mevaad

Rajasthan ke antargat mevaad ki sthiti

mevaad Rajasthan ke dakshin-madhya mein ek riyaasat thi. ise 'Udaipur raajya' ke naam se bhi jaana jaata tha. ismein aadhunik Bhaarat ke Udaipur, bheelavaada, raajasamand, tatha chittaudagadh jile the. saikadon saalon tak yahaaain raapapooton ka shaasan raha aur is par gahalaut tatha shishodiya raajaaon ne 1200 saal tak raaj kiya. baad mein yeh angrejon dvaara shaasit raaj bana.

1550 ke aaspaas mevaad ki rajdhani thi chittaud. raana prataap Singh yaheen ka raaja tha. Akbar ki Bhaarat vijay mein keval mevaad ka raana prataap baadhak bana raha. Akbar ne san 1576 se 1586 tak poori shakti ke saath mevaad par kai aakraman kiye, par usaka raana prataap ko adheen karne ka manorath siddh naheen hua swayam Akbar, prataap ki desh-bhakti aur dileri se itna prabhaavit hua ki prataap ke marne par usaki aaainkhon mein aansoo bhar aaye. usane sveekaar kiya ki vijay nishchaya hi raana ki hui. yeh ek aitihaasik satya hai ki desh ke svatantrata sangraam mein prataap jaise mahaan deshapremiyon ke jeevan se hi prerana praapt kar anek deshbhakt hainsate-hainsate balivedi par chadh gaye. mahaaraana prataap ki mrutyu par uske uttaraadhikaari amar Singh ne mugal samraat jahaangeer se sandhi kar li. usane apne paatavi putr ko mugal darbaar mein bhejana sveekaar kar liya. is prakaar 100 varsh baad mevaad ki svatantrata ka bhi ant hua.[1]

anukram

bhaugolik sthiti

mevaad ka uttari bhaag samatal hai ! banaas va usaki sahaayak nadiyon ki samatal bhoomi hai !chambal bhi mevaad se hokar gujrati hai !mevaad ke dakshini bhaag mein araavali parvatamaala hai !jo ki banaas va usaki sahaayak nadiyon ko saabaramati va maahi se alag karti hai ! jo ki Gujarat seema mein hai !araavali uttarapashchim kshetr mein hai! is kaaran yahaaain uchch gunavatta patthar ke bhandaar hai ! jiska prayog log gadh nirmaan mein karna pasand karte hai ! .mevaad kshetr ushnakatibandheeya kshetr mein aata hai ! varsha ka star 660 mam/varsh, uttar poorv mein adhiktaya !. 90% varsha June se sitmbar ke beech padti hai !dakshin pashchim monsoon ke kaaran !

raajadhaaniyaaain va prashaasanik kendra

mevaad kshetr ki parivrtit seemaaon ke anurup kshetr ki raajadhaaniyaaain bhi samayaanusaar badalti rahi thi. itihaas prasiddh durg chittaud ke uttar mein, 1.5 meal door sthit "nagari' sthaan bhibi- janapad ki rajdhani tha, jise tatkaaleen samay mein manjimika ke naam se jaana jaata tha. janapad ke nasht hone ke pashchaat 7 veen shataabdi tak praamaanik vivranon ke abhaav mein is pradesh ki raajaneetik avastha ka vivran gyaat naheen hota hai, kintu bappa raaval dvaara shaasan adhikrut karne ke samay se 13 veen shataabdi ke praarambhik dashak tak ekaling, delavaada, naagadraah, cheekha tatha aghaatapur (aayad) mevaad raajya ki raajadhaaniyaaain va prashaasanik kendra rah chuke the.

