrauks) dvaara dhaarit hai aur keltik tatv -lain shaamil prateet hota hai, jo ghera ya nirdhaarit seema ko dyotit karta hai (velsh shabd 'laan' ka srot, taatparya abhayaaranya ya church). isliye, meediyolenam kisi vishisht keltik janajaati ke keindreeya shahar ya abhayaaranya ko nirdisht karta hai.[6][16]

naam ki utpatti aur shahar ke prateek ke roop mein ek sooar ke baare mein endriya alachaito ke emablemaata (1584) mein rochak varnan hai, jismein shahar ki deevaaron ke pratham nirmaan ke samay, ek kaashthachitr ke neeche, ek sooar ko khudaai se uthaaya hua dekha gaya aur meediyolenam ki vyutpatti "aadha oon" ke roop mein di gayi,[17] jise laitin aur French mein samajhaaya gaya. Milan ki neenv ka shreya do keltik log, biturijs aur edui ko diya jaata hai, jinke prateek ke roop mein ek bhed aur ek sooar rakha hai;[18] isliye "shahar ka prateek oon-wala sooar, ek dohare svaroop wala jaanavar hai, jiske kaheen tej kade baal hain, to kaheen chikni oon."[19] alachaito apne spashteekaran ka shreya sant samaan aur vidvaan embros ko dete hain.[20]

shahar ka jarman naam hai maailaind hai, jabki sthaaneeya pashchimi lombaard boli mein shahar ka naam Milan hai.

keltik aur roman kaal

chitr:Ruins-imperial-complex-milan-.jpg
Milan mein mahaaraaja ke mahal ke avashesh. yahaan kaustaintins aur laaisinias ne Milan ke fatwe jaari kiye.

E.poo. 400 ke lagbhag, Milan aur uske aas-paas ke kshetron mein keltik inasabarej base the. E.poo. 222 mein, romanon ne is basti par kabja kiya, jisne is par meediyolenam naam laagoo kiya, haalaanki sthaaneeya logon dvaara prayukt naam tha Milan, jo keltik medhalaan se vyutpann tha.[16] roman niyantran ke kai shataabdiyon ke baad, 293 E. mein Milan ko samraat daayokleeshan dvaara pashchimi roman saamraajya ki rajdhani ghoshit ki gayi. daayokleeshan ne rahane ke liye poorvi roman saamraajya (rajdhani nikomeediya) aur unke sahayogi maikseemaienas ne pashchim ko chuna. tatkaal maikseemaien ne kai vishaal smaarakon ka nirmaan kiya, jaise bada chauk 470 mi × 85 mi (1,542 fut × 279 fut), thermi erkuli, shaahi mahalon ka ek vishaal samooh aur kai anya sevaaen aur imaaratein.

313 ke Milan ke framaan mein, samraat kaunastanateen pratham ne isaaiyon ke liye dharm ki svatantrata ki guaranty di.[21] 402 mein shahar ko visigauthon ne gher liya aur shaahi nivaas raavena le jaaya gaya. pachaas saal baad (452 mein), hunon ne shahar par kabja jamaaya. 539 mein ostrogothon ne baijntin samraat jasteeniyn pratham ke khilaaf tathaakathit gothik yuddh mein Milan par vijay praapt ki aur use nasht kiya. 569 ki garmiyon mein, longobaardon ne (jisse itaalavi kshetr lombaardi ka naam vyutpann hua hai) raksha ke liye bachi baijntin sena ki chhoti tukadi ko paraast karte hue, Milan par jeet haasil ki. lombaard shaasan ke adheen Milan mein kuchh roman imaaratein prayog mein bani raheen.[22] 774 mein Milan ne frainks ke samaksh aatmasamarpan kiya, jab chaarlemain ne sampoorn Abhinav nirnaya lete hue, "lombaardon ka raaja" ki padavi bhi dhaaran ki (usase pehle jarmanik saamraajyon ne aksar ek doosare par vijay praapt ki, lekin kisi ne bhi anya logon ke raaja ki upaadhi ko naheen apnaaya tha). lombaardi ka lauh mukut is kaal ka hai. iske baad Milan pavitra roman saamraajya ka hissa ban gaya.

madhya yug

bision: viskaunti sabha ke kulachihn, piyaaja dyumo mein mahaadharmaadhyaksh ke mahal se. aadyakshar IO <HANNES> aarkabishp jiovanni viskaunti (1342-1354) ka prateek hai.

madhya yug ke dauraan Milan, po ke samruddh maidaan par apne shaasan aur Italy se elps ke aar-paar ke maargon ki vajah se vyaapaar kendra ke roop mein vaibhavashaali banta gaya. lombaard shaharon ke khilaaf fredarik pratham baarabarausa dvaara yuddh mein vijay se 1162 mein Milan ki kaafi tabaahi hui. 1167 mein lombaard league ki sthaapana ke baad, Milan ne is rishte mein agrani bhoomika nibhaai. 1183 mein kaunstens ki shaanti lombaard shaharon dvaara haasil svatantrata ke parinaamasvaroop, Milan dachi ban gaya. 1208 mein raimabartino byuvaaleli ne shahar ke podesta (mayor) ke roop mein ek satr seva ki, 1242 mein looka grimaaldi aur 1282 mein loocheto gatteeloosiyo. yeh pad madhyayugeen samudaaya ke hinsak raajaneetik jeevan mein vyaktigat khataron se bhara ho sakta hai: 1252 mein milaaneej heretiks ne niktasth dehaat [daayaan chitr] ke ek ghaat par church ke dharm pareekshak ki hatya kar di, jo baad mein shaheed seint Peter ke roop mein jaane gaye; hatyaaron ne rishvat dekar svatantrata haasil kar li aur aagaami dangon mein podesta ko takreeban maar daala gaya. 1256 mein aarkabishp aur agrani raison ko shahar se nishkaasit kar diya gaya. 1259 mein maartino dela tore ko sangh ke sadasyon ne kaipitno Dale popolo ke roop mein chuna; unhonne shahar par balapoorvak kabja jamaaya, apne dushmanon ko nishkaasit kar diya aur taanaashaahi shaktiyon dvaara shaasan kiya, sadkein banaain, nahar khudavaae, safalataapoorvak dehaaton se kar vasool kiya.

baharahaal, unki neeti ne milaaneej khajaane ko khaali kar diya; aksar laaparavaah bhaade ke ekakon ke upayog ne janta ko naaraaj kiya, jisne dela tore ke paramparaagat shatru, viskaunti ke liye samarthan ko badhaava diya.

22 July 1262 ko dela toro ke abhyarthi, raimando dela tore, komo ke bishp ke khilaaf Pope shahari chaturth dvaara oton viskaunti ko Milan ka aarkabishp banaaya gaya. is tarah raimando dela tore ne vidhrmi kaithars se viskaunti ki niktata ke aaropon ka prachaar shuroo kiya aur un par uchch deshdroh ka abhiyog lagaaya: viskaunti, jinhonne dela tore par usi aparaadh ka aarop lagaaya, baad mein Milan se pratibandhit ho gaye aur unki sampatti jabt kar li gayi. baad mein jo gruh yuddh chhida, usane Milan ki aabaadi aur arthavyavastha ko bhaari nuksaan pahunchaaya, jo ek dashak se bhi zyaada samay ke liye bana raha.

1263 mein oton viskaunti ne shahar ke khilaaf nirvaasit logon ke samooh ka asafal netrutv kiya, lekin har taraf badhti hinsa ke barso baad, aakhirkaar, desiyo yuddh (1277) mein jeet haasil karte hue, usane apne parivaar ke liye shahar jeeta. viskaunti hamesha ke liye dela tore ko bedakhl karne mein safal hua aur 15veen sadi tak shahar aur usaki satta par kabja jamaae rakha.

Milan ka adhikaansh poorv itihaas do raajaneetik guton - gvelf aur ghaibalinjon ke beech sangharsh ki kahaani thi. Milan shahar mein adhikaansh samay gvelf safal rahe. haalaanki, viskaunti parivaar apne jarman samraaton ke saath "ghaibalin" dosti ki vajah se, Milan ki satta (signoriya) par kabja jamaane mein saksham rahe.[23] 1395 mein, in samraaton mein se ek, veinkasalaas (1378-1400), ne milaaneej ko dachi garima tak ooncha uthaaya.[24] iske alaava, 1395 mein jiyaan geliyaajo viskaunti Milan ka Duke ban gaya. 14veen sadi ke praarambh se 15veen sadi ke madhya tak ek sau pachaas varshon ke liye ghaibalin viskaunti parivaar dvaara satta par kabja bana raha.[25]

punarjaagaran aur house of sforja

kaistelo sforajesko, sforaja sabha ki shakti ka prateek
17veen sadi mein Milan

1447 mein Milan ke Duke filipo Maria viskaunti ki bina kisi purush vaaris ke mrutyu ho gayi; viskaunti vanshakram ke ant ke baad, embrosiyn ganaraajya adhiniymit kiya gaya. embrosiyn ganaraajya ne Milan ke shahar ke lokapriya sanrakshak sant seint embros se apna naam grahan kiya.[26] donon, gvelf aur ghaibalin guton ne Milan mein embrosiyn ganaraajya ko sthaapit karne mein ek saath kaam kiya. lekin ganaraajya dhah gaya, jab 1450 mein house of sforja ke frainsesko sforja ne Milan par vijay haasil ki, jiske kaaran Milan itaalavi punarjaagaran ke agrani shaharon mein ek ban gaya.[16][26]

French, Spanish aur ostriyaai shaasan kaal

ostriya ki mahaaraani Maria theresa pratham, 1740 se 1780 tak Milan ki haibsabarg daches.

France ke raaja lui dvaadash ne pehle 1492 mein dachi ke prati daava pesh kiya. us samay, Swiss bhaade ke sainikon ne Milan ka bachaav kiya tha. lui ke uttaraadhikaari fraansis pratham dvaara mairignaino ki ladaai mein Swiss ke prati jeet ke baad, dachi French raaja fraansis pratham ko saunp di gayi. jab 1525 mein paaviya ki ladaai mein haibsabarg Charles pancham ne fraansis pratham ko haraaya, tab Milan sahit uttari Italy house of haibsabarg ke kabje mein chali gayi.[27]

1556 mein, Charles pancham ne apne bete filip dviteeya aur apne bhaai frdineind pratham ke paksh mein gaddi chhod di. Milan sahit Charles ki itaalavi sampatti, filip dviteeya aur haibsabarg ke speni vanshakram ko hastaantarit ho gaya, jabki frdineind ke haibsabargi ostriyaai vanshakram ne pavitra roman saamraajya par shaasan kiya. 1629-31 mein Milan ke mahaan pleg ke kaaran 130,000 ki aabaadi mein se kreeb 60,000 log maare gaye. is prakaran ko pleg mahaamaari ke sadiyon lambe deshavyaapi antim prakopon mein se ek maana jaata hai, jo kaali maut ke saath shuroo hua.[28]

1700 mein Charles dviteeya ki maut ke saath haibsabarg ka speni vanshakram samaapt ho gaya. unki mrutyu ke baad, speni sinhaasan par French anjau ke filip ke daave ka freinch sainya dal ke samarthan dvaara sabhi speni sampatti par kabje ke baad 1701 mein Spanish uttaraadhikaar ka yuddh aarambh hua. 1706 mein, raimileej aur torino mein fraanseesiyon ki haar hui aur unhein ostriyaai haibsabargon ko uttari Italy saunpane par majaboor kiya gaya. 1713 mein, yutreksat ki sandhi ne aupachaarik roop se lombaardi aur usaki rajdhani Milan sahit Spain ki adhikaansh itaalavi sampatti par ostriyaai samprabhuta ki pushti ki.

19veen sadi

paanch dinon ke dauraan milaani deshbhakt ostriyaai sena ke saath sangharsharat.

nepoliyn ne 1796 mein lombaardi par vijay praapt ki aur Milan ko sislapain ganaraajya ki rajdhani ghoshit kiya gaya. baad mein, unhonne Milan ko Italy saamraajya ki rajdhani ghoshit kiya aur dyuomo mein taaj pahanaaya gaya. jaise hi nepoliyn ka aadhiptya samaapt hua, viyna ke Congress ne 1815 mein veneto ke saath, lombaardi aur Milan, ostriyaai niyantran ko lautaaya.[29] is avadhi ke dauraan, Milan geet opera ka kendra ban gaya. yahaan 1770 ke dashak mein mojaart ne tiyetro reejiyo dyukal mein teen opera ke Premier ka aayojit kiye. baad mein la skaala, belini, donijeti, raujini aur vardi ke apne Premier ke saath, duniya ka aadarsh theatre ban gaya. khud verdi Milan ko apne upahaar "kaasa di riposo myusikisti" mein dafnaae gaye hain. 19veen sadi ke anya mahatvapoorn theatre hain la kaanobiyaana aur tiyetro kaarasaano .

Milan central station 1864 ke aas-paas jaisa tha.

18 March 1848 ko, tathaakathit "paanch din" (itaalavi: Le Cinque Giornate) ke dauraan, milaaneejon ne ostriyaai shaasan ke khilaaf vidroh kiya aur feeld maarshal raadetjki ko shahar se asthaai roop se vaapas jaane par majaboor kiya gaya. baharahaal, 24 July ko kastoja mein itaalavi sena ko haraane ke baad raadetjki, Milan aur uttari Italy par ostriyaai niyantran dubaara bahaal karne mein saksham hua. lekin, itaalavi raashtravaadiyon ne saaradineeya saamraajya ke samarthan se, itaalavi ekeekaran ke hit mein ostriya ko hataane ki maang ki. saaradineeya aur France ne gathabandhan kiya aur 1859 mein ostriya ko solfrino ki ladaai mein paraast kiya.[30] is ladaai ke baad, Milan aur shesh lombaardi, saaradeeniya saamraajya mein shaamil kiye gaye, jisne jald hi adhikaansh Italy par niyantran haasil kiya aur 1861 mein Italy saamraajya ke roop mein punarnaamakaran kiya gaya.

Italy ke raajaneetik ekeekaran ne uttari Italy par Milan ke vyaavasaayik prabhutv ko ekajut kiya. isse railway nirmaan ki bhi baadh I, jisne Milan ko uttari Italy ka rel kendra banaaya. teji se audyogikeekaran ne Milan ko Italy ke pramukh audyogik kshetr ke kendra mein sthaan diya, haalaanki 1890 ke dashak mein Milan uchch mudraasfeeti dar se sambandhit danga, baava-bekaarij narasanhaar se hil gaya tha. is beech, milaaneej bankon dvaara Italy ke vitteeya kshetr mein prabhutv ke kaaran, shahar, desh ka pramukh vitteeya kendra ban gaya. Milan ka aarthik vikaas, 19veen sadi ke ant mein aur 20veen sadi ke aarambh mein, shahar ke kshetr aur janasankhya mein teji se vistaar le aaya.[6]

20veen sadi

Milan mein aayojit 1906 vishv pradarshani ke dauraan mukhya hall ka ek drushya.
1914 mein Milan shahar ka naksha.

1919 mein, benito musolini ne blaikasharts ka aayojan kiya, Milan mein jo Italy ke faasist aandolan ka mukhya dhaancha tha aur 1922 mein, shahar se rom par abhiyaan shuroo hua.

doosare vishv yuddh ke dauraan british aur ameriki bamabaari se Milan ko bhaari nuksaan uthaana pada. haalaanki 1943 mein Italy ne yuddh chhod diya, 1945 tak adhikaansh uttari Italy par jarmanon ne kabja kar rakha tha. 1944 mein Milan ko katipya badatareen sahabaddh bamabaari ka saamana karna pada aur unamein se adhiktar Milan ke mukhya railway station ke ird-gird keindrit the. 1943 mein, adhikrut Italy mein jarman-virodhi pratirodh mein vruddhi hui aur Milan mein anek sangharsh ho rahe the.

jaise hi yuddh ka samaapan hua, ameriki pratham bakhtaraband diveejn po ghaati abhiyaan ke hisse ke roop Milan ki or aage badhe. lekin isse pehle ki ve pahunche, itaalavi pratirodh aandolan ke sadasyon ne Milan mein khula vidroh kiya aur shahar ko mukt karaaya. nikat, dongo mein musolini aur unke itaalavi saamaajik ganaraajya (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, ya RSI) ke kai sadasyon ko pratirodh dvaara kabje mein liya gaya aur faansi di gayi. 29 April 1945 ko, faasiston ke shav Milan mein le jaae gaye aur pramukh saarvajanik chauk, piyaajaala loreto mein abhadr roop se ulte lataka diye gaye.

yuddh ke baad shahar ostriya se palaayan karne vaale yahoodiyon ke liye sharanaarthi shivir sthal ban gaya. 1950 aur 1960 dashak ke aarthik chamatkaar ke dauraan, aantarik aapravaas ki ek badi lahar, vishesh roop se dakshini Italy se Milan ki or chali I aur 1971 mein janasankhya 1,723,000 tak badh gayi. is avadhi ke dauraan, Milan ne dubaara apne adhikaansh nasht imaaraton aur kaarkhaanon ka punarnirmaan dekha aur Italy mein yuddh ke baad ke tej aarthik vikaas se prabhaavit hua, jise Il boom kaha jaata hai. shahar ne toro velaaska aur pireli tauvar jaise kai Abhinav aur aadhuniktaavaadi imaaraton aur gaganachunbi imaaraton ka nirmaan dekha. baharahaal, Milan, 1960 dashak ke ant se 1970 dashak ke ant tak maarksavaadi/leninvaadi/briget roje ya red brigeds naamak communist itaalavi samooh se gambhir roop se prabhaavit hua aur shahar aksar raajanaitik pradarshanon aur virodh pradarshanon se bhar jaata tha. tathya ki baat hai ki 12 December 1969 ko piyaaja fauntaana ke raashtreeya krushi bank mein bam visfot hua, jismein satrah log maare gaye aur atthaasi log ghaayal hue.

1970 dashak ke ant mein Milan ki aabaadi ghatani shuroo ho gayi, jahaan pichhle 30 saal se shahar ki kul aabaadi ke lagbhag ek tihaai log, mool Milan ke ird-gird ubharane vaale nae upanagaron aur chhote shaharon ke baahari hisse mein basane lage.[31] par saath hi, shahar videshi aapravaasiyon ke badhte pravaah ko aakarshit karne laga hai. is nai ghatna ka dyotak milaaneej chaainaataaun ka tej aur mahaan vistaar hai, joki nagar mein aaj ke sabse khoobasoorat jilon mein ek, vaiya paaolo saarpi, vaiya braamante, vaiya maisina aur vaiya rojmini ke aas-paas ka kshetr hai, jahaan jejiyaang se aane vaale cheeni aapravaasi base hain. Milan, Italy mein sabhi filipeenon ke ek tihaai logon ka bhi ghar hai, jisne kaafi zyaada aur sthir roop se viksit aabaadi ko sharan di hai, jinki sankhya 1000 janm prati varsh[32] ke ausat janm dar ke saath, 33,000 se keval kuchh adhik hai[33].

chitr:Pirelli T1.png
nirmaanaadheen paaireli tauvar, yuddhottar itaalavi aarthik chamatkaar ka prateek
piyaaja Dale dyumo, 20veen sadi ke praarambh mein Milan.

1980 ke dashak mein, Milan udyog behad safal hone lage. choonki vah shahar mein mukhyaalaya sahit kapda aur kai vastr lebalon ka pramukh niryaatak ban gaya aur antarraashtreeya khyaati arjit karne laga (jaise aramaani, varsaache aur dolse aur gabbaana), Milan ko antarraashtreeya star par ek pramukh faishan rajdhani ke roop mein pahachaana jaane laga aur shahar ke staailiston dvaara utpaadit paaramparik roop se sasti aur vyaavahaarik, par saath hi staailish aur teep-top poshaakon ne use gambhir vaishvik pratispardhi bana diya hai, jo haute couture ya uchch faishan ki vaishvik rajdhani ke roop mein pairis ki sadiyon puraani pratishtha ke liye khtara ban gaya hai. shahar ne antarraashtreeya paryatakon ka udaya dekha, vishesh roop se cheen, Japan ya sudoor poorvi deshon se. samruddhi ki yeh avadhi aur "faishan ki rajdhani" ke roop mein shahar ki nai antarraashtreeya chhavi ne kai patrakaaron ko is avadhi ke dauraan mahanagar ko "Milano da bere " kehne par ukasaaya, jiska aksharash: taatparya hai "peene laayak Milan".[34]

1990 ke dashak mein Milan, paalaajo delo stelin parisar mein keindrit ek gambhir raajaneetik ghotaala tainjeintopoli se buri tarah prabhaavit hua, jismein kai raajaneta aur vyaapaariyon par kathit bhrashtaachaar ke aarop mein mukadama chalaaya gaya. shahar ek vitteeya sankat se bhi gujra aur 1950 aur 1980 ke dashak ki tulana mein mand audyogik vikaas ka saamana kiya. iske baavajood, Milan ne miu miu jaise nae lebalon ki sthaapana dvaara faishan aur dijaain rajdhani ke roop mein apni chhavi ko viksit kiya. 1990 dashak ke ant tak Milan ne vikaas ke liye halki audyogik aur aarthik uttejana dubaara haasil ki.

2000 dashak ki shurooaat tak, Milan ki arthavyavastha jo 1990 dashak ki shurooaat mein sthir thi, dubaara dheere se viksit hone lagi, par yeh alpakaalik hi rahi aur shahar, tainjeintopoli ke tanaav se khud ko mukt karne ke baavajood, ek aur aarthik mandi aur sankat ke daur mein ulajh gaya. is avadhi mein Milan ke audyogik niryaat mein teji se giraavat nazar I aur Asiaee kapda aur vastr companiyon ne abhi bhi majboot, par dhalaan ki or jaane vaale milaaneej faishan lebalon ke saath pratidvandvita shuroo ki. tathaapi, pehle fiyera (mukhyat: audyogik dijaain se sambandhit utpaadon ki ek pradarshani) ko shahar ke baahar ro mein ek nae pratishthaan mein sthaanaantarit karte hue,[35] Milan apni arthavyavastha ko majboot banaae rakhane mein saksham raha hai aur 2008 mein shahar dvaara expo 2015 ki mejbaani kiye jaane ki ghoshana se[36] kai nai punarutpaadak yojanaaon aur asankhya agrasar sanrachanaaon ke nirmaan ki yojanaaon ke saath shahar ki bhaavi sambhaavnaaen badh gayi hain. Milan ke audyogik utpaadan mein giraavat ke baavajood,[37] shahar ne vaikalpik aur safal aay ke sroton ko paaya hai, jinmein shaamil hain prakaashan, vitt, banking, khaadya utpaadan, soochana praudyogiki, sanbhaar-tantr, parivhan aur paryatan.[37] kul milaakar, haal ke varshon mein lagta hai Milan aabaadi sthir hui hai aur 2001 ke baad se shahar ki aabaadi mein sirf halki vruddhi hui hai.[31]

nagarapaalika prashaasan

Milan ke nau jile

raajaneeti

inhein bhi dekhein: Mayors of Milan
  • mayor ka naam: letijiya moraati
  • chunaav tithi: 30 May 2006
  • party: the peepal of freedam

nau nagar jinmein Milan vibhaajit hai, aath madhya-dakshin gathabandhan dvaara (1-8) aur ek madhya-vaam gathabandhan dvaara sanchaalit hain.

prashaasanik prabhaag

Milan shahar ko jona naamak prashaasanik kshetron mein up-vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. 1999 se pehle, shahar mein 21 jon the; 1999 mein prashaasan ne in anchalon ko 21 se ghata kar 9 karne ka faisala kiya. aaj, jona 1 "aitihaasik kendra" mein hai, ek kshetr jo Spanish-yugeen shahari deevaaron ki paridhi ke bheetar hai; anya aath jona 1 se nagar seemaaon tak ka kshetr aavrut karte hain.[38]

bhoogol

sthalaakruti

Milan jila pashchim-keindreeya kshetr mein paadaan samatal bhoomi mein sthit hai, jahaan po nadi aur elps ke pehle ubhaar ke beech tisino aur adda nadiyaan shaamil hain. iska kshetrafal 181 ki.mi.2 hai aur yeh 122 meter samudra tal se oopar hai.

jalavaayu

Milan kuchh mahaadveepeeya visheshataaon ke saath ek nam uposhn jalavaayu ka anubhav karta hai (kopen jalavaayu vargeekaran Cfa).[39] yeh uttari Italy ke antardesheeya maidaanon ki visheshata hai, jahaan Italy ke shesh bhaagon mein vishisht bhoomadhya jalavaayu ke vipreet, garm va aardr greeshmakaal aur thanda, seelan bhara sheetakaal prachalit hai.[40]

shahar ke kendra mein ausat taapamaan January mein −3 se 4 °ase (27 se 39 °afai) aur July mein 19 se 30 °ase (66 se 86 °afai) hai. sardiyon ke dauraan himpaat apekshaakrut aam baat hai, bhale hi pichhle 15-20 varshon mein inki aavrutti mein giraavat I hai. Milan kshetr ka aitihaasik ausat 35 aur 45 sein.mi. ke beech (16"/18") hai; aavadhik taur par 1-3 dinon mein 30-50 sein.mi. se adhik ekal himpaat hota hai, jahaan January 1985 ke prasiddh himpaat ke dauraan 80-100 sein.mi. rikaard kiya gaya tha. saal bhar kaafi zyaada umas rahati hai aur vaarshik ausat varsha lagbhag 1000 mi.mi.(40 inch) rahi hai.[40] roodhibddh chhavi mein, shahar aksar kohare mein dooba dikhaaya jaata hai, joki po ghaati ki visheshata hai, haalaanki dakshini ilaakon se chaaval ke kheton ko hataane, shahari ooshn dweep prabhaav aur pradooshan ke star mein kami ne haal ke varshon mein is ghatna ko kam kar diya hai, kam se kam shahar ke kendra mein.

saaaincha:Milan weatherbox

vaastukala aur pramukh darshaneeya sthaan

vaastukala

inhein bhi dekhein: List of buildings in Milan evam Villas and palaces in Milan
sainta Maria dele greji.
sain sinpalishiyaano ke praacheen mahaamandir ka roman purobhaag

praacheen roman upanivesh ke kuchh avashesh maujood hain jo baad mein pashchimi roman saamraajya ki rajdhani bani. chauthi sadi ke uttaraarddh mein Milan ke bishp ke roop mein seint embros ka shahar ke le-out par gahra prabhaav tha, kendra ki punarpariklpana (haalaanki is samay nirmit mahaamandir aur bapatisma kaksh ab lupt ho chuke hain) aur shahar ke faatakon par mahaan samaadhimandapon ka nirmaan: sant'embrojiyo, brolos mein sain najaaro, sain sinpalikiyaano aur sant'yustorajiyo, jo abhi bhi maujood hain, sadiyon se prakaashamaan, Milan ke kuchh behatareen aur sabse mahatvapoorn charchon mein se ek hain.

Milan mein liyonaardo kaal ka ek kendreeya yojana waali vaastushilpeeya chitr. (peris paandulipi B)

Italy mein sabse bada aur sabse mahatvapoorn gothik vaastukala ka udaaharan, Milan kaitheedral, duniya mein rom ke seint peetars baisilika, kaitheedral of sevile aur aaivari kost mein ek nae kaithadril ke baad,[41] chautha sabse bada mahaamandir hai.[41] 1386 aur 1577 ke beech nirmit is imaarat ke meenaar ki choti par, Milan ke logon dvaara maadunina (chhoti maidona) ke roop mein upanaam rakhi gayi, vyaapak roop se dikhaai dene waali maidona ki svarn pratima ke saath, duniya ke sabse bade sangamaramar ki saath pratimaaon ka sangrah hai, jo is nagar ka prateek ban gaya hai.

Milan kaithedral: fraansesko Maria richino (1614) dvaara maidona Dale'alabero chaipal.

14veen aur 15veen sadi ke beech, sforja parivaar ke shaasan ke dauraan, puraane viskaunti kile ko vistrut aur alankrut kiya gaya, jo kaistelo sforjesko kahalaaya: ek khoobsoorat punarjaagaran sabha, jo shikaari baag se chaaron or ghiri hui hai, jismein sepriyo aur komo jheel se pakade gaye shikaar sangrahit hain. ullekhaneeya pariyojana mein shaamil vaastukaaron mein hain florenataain filret, jinhein ooncha keindreeya pravesh burj ke nirmaan ke liye adhikrut kiya gaya aur sainya visheshagya baartolomiyo gaadiyo.[42] fraansesko sforja aur flaureins of kausmiyo de' midisi ke beech raajaneetik gathabandhan ke vaastushilpeeya laabh haasil hua, choonki milaaneej nirmaan punarjaagaran vaastukala ke bruneleshi modelon ke prabhaav mein aaya. is taskan prabhaav ko darshaane waali pehli ullekhaneeya imaaratein theen medisi bank (jiska ab keval pravesh dwaar bacha hai) ko basaane ke liye nirmit palaajo aur sain laureinjo se judi aur bank ki Milan shaakha ke pratham prabandhak ke liye bani keindreeya yojana waali portinri chaipal. filret, Milan mein nivaas ke dauraan, ospedel maigior ke roop mein vikhyaat bade saarvajanik aspataal ke liye jimmedaar tha aur saath hi, prabhaavashaali vaastukala granth ke liye bhi, jismein fraansesko sforja ke sammaan mein sforjinda naamak nakshatraakaar aadarsh shahar ki yojana shaamil hai aur keindreeya vinyaas vaale svaroop ke liye bhaavapravan bahas ki. liyonaardo da vinsi ko, jo lagbhag 1482 se 1499 mein France ke kabje mein shahar ke aane tak Milan mein the, 1487 mein kaitheedral ke liye ek tiburiyo, ya krausing tower dijaain karne ke liye adhikrut kiya, haalaanki uske nirmaan ke liye unhein chuna naheen gaya.[43][44] lekin filret ke saath unhonne keindreeya vinyaas vaale bhavan ke liye jo utsaah saajha kiya, usane is avadhi mein kai vaastushilpeeya chitron [chitr] ko janm diya, jinka donaato bramaante aur anya ke kaam par prabhaav raha. shahar mein bramaante ka kaam, jismein shaamil hai Santa Maria preso sain saitiro (ek nauveen sadi ke church ka punarnirmaan), khoobasoorat pradeept Santa Maria dele greji ka manch aur sant'ambrojiyo ke liye teen vihaar, sain loreinjo samaadhimandap jaise Milan ke praarambhik isaai vaastukala par unke adhyayan par bhi ankit hai.[45]

1761 mein sampoorn litta raajamahal ka athaarahaveen sadi ka utkeernan, jo nae agrabhaag ko darshaata hai.
navashrenyavaad beljiyojoso mahal ka agrabhaag, 1772 aur 1781 ke beech, raajasi milaani beljiyojoso parivaar ke liye nirmit.

pratisudhaaraandolan bhi Spanish shaasan kaal mein hua aur do prabhaavashaali vyaktiyon se chihnit hai: seint Charles boromiyo aur unke chachere bhaai, kaardinl federiko boromiyo. unhonne na keval swayam ko milaanavaasiyon ke naitik maarganirdeshak ke roop mein thopa, balki unhonne fraansesko Maria richino dvaara pariklpit bhavan mein baaibliyoteka ambrosiyaana aur niktasth pinaakoteka ambrosiyaana ke nirmaan ke saath, sanskruti ko bhi ek mahaan aaveg diya. is avadhi mein vaastushilpi pelegrino tibaaldi, galiyaajo eleji aur khud richino dvaara shahar mein kai khoobsoorat charchon aur bairok bhavanon ka nirmaan kiya gaya.[46]

18veen sadi ke dauraan Milan mein kai mahatvapoorn marammaton ke liye ostriya ki mahaaraani Maria theresa jimmedaar theen. unhonne kai gahan saamaajik aur prashaasanik sudhaaron ke liye ukasaaya, saath hi saath tiyetro ala skaala jaisi kai imaaraton ke nirmaan ko bhi, jo aaj bhi shahar ka gaurav bana hua hai, jiska udghaatan 3 August 1778 ko hua aur jo aaj duniya ke sabse prasiddh opera ghar mein se ek hai. upabhavan myujiyo tiyetrel ala skaala mein chitron, masaudon, pratimaaon, vastr tatha opera aur la skaala ke itihaas ke baare mein anya dastaavej sangrahit hain. la skaala, baile school of the tiyetro ala skaala bhi chalaata hai. ostriyaai prabhusatta ne Milan mein brera jile ke praacheen jesuit college ko ek vaigyaanik aur saanskrutik kendra ke roop mein parivrtit karte hue, jiske saath jude hain pustakaalaya, khagol-vaigyaanik vedhashaala aur vanaspati udyaan, jahaan aaj Art gailari aur lalit kala academy saath-saath avasthit hain, saanskruti ko badhaava diya.

unneesaveen sadi ke gailariya vittoriyo imaanuel dviteeya ka gunbadanuma paarak.
1770 mein nirmit tiyaatro alla skela ka unneesveen sadi ka chitran.

18veen ke ant aur 19veen sadi ki shurooaat mein, Milan bhi apni sthaapatya shaili ko badalate hue, vyaapak roop se navashrenyavaad aandolan se prabhaavit thi. 1800 dashak ke shurooaat mein shahar par nepoliyn bonaapaart ke shaasan ke falasvaroop kai utkrusht navashrenyavaadi imaaratein aur mahalon ka nirmaan hua, jismein shaamil hai vila real, ya jise aksar vila Dale beljiyojoso (palaajo bejiojoso se koi sambandh naheen) kaha jaata hai. yeh vaiya pailestro par aur jiyaardini pabliki ke paas sthit hai tatha iska nirmaan 1790 mein liyopoldo polaak dvaara kiya gaya tha.[47] ismein bonaapaart parivaar nivaas karta tha, mukhya roop se josafaain bonaapaart, par saath hi kai anya log bhi, jaise ki kaaunt [[josef raadetjki vaun raadetj tatha yoojeen de byoohaaranaais.|josef raadetjki vaun raadetj tatha yoojeen de byoohaaranaais.[47]]] ise aksar Milan aur lombaardi ke navashrenyavaadi vaastukala ke utkrusht namoonon mein gina jaata hai aur yeh ek angreji paridrushya bageeche se ghira hai. aaj, yahaan gailariya di'aarte kantemboreniya (hindi: samakaaleen kala deergha) hai aur yeh andar atyadhik alankrut shrenya stambhon, vishaal sabhaagruh, sangamaramar ki pratimaaon aur kristal jhaadfaanooson se saja hai.[47] palaajo beljiyojoso bhi nepaaliyaan ka ek bhavya nivaas aur milaaneej navashrenyavaadi vaastukala ke behatareen namoonon mein se ek tha. shahar ke kai anya mahatvapoorn navashrenyavaadi smaarakon mein shaamil hain aarko dela pace ya aark of pees, jise kabhi-kabhi aarko sempiyon (sempiyon aark) bhi kaha jaata hai aur jo paarko sempiyon ke bilkul aakhir mein piyaaja sempiyon mein sthit hai. iski aksar pairis ke aark di traaemf ke laghu sanskaran ke roop mein tulana ki jaati hai. meharaab par kaam 1806 mein nepoliyn pratham ke tahat shuroo hua aur ise luiji kaignola ne abhiklpit kiya tha. aark di traaemf ke samaan hi, 1826 mein vaataraloo ki ladaai mein nepoliyn ki haar ke saath hi is smaarakeeya meharaab ka nirmaan ruk gaya, lekin ostriya ke samraat fraanj josef (Francis josef) pratham ne viyna Congress aur 1815 shaanti sandhi ke sammaan mein ise poora karne ka aadesh diya. yeh fraansesko pevereli dvaara 10 September 1838 ko poora kiya gaya.[47] shahar ka ek aur prasiddh navashrenyavaadi bhavan hai palaajo Dale gavarno, jiska nirmaan 1817 mein piyero gilaardoni dvaara kiya gaya.[47]

BBPR dvaara nirmit toro velaaska, 1950 dashak ke Milan ka prateek.

19veen sadi ke uttaraardh mein, Milan ne praayadveep ke pramukh audyogik shahar ka darja grahan kiya aur anya Europeeya raajadhaaniyon se shahareekaran ke liye prerana li, joki un praudyogikeeya navaachaaron ke kendra the jisne doosari audyogik kraanti ke prateek ka gathan kiya aur parinaamasvaroop, mahaan saamaajik parivartan, jo chal pada tha. mahaan gaileriya vitoriyo imaanuel dviteeya, ek dhaka hua maarg, jo piyaaja Dale dyuomo, Milan ko la skaala ke saamane chauk se jodta hai, sanyukt Italy ke pratham samraat vitoriyo imaanuel dviteeya ke sammaan mein jiyusepe mengoni ne 1865 aur 1877 ke beech nirmit kiya. maarg ko, 19veen sadi ke aachhaadit maargon ke liye lokapriya dijaain, oopar meharaabi kaanch aur kachche lohe ki chhat se dhaka gaya hai, jaise ki barlingatan aarked, London, joki bade chamakeele shopping aarkedon ka poorv-namoona tha, jiski shurooaat brusels ke seint-habart gailari aur seint peetarsabarg mein paisaaj se hui. shahar mein ek aur 19veen sadi ka vibhinnadarshanagraahi smaarak hai simitero maunumeintel (aksharash:, "bada samaadhikshetr ya kbristaan "), jo shahar ke stejiyon jile mein hai aur 1863 se 1866 tak kai vaastukaaron dvaara ek nav-roman shaili mein banaaya gaya.

20veen sadi ka upadrav kaal bhi vaastukala mein kai navaachaaron ko le aaya. smaarakeeya shahar ke central station (stejion seintrel) ke liye Art novyoo, Art deko aur faasist shailiyon ka roop prayukt hua. dviteeya vishv yudgh baad ke punarnirmaan ne tej aarthik vikaas ko parilkshit kiya, jiske saath na keval aabaadi mein badhotri aur nae jilon ki sthaapana bhi dekhi gayi, balki vaastushilpeeya naveekaran ke liye ek majboot abhiyaan bhi, jisne shahar ke vaastukala itihaas mein katipya meal ke patthar utpann kiye hain jismein sammilit hain jiyo paunti ka pireli tauvar (1955-59), velaaska tauvar (1958), nae aavaaseeya jilon ka nirmaan aur, haal ke varshon mein, ro mein nae pradarshani kendra ka nirmaan tatha city laaif vyaapaar tatha aavaaseeya kendra jaise, aadhunik aavaaseeya jilon aur sevaaon mein parivrtit puraane audyogik kshetron ka shahari naveekaran.

bageeche aur udyaan

paarko sempiyon, shahar ka mukhya saarvajanik park.
1780 mein taiyaar jiyaardini pabliki di porta venejiya, Milan ke bache hue sabse puraane saarvajanik paarkon mein se ek.

is tathya ke baavajood ki Milan mein usi ke samaan aakaar vaale shaharon ki tulana mein bahut kam harit kshetr hai,[48] shahar apne vistrut vividhta vaale baagon aur udyaanon par garv karta hai. pratham saarvajanik bageeche 1857 aur 1862 mein sthaapit kiye gaye the aur jiyusep balajaaretto ne inhein dijaain kiya tha. ve piyaajel obardan (porta venejiya), kaarso venejiya, vaiya pailestro tatha vaiya maanin kshetron ke "green park jile" mein sthit hain.[49] unamein se jyaadaatar nav-shrenyavaadi shaili mein bhoo-drushya nirmit the aur paaramparik angrej udyaanon ka pratinidhitv karte the, bahudha vanaspatiyon se poori tarah samruddh.[49] Milan ke sabse mahatvapoorn park hain: paarko sempiyon (kaiselo sforjesko ke nikat), paarko forlaani, jiyaardini pabliki, jiyaardino dela vila kamyunel, jiyaardini dela gaastaala aur paarko laimbro. paarko sempiyon ek bada saarvajanik park hai, jo kaiselo sforjesko aur aark of pees (aarko dela pace) ke beech, piyaaja sempiyon ke paas sthit hai. iska nirmaan emiliyo alemaigna ne kiya tha aur ismein ek nepaaliyaan akhaada, siviko akveriyo di milaano (Milan ka naagrik machhaleeghar), meenaar, kala pradarshani kendra, kuchh taalaab aur pustakaalaya hain.[49] iske alaava paarko foralaani hai, jo apne 235 hekteyar bhoomi ke aakaar ke saath Milan ka sabse bada park hai,[49] aur ismein ek pahaadi aur ek taalaab hain. giyaardini pabliki Milan ke sabse puraane shesh saarvajanik paarkon mein se hai, jiski sthaapana 29 November 1783 ko ki gayi aur 1790 ke aas-paas poori hui.[50] iske bhoo-drushyon ka nirmaan angreji bageeche ki nav shaastreeya shaili mein ki gayi hai aur ismein ek taalaab, myujiyo siviko di storiya naichurel di milaano aur vila riyel hai. giyaardini dela gaustaala bhi Milan ke sabse puraane udyaanon mein se ek hai aur ismein mukhya roop se alankrut machhali taalaab hai.

Milan mein teen mahatvapoorn vanaspati udyaan bhi hain: orto botaaniko didaatiko sparimeintel Dale'yunivrsite di milaano (insteetyuto di saainj botaaneke dvaara sanchaalit chhota bageecha), orto botaaniko di brera (ek aur vanaspati udyaan, 1774 mein fulajenajiyo vitmain dvaara sthaapit, ostriya ki mahaaraani Maria theresa ke aadeshaadheen mathaadheesh aur kai saal tak parityaag ke baad 1998 mein bahaal kiya gaya) aur orto botaaniko di kaisina rosa.

23 January 2003 ko maunte stela mein, jaatisanhaar aur maanavata ke prati aparaadh ka virodh karne vaale ke sammaan mein sadaachaar bageeche ki sthaapana ki gayi. yahaan yerevan aur saaraajevo svetalaana broj tatha piyetro kuchiyukiyaan mein sadaachaari bageeche ke sansthaapak moshe bejaski, aandrei sakhaarov aur anya logon ko vruksh samarpit hain. is udyaan mein ek "sadaachaari" vyakti ke sammaan ka nirnaya har saal naami vyaktiyon ke aayog dvaara liya jaata hai.

janasaankhyikeeya

varsh jan.
1861 2,67,618
1871 2,90,514 8.6%
1881 3,54,041 21.9%
1901 5,38,478 52.1%
1911 7,01,401 30.3%
1921 8,18,148 16.6%
1931 9,60,660 17.4%
1936 11,15,768 16.1%
1951 12,74,154 14.2%
1961 15,82,421 24.2%
1971 17,32,000 9.5%
1981 16,04,773 −7.3%
1991 13,69,231 −14.7%
2001 12,56,211 −8.3%
2009 Est. 13,01,394 3.6%
Source: ISTAT 2001

yatha April 2009 mool shahar ki janasankhya mein 1,301,394 nivaasi hain. 1971 ki charam janasankhya ke baad se shahar ne apni janasankhya ka lagbhag ek tihaai kho diya hai, adhikaanshat: pichhle teen dashakon ke anaudyogeekaran prakriya ke parinaamasvaroop upanagareeya vistaar ke kaaran. Milan ka shahari kshetr, mukhyat: uske prashaasanik praant ke saath mel khaate hue, 43 million anumaanit janasankhya ke saath Europeeya sangh mein paanchava sabse bada kshetr hai. 1950-60 dashak ke mahaan aarthik uchhaal ke baad mool shahar ke aas-paas kai upanagaron aur upanagareeya bastiyon ki vruddhi ne mahaanagareeya kshetr ke svaroop ko paribhaashit kiya hai aur yaatra pravaah sujhaata hai ki saamaajik-aarthik sambandh shahar aur uske praanton ki seemaaon se pare vistrut hue hain aur usase lombaardi kshetr ke samast madhya bhaag mein 7.4 million janasankhya ke mahaanagareeya kshetr ki srujit hua hai.[51][52] yeh sujhaav diya gaya hai ki Milan mahaanagareeya kshetr tathaakathit blue banaana ka hissa hai, jo sarvaadhik aabaadi aur audyogik ghanatv wala Europeeya kshetr hai.[53]

aapravaas

dviteeya vishv yuddh ke ant ke baad se, Milan mein vyaapak aavrajan ki do laharein aain, pehli Italy ke andar se hi, doosari praayadveep ke baahar se. ye do aapravaas do alag aarthik charanon ke saath mel khaate hain. pehla aapravaas 1950 aur 1960 dashak ke aarthik chamatkaar ke saath aaya, jo santulit udyog tatha saarvajanik kaaryon ke ird-gird aadhaarit asaadhaaran vruddhi ka samay tha. doosra aapravaas ek bilkul alag arthavyavastha ki prushthabhoomi mein hua, jo sevaaen, laghu udyog aur audyogikran pashchaat ke paridrushyon par keindrit tha. pehla, dehaat, pahaadon aur dakshini, poorvi shaharon ya lombaardi ke anya praanton ke itaalaviyon se sambandhit tha. doosare ka sambandh gair-itaalaviyon se tha, jo asankhya deshon se the, par sarvaadhik uttari Africa, dakshin America, Asia aur poorvi Europe se. 1990 dashak ke ant tak Milan mein 10 pratishat videshi aapravaasi janasankhya ho gaya tha, jinme sabse zyaada nimn star ke seva kshetr (restaurant kaamagaar, safaai karmachaari, naukaraaniyaan, ghareloo shramik) ya kaarakhaanon mein kaaryarat the.[54] yatha January, 2008, itaalavi saankhyiki raashtreeya sansthaan ISTAT ne anumaan lagaaya ki 181,393 videsh mein janme aapravaasi Milan mein rahate hain, jo kul janasankhya ke 13.9% ka pratinidhitv karte hain.[7]

arthavyavastha

Milan duniya ke pramukh vitteeya aur vyaavasaayik keindron mein se ek hai aur 2004 mein € 241.2 billion (US$ 312.3 billion) ke sakal ghareloo utpaad ke saath,[55] Milan mahaanagareeya kshetr ka GDP Europe mein chauthe sthaan par hai: yadi yeh desh hota, to vah duniya mein sabse badi arthavyavastha ke roop mein aathaaisavein sthaan par hota, joki lagbhag ostriyaai arthavyavastha ke baraabar hai.[56]

piyaajel kauradusiyo, keindreeya Milan mein ek vyast vyaavasaayik chauraaha jahaan kai mahatvapoorn imaaratein hain, jaise mukhya daakaghar, kredito itaaliyaano ka mahal aur vishaal company aseekuraajioni janaraali ka mukhyaalaya.yeh puraane Milan stock exchange ka site bhi hai.

shahar mein itaalavi stock exchange (borsa itaaliyaana) hai aur usaka bheetari pradesh Italy ka sabse bada audyogik kshetr hai. ise Madrid, siyol, Moscow, brusels, Toronto, Mumbai, byoonas aayars aur Kuala Lumpur ke saath, brooking instityooshan ke aarthik report "'varlj city network' mein ameriki shahar" (Key Findings, Full Reportpeedeeऍf (940 KB)) mein, Peter J.Taylor tatha Robert E.laing dvaara das "alfa world siteej" ki soochi mein shaamil kiya gaya hai.

12veen sadi ke ant mein kala ka utkarsh hua aur kavach nirmaan sabse mahatvapoorn udyog tha. is avadhi mein un sinchaai kaaryon ki shurooaat dekhi gayi, jinki badaulat lombaard maidaan aaj bhi upajaaoo udyaan hain. oon vyaapaar ke vikaas ne resham utpaadan ko pratham protsaahan diya.

venis aur floreins ke samaan, vilaasi saadhanon ka nirmaan ek aisa mahatvapoorn udyog tha ki 16veen shataabdi mein shahar ne angreji shabd "milaner " ya "millaner " ko apna naam diya, jiska arth hai parishkrut vastuen jaise gahane, kapde, topi aur vilaasi paridhaan. 19veen sadi tak, baad ka ek sanskaran, "millinery" aaya, jiska matlab tha jisne topi banaai ya bechi hai.

uttari Europe mein audyogik kraanti ne Milan ke uttari kshetr ko ek nai vishishtata pradaan ki. vah aalps se aane vaale maal ke liye vyaapaar maarg ban baitha aur kai nadiyon aur jharanon se paani dvaara sanchaalit milon ka nirmaan kiya.

19veen shataabdi ke madhya mein Asia se sasta resham aayaatit kiya jaane laga aur faailokjera keet dvaara resham aur sharaab ke utpaadan ko kshati pahunchane lagi. baad mein audyogikeekaran ke liye adhik jameen di gayi. vastr utpaadan ke baad dhaatu aur yaantriki tatha furniture nirmaan hone laga.

aaj Milan kapda aur vastr utpaadan, automobile (alfa romiyo), rasaayan, audyogik upakaran, bhaari machinery, pustak aur sangeet prakaashan ka pramukh kendra hai.

pradarshani kendra feyeraamilaano ke paas "feyeraamilaanositi " naamak pradarshani sthal tha, jise kuchh mahatvapoorn imaaraton ke alaava dhaaya gaya (jismein 20 ke dashak mein nirmit saaikal khel stadium bhi shaamil hai), taaki shahari kendra se usaki niktata ka laabh uthaate hue shahari vikaas, siteelaaif ko vahaan basaaya ja sake. April 2005 ko udghaatit, ro upanagar ke uttar-pashchim disha mein naya pradarshani sthal, feyeraamilaano ko duniya mein sabse bada vyaapaar mela parisar banaata hai.

Milan aur bhavishya

chitr:Expo2015Milan.jpg
expo 2015 logo

Milan ka fir se shahari dijaain taiyaar kiya ja raha hai. paridhi par aprayukt audyogik kshetron ke punarvaas ke liye nirmaan pariyojanaaen chaaloo hai. yojanaaon mein tiyetro ala skaala ke liye sanyojan; puraane "feyera" sthal mein siteelaaif pariyojana; naya parisar sainta jiyuliya; aur garibaaldi-ripblika kshetr mein porta nyova pariyojana shaamil hain. kai prasiddh vaastukaar, jaise ki renjo piyaano, naurman faustar, jaaha haadeed, masimiliyaano fksaas aur dainiyl laaibesakaaind ismein bhaag lete hain. in kaaryon se Milan ka kshitij badal jaaega, jis par ab dyumo aur paaireli tauvar ka prabhutv naheen rahega.

Milan, is aadhunikeekaran ke pariprekshya mein naveekrut shahar ke roop mein 2015 pradarshani ka aayojan karega.

antarraashtreeya star

global city power soochakaank ke anusaar, Milan ko 203.5 ke score ke saath, 2008 mein duniya ke 27vein aur 2009 mein 28vein sabse shaktishaali nagar ka darja diya gaya, jahaan vah Beijing aur Kuala Lumpur ke baad aur bainkauk, fyukyoka, Taipei aur Moscow se aage tha.[12] adhyayan ke vibhinn kshetron mein, duniya bhar mein Milan, arthashaastr mein 29vein, anusandhaan evam vikaas mein 30vein, saanskrutik gatividhiyon mein 18vein, nivaas-anukoolata mein 18vein, paryaavaran muddon mein 27vein aur pahunch ke maamale mein 15vein sthaan par hai.[12]

shahar ne nivaas anukoolata aur vishisht vyakti paryaavaran ke aankadon mein bhi uchch darja paaya, jahaan Europe mein prabandhan ke liye 12vaan, anusandhaan ke liye 13vaan, kalaatmak aur paryatan maukon ke liye 8vaan tatha nivaas anukoolata ke liye 11vaan utkrusht sthaan ka darja paaya.[12]

paryatan

suramya brera quarter mein bekaariya mahal ka ek drushya, paryatakon ke beech Milan ka sarvaadhik lokapriya aur darshaneeya aakarshak sthal.

Milan Europeeya sangh ke sabse mahatvapoorn paryatan sthalon mein se ek hai; 2007 mein 1.902 million aur 2008 mein 1.914 million aagamanon ke saath, yeh khud ko kramash: duniya ke sarvaadhik darshaneeya nagaron mein 42vein aur 52vein sthaan par paata hai.[14] kisi vishisht srot ke anusaar, Milan mein aane vaale antarraashtreeya aagantukon mein 56% Europe se hain, jabki shahar ke paryatakon mein 44% itaalavi aur 56% videsh se hain.[48] sabse mahatvapoorn Europeeya sangh baajaar United Kingdom (16%), Germany (9%) aur France (6%) hain.[48] usi adhyayan ke anusaar, amareeka se shahar mein aane vaale adhikaansh aagantuk vyaapaar vishyak kaam par aate hain, jabki cheeni aur Japani paryatak ko mukhya roop se avakaash par aate hain.[48] shahar mein kai lokapriya paryatak aakarshan hain, jaise ki shahar ka dyumo aur piyaaja, tiyetro ala skaala, sain siro stadium, gailariya vittoriyo imaanuel dviteeya, kaiselo sforjosko, pinaakoteka di brera aur vaiya mauntenaapoleen. jyaadaatar paryatak aise sthalon ko dekhte hain jaise Milan kaithidral, kaiselo sforjesko aur tiyetro ala skaala, tathaapi, anya sthal jaise sant'ambrojiyo ka baisilika, naavigli aur brera academy tatha jila ko kam log dekhne jaate hain aur yeh kam lokapriya saabit ho rahe hain.[48] shahar ke kai hotalein bhi hain, jinmein bahut hi shaanadaar taaun house gailariya shaamil hai, jo sosaaite janarel di saraviylens dvaara aadhikaarik taur par darja paane wala, duniya ka pehla saat sitaara hotel hai aur vishv ke agrani hotel mein se ek.[57] Milan mein kai bootik ya faishan hotalein bhi hain, jinmein naya aramaani world bhi shaamil hai, 2010 mein jiske khulne ki yojana banaai gayi hai. yeh vaiya mainajoni mein (vaiya mauntenaapoleen faishan jile mein) sthit ek bada hotel hai aur 1930 dashak ke bhavan mein basa hai. ismein 95 kamron ki yojana banaai gayi hai aur sab kuchh aramaani aadhaarit theem par hoga.[58] shahar ke anya ullekhaneeya hotelon mein shaamil katipya naam hain aitihaasik grand hotel eight di Milan (jahaan jiyusep vardi ki mrutyu hui), hotel for seejns, ya piyaaja dyuka di'avosta mein station grand hotel gailiya.

shahar mein paryatak ke nivaas ka ausat hai 3.43 raatein, jabki videshi lambi avadhi ke liye nivaas karte hain, jinmein se 77% ausat 2-5 raat ke liye rahate hain.[48] hotel mein rahane vaale 75% aagantukon ke beech 4 sitaara hotel sabse lokapriya (47%) rahe hain, jabki 5 sitaara, ya 3 sitaara se kam kramash: taalika mein 11% aur 15% ka pratinidhitv karte hain.

sanskruti

aalankaarik kala

inhein bhi dekhein: List of Milanese painters
rafel, pinaakoteka di brera dvaara kunvaari ka vivaah.
liyonaardo ka antim bhoj.

Milan sadiyon se pramukh kalaatmak kendra raha hai. shahar mein anek kala sansthaan, academy aur deerghaaen (jaise brera academy aur pinaakoteka ambrosiyaana) maujood hain.

Milan ki kala madhya-yug mein samruddh hui aur viskaunti parivaar kala ke pramukh sanrakshak hone ki vajah se, shahar gothik kala aur sthaapatya kala ka ek mahatvapoorn kendra ban gaya (shahar mein Milan kaithedral gothik vaastukala ka sarvaadhik vikt kaarya raha hai).[59] iske alaava, 14veen aur 15veen sadi ke beech, sforja parivaar ka shaasan kaal, ek aur aisa samay tha jab kala aur shilp ka vikaas apne charam par tha. sforja kaisal ek suruchipoorn punarjaagaran sabha ka gadh ban gaya,[60] jabki filaaret dvaara abhiklpit saarvajanik aspataal, ospadel maigiyor jaise mahaan rachanaaon ka nirmaan kiya gaya aur liyonaardo da vinchi jaisi kshamata vaale kalaakaar, antim bhoj ke fresko aur kodeks etalainatiks jaise apaar moolya vaale kaam chhod kar, Milan mein kaam karne aae. braimante bhi shahar ke sabse khoobsoorat charchon mein chand ke nirmaan par kaam karne Milan aae; sainta Maria dele greji mein khoobsoorat chamakeele tribyoon, braimante dvaara nirmit hai aur saath hi, Santa Maria preso sain saitiro ka church bhi.

17veen aur 18veen shataabdiyon mein shahar bairok se prabhaavit tha aur kai diggaj kalaakaaron, vaastu shilpiyon aur kairaavegiyo jaise us kaal ke chitrakaaron ki mejbaani ki. kairaavegiyo ki bairok kruti "falon ki tokari " Milan ke baaibliyoteka ambrosiyaana aur unka " emaaus mein bhoj " brera academy mein dhaarit hai.[59] svachhandataavaadi kaal ke dauraan Milan pramukh Europeeya kala ka kendra ban gaya, jis samay milaaneej svachhandataavaadi ostriyaaiyon se prabhaavit the, jo us avadhi mein Milan par shaasan kar rahe the. sanbhavat: Milan mein dhaarit sabhi svachhandataavaadi romantic kaaryon mein se ullekhaneeya hai frainsesko haaej dvaara "chunban ", jo brera academy mein dhaarit hai.[59]

baad mein Milan aur samagr Italy 20veen sadi mein bhavishyavaad dvaara prabhaavit hua. itaalavi bhavishyavaad ke sansthaapak filippo maarinetti ne apne 1909 "bhavishyavaadi ghoshana patra " (itaalavi mein mainifesto fyucharistiko) mein likha tha ki Milan "grande...tradizionale e futurista " tha (hindi mein, bhavya... paaramparik aur bhavishyavaadi). ambarto boshiyoni bhi shahar ke ek mahatvapoorn bhavishyavaadi kalaakaar the.[59] aaj, Milan anek aadhunik pradarshaniyon ke saath, aadhunik aur samakaaleen kala ka ek pramukh antarraashtreeya kendra bana hua hai.[59]

dijaain

chitr:SofaDueFoglie.png
jiyo paunti dvaara dyu fogli.

Milan audyogik aur aadhunik dijaain ki antarraashtreeya raajadhaaniyon mein se ek hai aur is tarah ke kshetron mein duniya ke sabse prabhaavashaali shaharon mein se ek maana jaata hai.[61] shahar vishesh roop se apne uchch gunavatta vaale praacheen aur aadhunik furniture aur audyogik maal ke liye suvikhyaat hai. Milan Europe ke sabse bade aur duniya ke sabse pratishthit frneechar aur dijaain melon mein se ek feyeraamilaano ka aayojan karta hai.[61] Milan "fyori salon " aur "salon Dale mobile " jaise pramukh design aur vaastukala-sambandhit kaaryakramon aur sthalon ka aayojan bhi karta hai.

1950 aur 60 ke dashakon mein, Italy ka pramukh audyogik kendra hone aur Europe ke sabse pragatisheel aur gatisheel shaharon mein se ek hone ki vajah se, torino ke saath Milan yuddhottar dijaain aur vaastukala ke liye Italy ki rajdhani ban gaya. pireli tauvar aur tore velaaska jaisi gaganachunbi imaaraton ka nirmaan kiya gaya aur bruno munaari, lushiyo fauntaana, enariko kaiselaani aur piyero mainajoni jaise katipya vaastukaar ya to shahar mein base the ya shahar mein kaam karte the.[62]

saahitya

alesaindro mainajoni.

18veen sadi ke ant mein aur poori 19veen sadi ke dauraan, Milan bauddhik charcha aur saahityik rachanaatmakata ke liye ek mahatvapoorn kendra tha. prabuddhata ko yahaan urvar bhoomi mili. seejer, bekaariya ke marquee ne apne lokapriya dei deliti A dele pene tatha kaaunt peetro veri apne aavadhik Il kafe dvaara nai madhyam-vargeeya sanskruti par paryaapt prabhaav daalne mein saksham rahe, jismein ostriyaai prashaasan ki udaar soch ka bhi haath tha. unneesaveen sadi ke pehle kuchh varshon mein, romantic aandolan ke aadarshon ne shahar ke saanskrutik jeevan ko prabhaavit kiya aur uske pramukh lekhakon ne shaastreeya banaam svachhandataavaadi kavita ki shreshthata par bahas ki. yahaan bhi, jiyusep paarini aur yugo fauskolo ne apni sabse mahatvapoorn rachanaaon ko prakaashit kiya aur yuva kaviyon dvaara naitikta aur saath hi saahitya rachana-kaushal ke guroo ke roop mein samaadrut hue. fauskolo ki kavita dei sepolakraai, kai logon ki marji ke khilaaf - shahar par laagoo - nepaaliyaani kaanoon se prerit rachana thi.

19veen sadi ke teesare dashak mein, alesaandro mainajoni ne apna upanyaas aai praumesi sposi likha, jisse itaalavi svachhandataavaad ka aavirbhaav maana jaata hai, jise Milan mein apna kendra mila. patrika Il kanasiliyetor mein silviyo peliko, jiyovanni barket, ludoviko di brem, ke lekh prakaashit kiye gaye, jo kavita mein svachhandataavaadi aur raajaneeti mein deshbhakt donon the.

1861 mein Italy ke ekeekaran ke baad Milan ne apna raajaneetik mahatva kho diya; fir bhi saanskrutik bahason mein usane ek tarah se apna keindreeya sthaan banaae rakha. Europe ke anya deshon se nae vichaar aur aandolanon ko sveekaar kiya gaya tatha un par charchaaen ki gain: is prakaar yathaarthavaad aur prakrutivaad ne itaalavi aandolan, verismo ko janm diya. mahaan verista upanyaasakaar, jiyovanni varga ka janm sisili mein hua tha, lekin unhonne apni sabse mahatvapoorn pustakein Milan mein likheen.

sangeet aur pradarshan kalaaen

inhein bhi dekhein: Music of Milan
pratishthit la skela opera house ka aabhyantar.

Milan pradarshan kalaaon ka, visheshakar opera ka ek pramukh raashtravyaapi aur antarraashtreeya kendra hai. Milan mein la skaala operaahaaus avasthit hai, jise duniya mein sabse pratishthit operaahaauson mein se ek maana jaata hai,[63] aur samagr itihaas mein asankhya opera ke Premier ka aayojan kiya hai, jinmein se kuchh naam hain 1842 mein jyusep vardi dvaara naabuko, emilker paunsheli dvaara la jiyokonda, 1904 mein jiyaakomo pyuchini dvaara madaama bataraflaai, 1926 mein jiyaakomo pyuchini dvaara tyoorainadaut aur abhi haal hi 2007 mein febiyo vaachi dvaara teneke . Milan ke anya pramukh thiyetaron mein shaamil hain tiyetro degli aarkimboldi, tiyetro dal varme, tiyetro liriko (Milan) aur tiyetro rejiyo dyukal. shahar mein ek mashahoor simfni orkestra aur sangeet shikshaalaya hai aur samagr itihaas mein, sangeet sanyojan ka pramukh kendra raha hai: jiyusep kaimo, Simon bauyalo, hoste da rejiyo, vardi, jiyuliyo gatti-kaisaaja, paaolo cheriki aur Alice edun jaise lokapriya sangeetakaar aur vaadak Milan se hain ya the, ya ise apna ghar kehte hain ya the. shahar ne asankhya aadhunik gaayak vrund aur baindon ka gathan kiya hai, jaise daainamis enaseinbal, staurmi six aur kaimaraata meediyolaanens.

faishan

kaurso venejiya, pramukh "Milan faishan chaturbhuj" sadkon mein se ek.
vaiya daante, ek aur mukhya milaani shopping gali, jo kaistelo sforjesko ke saath piyaajel kaurdusiyo ko jodta hai.

Milan ko, New York, peris, rom aur London ke saath, duniya ke faishan ki raajadhaaniyon mein se ek maana jaata hai, (tathya ki baat hai ki, vaishvik bhaasha maunitr ne, jo har saal duniya ke sheersh faishan ki raajadhaaniyon ko naamaankit karti hai, ghoshana ki hai ki 2008 mein Milan sheersh aarthik aur media faishan ki vaishvik rajdhani thi).[64] itaalavi faishan ke adhikaansh pramukh brand, jaise ki vailentino, guchchi, varsaache, praada, aramaani aur dolse end gabbaana ke mukhyaalaya sanprati is shahar mein hain. kai antarraashtreeya faishan lebal bhi Milan mein dukaanein chalaate hain, jinmein ebarakrombi end Fitch pramukh store shaamil hai, jo ek pramukh upabhokta aakarshan ban gaya hai. peris, London, tokyo aur New York jaise anya antarraashtreeya keindron ke samaan, Milan bhi saal mein do baar faishan saptaah ka aayojan karta hai. Milan ka mukhya unnat faishan jila hai "kvaadrilaitaro dela moda " (shaabdik arth hai, "chaturbhuj faishan"), jahaan shahar ke sabse pratishthit shopping galiyaan (vaiya mauntenopoleen, vaiya dela spaaiga, vaiya sant'aandriya, vaiya mainajoni aur kaurso venejiya) sthit hain. gailariya vitoriyo imaanuel II, piyaaja Dale dyumo, vaiya daante aur kaurso byoonos aayars anya mahatvapoorn shopping ki sadkein aur chaukein hain. duniya mein faishan ki rajdhani ke roop mein apni sthiti ko majboot karne mein madad karne vaale, praada ke sansthaapak maariyo praada bhi yaheen paida hue the.

media

Milan kai sthaaneeya aur raashtravyaapi sanchaar sevaaon aur vyavasaaya ke liye, jaise samaachaar patra, patrikaaen aur ti.vi. aur radio stationon ke parichaalanon ka aadhaar hai.

samaachaar-patra

  • Corriere della Sera
  • Il Foglio
  • Il Giornale
  • Il Giorno
  • Il Sole 24 Ore
  • Il Manifesto
  • La Gazzetta dello Sport
  • La Padania
  • Libero
  • MF Milano Finanza

patrikaaen

  • La Settimana Enigmistica
  • Abitare (vaastukala aur dijaain maasik)
  • Casabella (vaastukala aur dijaain maasik)
  • Domus (vaastukala aur dijaain maasik)
  • Panorama (saaptaahik)
  • Gente (saaptaahik)

radio station

  • R101
  • RTL 102.5
  • radio 105 network
  • varjin radio itaaliya
  • radio maunte kaarlo
  • radio 24
  • radio DJ
  • radio klaasika

chhuttiyaan

  • 18 March - 22 March: 1848 kraanti ya Milan ke paanch dinon ki smruti.
  • 25 April: dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan Germany ke kabje se Milan ki mukti.
  • 7 December: seint embros ka parv (Festa Di Sant'Ambrogio).
  • 12 December : piyaaja fauntaana visfoton ki smruti.

bhaasha

inhein bhi dekhein: Milanese grammar evam Classical Milanese orthography

itaalavi ke atirikt, pashchimi lombaardi ki aabaadi ke lagbhag ek tihaai log pashchimi lombaard bhaasha bol sakte hain, jo inasabarik ke naam se bhi vikhyaat hai. Milan mein, shahar ke kuchh mool nivaasi paaramparik milaaneej bhaasha bol sakte hain - yaani pashchimi lombaard ki shahari boli, jise itaalavi bhaasha ke kshetreeya kism se prabhaavit milaaneej naheen samajh lena chaahiye.

dharm

seint emabrojiyo ka mahaamandir, shahar ke sabse mahatvapoorn aur sabse puraane charchon mein se ek.
seint Lawrence ka mahaamandir

Milan ki janta, Italy ki samagr aabaadi ke samaan hi, atyadhik sankhya mein Catholic hai. yeh Milan ke roman Catholic aarkadaayoseej ka adhishthaan hai. anya prachalit dharmon mein shaamil hain: roodhivaadi church,[65] bauddh dharm,[66] yahoodi dharm,[67] islaam,[68][69] aur protesteint dharm.[70][71]

Milan ka apna hi aitihaasik Catholic anushthaan hai jo ambrosin anushthaan (itaalavi: Rito ambrosiano) ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. yeh theth Catholic anushthaan se kuchh had tak alag hai, (roman sabhi anya pashchimi kshetron mein prayukt), jahaan bhinnata poojan-paddhati aur khreestayaag samaaroh aur calendar mein hai (udaaharan ke liye, leint ki shurooaat ki taareekh, aam taareekh ke kuchh dinon baad manaai jaati hai, at: kaarnivl ki taareekhein alag hain). lombaardi ke aas-paas ke sthaanon mein aur tisino ke Swiss kaintan mein ambrosiyn anushthaan bhi prachalan mein hain.

ek aur mahatvapoorn antar girija sangeet se sambandhit hai. gregori geet Milan aur uske aas-paas ke ilaakon mein poori tarah se istemaal mein naheen the, kyonki aadhikaarik geet unka apna ambrosiyn geet tha, jo nishchit roop se Trent parishad dvaara sthaapit (1545-1563) aur gregori se pehle ka hai.[72] is sangeet ko vahaan banaae rakhane ke liye, rom mein "pauntifikl ambrosiyn Institute of sekred myoojik" (PIAMS) ki bhaageedaari ke saath, ek adviteeya skola kaintoram, college aur sansthaan, viksit kiya gaya [2].

cinema

kai (vishesh roop se itaalavi) filmein Milan mein set ki gayi hain, jinmein shaamil hain, "kaalmi kyuri apaasiyonaati" "the international (film)", "la maala ordina", "milaano kailibro 9", "mirekal in Milan", "la notte" aur "rokko end hij brothers".

Pak shaili

painaton, milaani paaramparik christmas cake

Italy ke anek shaharon ki bhaanti, Milan aur uske aas-paas ke kshetron mein unke apne kshetreeya vyanjan hain, jinmein, lombaard vyanjanon ki vishishtata ke anusaar, paasta ki apeksha praay: chaaval ka upayog hota hai aur ismein tamaatar lagbhag naheen daala jaata. milaaneej bhojan mein shaamil hota hai, "kotoleta ala milaaneej", ek breded veel (pork aur tarki ka istemaal bhi kiya ja sakta hai) makkhan mein tali katalet (jo kuchh log ostriyaai mool ka maanate hain, kyonki yeh viyeneej "veenarashnitjel" ke samaan hota hai, jabki anya logon ka daava hai ki "veenarashnitjel" "kotoleta ala milaaneej" se vyutpann hai).

Milan ke prasiddh kaife kova mein parose gaye cake aur pestri, vaiya mauntenaapoleen faishan jile mein ek paasteeseriya.

anya vishisht vyanjan hain kaisoyula (sijhaaya hua pork pasali chaup aur sevauya bandagobhi ke saath sausej), osobuko (gremolaata naamak saus ke saath sijhaai hui bachhade ki taang), risotto ala milaaneej (kesar aur gomaans majja ke saath), byuseka (sem ke saath sijhaai hui antadi) aur bresaato (sijhaaya hua gomaans ya sharaab aur aaloo ke saath pork). mausami pestriyon mein shaamil hain chiyaakaair (cheeni chhidki hui flat freetars) aur kaarnivl ke liye taurteli (tali hui golaakaar kukeej), istar ke liye kolomba (kabootar ke aakaar ka chikna cake), all sols de ke liye pen dei maurti ("deds de bred", daalacheeni ke saath suvaasit kukeej) aur christmas ke liye penoton).

salaame milaano, ek badhiya anaaj ke saath salaami, jo Italy bhar mein vyaapak hai. suvikhyaat milaaneej paneer hai gaurgonjola, jo isi naam ke niktasth shahar se hai, haalaanki aaj pramukh gaurgonjola nirmaata paaidamaunt mein kriyaasheel hain.

adviteeya vyanjanon ke alaava, Milan mein kai vishv prasiddh restaurant aur kaife hain. adhikaansh suroochipoorn aur uchch-varg ke restaurant aitihaasik kendra mein paae jaate hain, jabki paaramparik aur lokapriya mukhyat: brera aur naveegli jilon mein sthit hain. aaj, Milan mein nobu Japani restaurant bhi hai, jo vaiya manajoni ke aramaani vishv mein sthit hai aur ise shahar ke aadhunik restaurant mein se ek maana jaata hai.[73] shahar ke pasandeeda kaife ya pasticcerie mein se ek hai kaife kova, 1817 mein sthaapit ek praacheen milaaneej kaufeehaaus jo tiyetro ala skaala ke paas hai, jisne Hongkong mein bhi freinchaaiji kholi hai.[74] bifi kaife aur gailariya mein juka bhi prasiddh aur aitihaasik 'kaife' hain, jo Milan mein sthit hain. Milan ke anya restaurant mein shaamil hain hotel for seejns restaurant, 'la braaishiyola', mairino ala skaala aur shaindaliyr. aaj, gailariya vitoriyo imaanuel II mein maikadaunalds faast-fud restaurant bhi hai aur kuchh nae buteek-kaife, jaise ki vaiya dela spiga mein jast kavaali kaife, jo lakjri faishan guds brand raubarto kavaali ke svaamitv mein hai.

khel

sain siro stadium, Europe ke sabse bade stediymon mein se ek

shahar ne anya kaaryakramon ke beech, 1934 aur 1990 mein feefa vishv cup, 1980 mein UEFA Europeeya futabaul championship ka aayojan kiya.

futabaul Italy ka sabse lokapriya khel hai aur Milan do vishv prasiddh football team: A.C. Milan aur F.C. intaranejnel milaano ka ghar hai. pehli team ko saamaanyat: keval "Milan" (angreji aur milaaneej naam ke vipreet pehle akshar par jor par gaur karein) aur doosare ko "intar" ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai. in donon teemon ke beech match Milan darbi ya darbi dela maidonina ke naam se (shahar ke pramukh darshaneeya sthalon mein se ek, "dyuomo di milaano ki choti par varjin meri maidonina" ki pratima ke sammaan mein) vikhyaat hain.

Milan (AC Milan) Europe mein ekamaatr aisa shahar hai, jiski teemon ne donon, Europeeya cup (ab UEFA chainpiyans league) aur intarakaantineintal cup (ab FIFA club vishv cup) jeeta hai. sanyukt taur par nau chainpiyans league khitaabon ke saath, shahar dvaara sarvaadhik khitaabein jeetne ke maamale mein Milan, Madrid ke baraabar star par hai. donon teemon UEFA 5-star darja paane vaale, 85,700 logon ke baithane ki vyavastha sahit jiyusep meeja stadium mein khelati hain, jise saamaanyat: sain siro ke naam se jaana jaata hai. sain siro, seeri A ke sabse bade stediymon mein se ek hai. sirf intar hi aisi team hai jisne apna poora itihaas seeri A mein bitaaya hai, jabki Milan ne sheersh-sangharsh mein 2 satron ke alaava sabhi yaheen bitaaya hai.

kai prasiddh itaalavi futabaul khilaadi Milan ya uske praanton mein janme the. kuchh prasiddh Milan mein janme khilaadiyon mein shaamil hain velentino majola, paaolo maaldini, jiusep miyaaja, getano saairiya, jiusep baragomi, vaaltar jeinga aur jiyovanni traipatoni.

yeh itaalavi seeri A football mein apne bhi futabaul sangathan, AC Milan ke liye vikhyaat hai, jismein vishv ke futabaul diggaj ronaaldino sahit kai khilaadi shaamil hain, jo braajeel ke liye 2010 vishv cup mein kheleinge.

maunja motarasport race track, itaalavi graan pre ka sthaan
  • prasiddh maunja faurmoola van sarkit shahar ke nikat, ek vyaapak park ke andar sthit hai. yeh duniya ki sabse puraani car resing sarkiton mein se ek hai. F1 daud ke liye vartamaan kshamata lagbhag 137,000 darshak hai, haalaanki 1950 ke dashak mein deerghaaom mein 250,000 darshak sama sakte the. pratiyogita ke pehle varsh se hi, sivaaya 1980 ke, usane lagbhag pratyek varsh ek F1 daud ka aayojan kiya hai.
  • olanpiya milaano (aramaani dvaara praayojit) ek safal itaalavi aur Europeeya baasketabaul team hai. yeh sabse mahatvapoorn aur safal itaalavi teemon mein se ek aur Europe ke sheersh teemon mein se bhi ek hai. olanpiya daichaforam maidaan mein (kshamata 14,000) khelati hai.
  • raainoj milaano ameriki futabaul club, Milan ka sabse puraana ameriki fulabaul club hai aur isne chaar itaalavi super baauls jeete hain. ve itaalavi football league ke paanch faaundeshan clubon mein se ek hain.
  • CUS milaano besabaul Milan mein sabse puraana besabaul club hai aur isne aath itaalavi skudeti jeete hain.
  • amatori ragbi milaano ne 18 raashtreeya pratiyogitaaen jeeti hain aur Italy ka sabse lokapriya aur mahatvapoorn ragbi team hai, Milan se refel bakomo itaalavi ragbi championship mein ekamaatr aise khilaadi hain, jinhein raashtreeya itaalavi championship mein varsh ke khilaadi ke taur par lagaataar teen baar naamaankit kiya gaya.
  • Milan se vibhinn barf hockey teemon ne kul milaakar 30 raashtreeya championship jeeta hai. vaaipar milaano ne pichhle 7 raashtreeya chainpiynashipon mein se 5, alpenaliga aur kai kopa itaaliya jeete hain aur Italy mein is khel ke agrani hain. niyamit satr ke dauraan ve agora stadium (4,500 kshamata) mein aur pleof ke dauraan foram mein khelte hain.
  • har saal, Milan 18 tennis tournament ke tahat baunafigliyo traufi ki mejbaani karta hai. yeh duniya ka sabse mahatvapoorn yuva tournament hai aur Milan tennis club mein khela jaata hai. central court mein 8000 ki kshamata hai. pichhle vijetaaon mein shaamil hain taachini, jan kodes, edariyaano panaata, koraado baaraajuti, moreno, Bjorn borg, smid, ivaan leindil, gaai fraget, jim kooriyr, goraan ivaanisevich, yevajeni kefelnikov aur gilrmo Korea.
  • Milan marathon November mein Milan mein aayojit vaarshik marathon daud hai.
  • shahar itaalavi baindi sangh ka ghar hai.[75]

vigyaan aur praudyogiki

1764 mein sthaapit aitihaasik brera khagoleeya vedhashaala.

Milan lambe samay se ek mahatvapoorn raashtreeya aur Europeeya vaigyaanik kendra raha hai. praarambhik audyogik itaalavi shaharon mein se ek ke roop mein, Milan mein aadhunik vigyaan 1800 dashak ke ant aur 1900 ke praarambh mein viksit hui, jab nagar mahaadveep mein brusels, London, peris ke saath tathaakathit "prayogashaala shaharon" aur anya pramukh aarthik aur audyogik keindron mein se ek bana.[76] paaviya (jahaan albart aainsteen ne apne adhyayan mein kuchh saal bitaae) ke padosi vaigyaanik sabhaaon se gambhir pratiyogita ke baad, Milan ne ek unnat takaneeki aur vaigyaanik kshetr ka vikaas shuroo kiya aur kai akaadamiyon aur sansthaaon ki sthaapana shuroo ki.[76] Milan "milaano, vigyaan shahar" (milaano, itaalavi mein Città delle Scienze) naamak ek dilchasp pariyojana ki mejabaani karega, jo sempiyon ki antarraashtreeya pradarshani mein aayojit ki jaaegi. vigyaan se sambandhit kaaryakram jo Milan mein sampann hue, unamein shahar ke faundajiyon stelaain mein 13 sitmbar 1997 ko aayojit vigyaan mele mein Europeeya sangh yuva vaigyaaniko ke liye pratiyogita shaamil hai.[77] sanbhavat: Milan mein sabse mahatvapoorn aur praacheen vedhashaala hai brera khagoleeya vedhashaala, jo 1764 mein jesuiton dvaara sthaapit kiya gaya aur 1773 mein ek kaanoon paarit hone ke baad se sarkaar dvaara chalaai jaati hai.

shiksha

paulitekniko di milaano ka mukhya bhavan
chitr:Bocconi-entrance-vel.jpg
baukoni vishvavidyaalaya ka velodrom.
Milan vishvavidyaalaya ka kendreeya bhavan, punarjaagaran kaal mein shahar ke aspataal ke roop mein nirmit
Catholic saikred heart vishvavidyaalaya ka aangan.
brera academy ki aantarik adaalat

Milan ki uchch shiksha pranaali mein shaamil hai 39 vishvavidyaalaya kendra (44 sankaaya, prati varsh 174,000 nae chhaatr, jo poore itaalavi vishvavidyaalayi janasankhya ke 10% ke baraabar hai),[78] aur Italy mein vishvavidyaalaya ke snaatak aur snaatakottar chhaatron ki sarvaadhik sankhya hai (kramash: 34,000 aur 5,000 se adhik).[79]

shaikshik sansthaan aur vishvavidyaalaya

29 November 1863 ko sthaapit paulitekniko di milaano, Milan ka sabse praacheen vishvavidyaalaya hai. barso se iske sarvaadhik pratishthit profesaron mein shaamil hain ganitjnya fraansesko braayoshi (iske pratham nideshak), luigi kremona aur jiyuliyo naata (1963 mein rasaayan shaastr mein Nobel puraskaar). paulitekniko di milaano aajkal 16 vibhaagon mein aayojit kiya jaata hai aur iske network mein 9 engineering, vaastukala aur audyogik dijaain school hain, jo ek keindreeya prashaasan aur prabandhan ke saath lombaardi kshetr mein 7 kaimpason mein vistrut hain. 9 school shiksha ko samarpit hain, jabki 16 vibhaag anusandhaan ko samarpit hain. sabhi kaimpason mein bharti vidyaarthiyon ki sankhya lagbhag 40,000 hai, jisse paulitekniko di milaano, Italy mein sabse bada takaneeki vishvavidyaalaya banta hai.[80]

30 September 1923 ko Milan vishvavidyaalaya ki sthaapana ki gayi aur yeh ek saarvajanik shikshan aur anusandhaan vishvavidyaalaya hai, jismein 9 sankaaya, 58 vibhaag, 48 sansthaan aur 2,500 profesaron se yukt shikshan staaf hai. vaigyaanik utpaadakata ke liye Italy aur Europe ka ek agrani sansthaan, Milan vishvavidyaalaya, kshetr ka sabse bada vishvavidyaalaya hai, jismein lagbhag 65,000 panjeekrut chhaatr hain; yeh saamaajik-aarthik sandarbh mein ek mahatvapoorn sansaadhan hai, jiska vah ek hissa hai.[81]

10 June 1998 ko Milan baaikoka vishvavidyaalaya ki sthaapana ki gayi, taaki uttari Italy ke chhaatron ki seva ki ja sake aur Milan ke aitihaasik vishvavidyaalaya se kuchh dabaav ko kam kare, jahaan adhik bheed jamati ja rahi thi. yeh Milan ke uttari hisse mein baaikoka naamak kshetr mein sthit hai, jo ispaat prasanskaran, rasaayan nirmaan aur vidyut yaantriki sambandhi kai bade itaalavi kaarkhaanon ke saath uske pichhle audyogik gatividhiyon ka kendra raha hai. vigyaan sankaaya ke gair paaramparik digriyon mein, B.Sc.se Ph.D. paaramparik bhautik shaastr, ganit, jeev vigyaan, rasaayan shaastr, ganana aur bhoo vigyaan ke kshetr mein saamagri vigyaan, jaiv praudyogiki aur paryaavaran vigyaan jod diye gaye hain. sanprati poore vishvavidyaalaya mein 30,000 se zyaada chhaatr hain.[82]

1902 mein sthaapit, luigi bokoni vaanijyik vishvavidyaalaya ko Wall street journal international ranking dvaara vishv ke sheersh 20 sarvashreshth bijnes school mein sthaan diya gaya hai, visheshakar uske M.B.A. program ke kaaran, jise 2007 mein pramukh bahuraashtreeya companiyon dvaara snaatak bharti vareeyata ke maamale mein vishv ke 17vein sthaan par rakha gaya.[83] forbs ne vishisht shreni vailyoo faur mani mein bokoni ko duniya bhar mein pehle number par rakha hai.[84] May 2008 mein, bokoni ne faaineinshiyl times kaaryapaalak shiksha ranking mein kai paaramparik roop se sheersh vishv vyaapaar schoolon ko paar kiya aur Europe mein 5vein tatha duniya mein 15vein sthaan par pahuncha.[85]

faadar agastino jemeli dvaara 1921 mein sthaapit Catholic yunivrsiti of sekred heart, sanprati vishv bhar mein sabse bada Catholic vishvavidyaalaya hai, jismein lagbhag 42,000 chhaatr panjeekrut hain.[86]

1968 mein sthaapit the yunivrsiti of laingvejas end kamyunikeshans of Milan upabhokta aur sevaaon ke anusandhaan, vyaapaar sanchaar aur ICT, paryatan, faishan, saanskrutik viraasat aur usaka shoshan, vyaapaar, arthashaastr, vipnan aur vitran ke liye videshi bhaashaaon mein vishisht hai. Milan aur feltare ke do kaimpason mein lagbhag 10,000 chhaatron ko daakhila diya gaya hai.[87]

seint refel yunivrsiti moolat: seint refel aspataal ke anusandhaan aspataal sanrachana ke ansh ke roop mein paida hua tha, jahaan chhaatr kai shodh ke kshetr mein buniyaadi anusandhaan prayogashaalaaon mein bhaag lete hain, jinmein shaamil hain tantrika vigyaan, nyoorosarjari, daayabetauloji, aanvik jeev-vigyaan aur anya vishyon ke alaava eds ki padhaai. isaneh tab se vistaar kiya hai aur sanjnyaaanaatmak vigyaan aur darshan sambandhi anusandhaan kshetr shaamil ho gaye hain.[88]

1996 mein sthaapit tethees anusandhaan sansthaan, siteshiyn anusandhaan mein visheshata sahit ek niji laabh-nirpeksh sangathan hai. tethees ne bhoomadhya siteshiynon par sabse bade detaaset mein se ek aur 300 se jyaada vaigyaanik yogadaan ko janit kiya hai. tethees 200,000 se zyaada siteshiyn chitron sahit fotograafik puraalekhon ka maalik hai, jisse saat bhoomadhya prajaatiyon mein se 1,300 se adhik vishisht pehchaan sambhav ho sake hain. is visheshajnyaata ne tethees ko vigat EC dvaara vittaposhit pariyojana "yooroflooks" ke kshetreeya sanyojak ki bhoomika saunpi hai.[89]

brera ki lalit kala academy duniya ke agrani shaikshanik sansthaanon mein se ek maani jaati hai, yeh ek saarvajanik shaikshanik sansthaan hai, jo rachanaatmak kala (chitrakala, moortikla, foto, video aadi: aur saanskrutik aitihaasik vishyon par shikshan aur anusandhaan ke liye samarpit hai. yeh Italy mein antarraashtreeyakaran ki oonchi dar sahit shaikshik sansthaan hai, jahaan 3,500 chhaatr hain, jinmein 49 deshon ke 850 videshi chhaatr hain. varsh 2005 mein academy ke adhyaapan ko yoonesko dvaara "A5" ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya gaya.

1980 mein sthaapit Milan ki nai lalit kala academy ek niji academy hai jahaan snaatak aur snaatakottar kala upaadhi, shaikshanik snaatakottar kaaryakram, diploma kaaryakram aur semestar baahya kaaryakram angreji mein aayojit kiye jaate hain aur drushya kala, graafik design, design, faishan, media design aur theatre design ke kshetr mein ameriki vishvavidyaalaya pranaali dvaara maanyata praapt hai. is samay academy mein samagr Italy aur 40 vibhinn deshon se aane vaale 1,000 se adhik chhaatr padh rahe hain.[90]

Europeeya design sansthaan ek niji vishvavidyaalaya hai, jiski vishishtata hai faishan, audyogik aur inteeriyr dijaain shravya/drushya dijaain, jismein fotograafi, vigyaapan aur vipnan tatha vyaapaar sanchaar bhi shaamil hain. 1966 mein sthaapit school mein aaj 8,000 chhaatron ko daakhila diya jaata hai.

maaraanagoni sansthaan, ek faishan sansthaan hai jiske kaimpas Milan, London aur peris mein hain. 1935 mein sthaapit, yeh faishan design aur udyogon ke liye atyadhik kushal peshevar taiyaar karta hai.

Milan kansarvetari sangeet mahaavidyaalaya hai, jise 1807 ke ek shaahi farmaan dvaara sthaapit kiya gaya tha, jab shahar nepoliyn ke Italy saamraajya ki rajdhani thi. iska praarambh agale varsh sainta Maria dela paishan ke borok church ke vihaar parisar mein hua. aarambh mein ismein kul 18 purush aur mahila aavaaseeya chhaatr the. 1,700 se bhi adhik chhaatron, 240 shikshakon aur 20 vishyon sahit yeh Italy mein sangeet ka sabse bada vishvavidyaalaya hai.[91]

saanskrutik sansthaan, kala deergha aur sangrahaalaya

Milan shahar mein kai saanskrutik sansthaaen, sangrahaalaya aur kala deerghaaen hain, jinmein se kuchh antarraashtreeya star par bahut mahatvapoorn hain.[92]

poldi pejoli sangrahaalaya.

bagaati vailasechi sangrahaalaya mauntenaapoleen jile mein sthit laabh-nirpeksh aitihaasik gruh sangrahaalaya hai. itaalavi punarjaagaran kala aur saamant baageti vailasechi dvaara sangrahit sajaavati kala vastuen unke mein usi tarah pradarshit hain, jaisa ve chaahate the. isliye, darshanaarthi na keval kalaatmak vastuon ko dekh sakte hain, balki ghar mein 19veen sadi ke kuleen milaaneej ruchi ka praamaanik parivesh aur vyavastha bhi dekh sakte hain. inmein chitrakala ke namoone shaamil hain, jaise kraaist in mejesti, varjin, kraaist child end seints, jiyovanni peitro rijoli urf jiyaampetrino 1540 dashak (liyonaardo da vinsi se prerit chitrakaar).

pinketeka di brera Milan ke sabse mahatvapoorn kala deerghaaon mein se ek hai. brera academy mein jagah saajha karte hue, academy ke saanskrutik kaaryakram ki apavruddhi ke taur par, yahaan pramukh itaalavi peinting ke sangrah maujood hain. yahaan piyero dela frainseska dvaara chitrit brera maidona jaisi utkrusht krutiyaan shaamil hain.

praakrutik itihaas ka Milan naagrik sangrahaalaya.

kaiselo sforjesko Milan ka mahal hai aur ab kai kala sangrah aur pradarshaniyon ka aayojan karta hai. pinaakoteka Dale kaiselo sforjesko, vartamaan suvikhyaat naagrik sangrahaalayon mein se hai, jahaan ke kala sangrahon mein Michael Angelo ki antim pratima, ronadaanini piyeta, endri maintegna ki trivlajiyo maidona tatha liyonaardo da vinsi ki kodeks traaivalajiyaanas paandulip. kaiselo parisar mein praacheen kala sangrahaalaya, furniture sangrahaalaya, sangeet vaadyayantron ka sangrahaalaya aur anuprayukt kala sangrah, puraatatv sangrahaalaya ke misr aur praagaitihaasik anubhaag aur ke sangrahaalaya ke sangrahaalaya puraatatv sangrahaalaya aur achili bartareli print sangrah bhi shaamil hain.

myoosiyo siviko di storiya naichurel di milaane (Milan ka praakrutik itihaas sangrahaalaya) 1838 mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha, jab jiysep de kristoforis (1803-1837) ne shahar ko apna sangrah daan mein diya. jiyorjiyo jan (1791-1866) jan uske pratham nirdeshak the.

myoosiyo dela saainja "liyonaardo da vinsi" Milan mein vigyaan aur praudyogiki se sambandhit raashtreeya sangrahaalaya hai aur yeh itaalavi chitrakaar aur vaigyaanik liyonaardo da vinchi ko samarpit hai.

myoosiyo poldi pejoli shahar ka ek aur sabse mahatvapoorn tatha pratishthit sangrahaalaya hai. sangrahaalaya, 19veen sadi mein kaunadotiyero jiyaan jiyaakomo traaivalajiyo ke parivaar se jude jiyaan jiyaakomo poldi pejoli tatha unki maata roja traaivalajiyo ke niji sangrah ke roop mein ubhara aur ismein vishesh roop se uttar itaalavi aur (Italy ke liye) Netherland/flemish kalaakaaron ka vyaapak sangrah hai.

pinaakoteka di brera.

myoosiyo tiyetrel ala skaala Milan mein ek naatakeeya sangrahaalaya aur pustakaalaya hai, jo tiyetro ala skaala se juda hai. yadyapi iska dhyaan opera aur opera ghar ke itihaas par vishesh roop se keindrit hai, tathaapi iska daayara saamaanya itaalavi naatakeeya itihaas tak faila hua hai aur pradarshan shaamil hain, udaaharan ke liye, kaumediya Dale'aarte aur prasiddh manch abhinetri iliyonaara dyoos sambandhi.

risaurjeemento sangrahaalaya (myoosiyo Dale risaurjeemento) Milan mein itaalavi ekeekaran ke itihaas se sambandhit sangrahaalaya hai, jismein 1796 se (nepoliyn ke pratham itaalavi abhiyaan) aur 1870 (rom ka Italy saamraajya mein vilay) aur usamein Milan ki bhoomika (vishesh roop se Milan ke paanch din) shaamil hai. yeh 18veen sadi ke palaajo morijiya mein sthit hai. iske sangrah mein shaamil hain baaldaasare veraaji dvaara paanch dinon ka prakaran aur fraansesko haej dvaara [[ostriya ke samraat fardineind pratham ka roopachitr|ostriya ke samraat fardineind pratham ka roopachitr ]].

la traaenel di milaano ek design sangrahaalaya aur aayojan sthal hai jo pailes of Arts bhavan ke andar, paarko sempion, kaiselo sforjesko se sate park maidaan ka hissa hai. yeh samakaaleen itaalavi design, shahari niyojan, sthaapatya kala, sangeet aur media kala, kala aur udyog ke beech sambandhon par prakaash daalne waali pradarshaniyon aur kaaryakramon ko aayojit karta hai.

yaataayaat

milaano seintrel train station ka mukhya pravesh dwaar

bologna ke baad Milan Italy ka doosra railway kendra hai aur Milan ke paanch pramukh stationon ke beech Milan central station, Italy ka sabse vyast station hai. Milan ka pratham nirmit relarod, Milan end maunja rel road 17 August 1840 ko seva ke liye khola gaya.

13 December 2009 se do uchch gati rel laainein, Milan ko ek disha mein bologna, flaureins, rom, nepals aur selarno se jodti hain aur doosari disha mein torino se.

ajeinda traansporti milaaneji (ATM), teen mahaanagareeya railway laainein aur traam, trauli bas aur bas laainon se mil kar bane saarvajanik parivhan network ka prabandhan sanbhaalate hue, mahaanagareeya kshetr ke bheetar sanchaalit hoti hai. ATM traimave bede mein shaamil hain mool roop se 1928 mein bani kai Peter vit kaarein, jo abhi bhi kaam kar rahi hain. kul mila kar network, 86 nagarapaalikaaon tak pahunchate hue lagbhag 1,400 ki॰mee॰ aavrut karta hai. saarvajanik parivhan ke alaava ATM, sostaamilaano parking card system ka upayog karte hue, aitihaasik keindron aur vaanijyik anchalon mein, antarbadal parking samooh aur sadkon par parking sthalon ka prabandhan karta hai.

Milan mein Milan metro naamak pranaali mein teen bhoomigat rel laainein hain, jiska network aakaar 80 ki॰mee॰ se bhi zyaada vistrut hai. ismein teen laainein shaamil hain; red line, jo uttarapoorv se pashchim ki disha mein, green line, jo uttarapoorv aur dakshinpashchimi disha mein aur yallo line jo uttar se dakshin disha mein chalti hain.

Milan metro network ka naksha. blue line upanagareeya railway ke paasaante shahari track ka pratinidhitv karte hain.
Milan ke traam paarakon mein se ek, piyaaja fauntaana.

das upanagareeya laainon se bani upanagareeya rel seva laainein, Milan sankul ko mahaanagareeya kshetr se jodte hain. 2008 mein adhik laainein shuroo honi theen, lekin yatha January 2009, koi bhi poori naheen hui hai. doosari or, kshetreeya railway seva, Milan ko shesh lombaardi aur raashtreeya rel pranaali se jodti hai. shahari traam network mein lagbhag 160 kilometer (99 meal) track aur 17 laainein shaamil hain.[93] bas laainein 1,070 ki॰mee॰ aavrut karti hain.

Milan mein niji companiyon dvaara sanchaalit aur city of Milan (kamyoone di milaano) dvaara laaiseinsakrut taxi seva bhi hai. sabhi taiksiyaan ek hi rang ki, safed hain. keematein, shurooaat mein ek nishchit kiraae par aur gujre samay aur tay doori ke anusaar atirikt kiraae par aadhaarit hai. vartamaan taxi draaivaron ki pairavi dvaara license ki sankhya kam hain. vyastatam ghanton mein ya barasaat ke dinon mein taxi dhoondhna mushkil ho sakta hai aur aksar hone vaale, saarvajanik parivhan hadtaalon ke dauraan naamumkin.

Milan shahar mein teen antarraashtreeya havaai adde kaaryarat hain. Italy ka doosra sabse bada havaai adda, maalapensa antarraashtreeya havaai adda, keindreeya Milan se lagbhag 50 ki॰mee॰ ki doori par hai aur "maalapensa express " rel seva ke saath shahar se juda hai. isne 2007 mein 23.8 lakh yaatriyon ko sambhaala. shahar ki seema ke nikat sthit laainet havaai adda, mukhyat: ghareloo aur chhoti antarraashtreeya udaanon ke liye istemaal hota hai, jahaan 2007 mein 9 lakh se zyaada yaatriyon ne safr kiya. bargaamo shahar ke sameep sthit oriyo al seriyo havaai adda, misaan ki kam laagat waali yaataayaat seva hai (2007 mein kreeb 6 lakh yaatri).

antarraashtreeya sambandh

inhein bhi dekhein: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy

judvaan nagar - yugal shaharein

Milan inke saath judavaan hain:[94]

  • saaaincha:desh aaainkade PER
aarakvipa, peroo

(1969 se) [94][96]

  • saaaincha:desh aaainkade MEX gaaudalajaara, Mexico
sahayog, bhaageedaari aur nagar dosti ke anya roop

mein belagred

yeh bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/i' not found.

  • lombaardi
  • Milan ke mahaapauron ki soochi
  • Milan ke shaasakon ki soochi
  • Milan mahaanagareeya kshetr
  • Milan ke praant

sandarbh

granth soochi

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not

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  101. "Partner Cities of Lyon and Greater Lyon". © 2008 Mairie de Lyon. http://www.lyon.fr/vdl/sections/en/villes_partenaires/villes_partenaires_2/?aIndex=1. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-29.
  102. "City of Melbourne — International relations — Sister cities". City of Melbourne. http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/info.cfm?top=161&pg=2979. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-07.
  103. "Saint Petersburg in figures - International and Interregional Ties". Saint Petersburg City Government. http://eng.gov.spb.ru/figures/ities. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-23.
  104. a aa "Sãao Paulo - Sister Cities Program". © 2005-2008 Fiscolegis - Todos os direitos reservados Editora de publicaçaõaes periodicas - LTDA / © 2008 City of Sãao Paulo. http://www.netlegis.com.br/indexRJ.jsp?arquivo=/detalhesNoticia.jsp&cod=41796. abhigman tithi: 2008-12-09. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "S.C3.A3o_Paulo" defined multiple times with different content
  105. International Relations - Sãao Paulo City Hall - Official Sister Cities
  106. "Tel Aviv sister cities" (Hebrew mein). Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality. http://www.tel-aviv.gov.il/Hebrew/Cityhall/TwinCities/Index.asp. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-14.

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