raaval jaitasinh (1213 - 1250 E.) ke samay yahaaain ki rajdhani naagadrah (naagada) thi, jo sultaan ilnutamish ke aakraman ke kaaran nasht ho gayi. tab raaval ne aghaatapur ko naveen rajdhani ke rup mein viksit kiya. uske putr raaval tejasinh (1250 - 1273 E.) ne saamarik mahatva ko dekhte hue chittaud ko apni rajdhani banaaya. sultaan alaauddeen ke chittaud aakraman ke samay mevaad ki rajdhani chittaud hi thi. 14 - 15 veen sadi tak chittaud va kunbhalagadh mevaad ki rajdhani rahe hain. raana kunbha (1433 - 1468) ne kunbhalagadh tatha raana saanga (1509 - 1528 E.) ne chittaud ko apni rajdhani banaaya. raana prataap (1572 -1597 E.) tatha uske putr raana amarasinh pratham (1597 - 1620 E.) ne mevaad mugal sangharsh kaal mein

gaangunda va chaavand naamak sthaanon ko sangharsh kaaleen raajadhaaniyaaain banaayi. raana udayasinh (1540 - 1572 E.) ne peechholi naamak gaaainv ko apni rajdhani banaaya. peechholi gaaainv hi 17 veen shataabdi ke poorvaarddh mein Udaipur nagar ke naam se prasiddh ho gaya. raana karnasinh (1620 - 1628 E.) ke baad se Udaipur nagar hi mevaad ki sthaayi rajdhani raha, jabatak raana bhoopaalasinh dvaara 18 April 1948 E. mein iska vilay naheen kar diya gaya.

vaasiyon ka dainik jeevan

gram- bastiyon ka dainik jeevan praat: 3 baje se praarambh ho jaata tha. dainik nitya"- karm se nivrut hone ke baad sriyaaain aata peesane baith jaati thi. praay: pratidin dainik upabhog ke hisaab se ek- do sen anaaj peesa jaata tha. iske baad ve kuaine se paani laane ka kaam karti thi. doosari taraf krushak log usha- bela mein hi hal, bail va anya maveshiyon ko lekar khet chal dete the. din bhar kaam karne ke baad saayankaal 5-6 baje ghar aate the. sriyaaain praat: kaaleen gruh- kaarya se nivrutt hokar purushon ka haath baintaane ke liye khet se ghar pahuainch jaati thi. saath mein din ka bhojan bhi le jaati thi. jo praay: raab ya chhaachh, jab ya makki ki roti aur chatani- bhaaji hoti thi. vruddhaaeain ghar mein bachchon ki dekhbhaal karti theen. bachche bade hokar gochari ka kaarya karte the. saayankaal mein kisaan indhan tatha pashuon ke chaare ke saath ghar lautate the. saal mein kheti ke vyastatam dinon mein fasal ki paanat (sichaai) ke liye raat ko bhi khet mein rahana padta tha. usi tarah pake hue fasalon ki suraksha ke liye bhi kisaan kheton mein bani daagaliyon mein raat bitaate the. fasal kataai ke liye poora parivaar khet mein jut jaata tha.

vahi vyaavasaayik jaatiyaaain apna poora din karmashaalaaon mein bitaate the. vaheen ve din ka bhojan karte the. shaam mein lautakar bhojan ke baad log paarasparik baithak, khelakood, kisse kahaaniyon, bhajan- keerttan va graamya sthiti ki charcha ke maadhyam se aamod- pramod karte the. sardiyon mein log alaav ke chaaron taraf lambi baithakiyaaain karte the.

graamya- nagaron ka jeevan vaise to graamya- jeevan ke prabhaav se mukt naheen tha, lekin logon ke paas saadhan hone ki sthiti mein ve "bhagatanon' ka nrutya dekhne, mujare sunane, darabaari kriya- kalaapon mein sevakaai karne, bhajan- keerttan tatha darbaar- yaatraaon ki jaya- jaya karne mein vyast rahate the. dainik goth (mitr bhog), amal- paani, bhaang, gaanja, sharaab aadi ka vyasan kuleen varg ke dainik jeevan ka hissa tha.

mudra ka prachalan

Rajasthan ke anya raajyon ki tarah mevaad mein bhi sikke prachalan mein the, lekin aarthik jeevan mein saare len- den sikkon ke maadhyam se hi naheen kiye jaate the. do raajyon ke beech vaanijya vyaapaar mein ni:sandeh sikkon ka hi istemaal hota tha, lekin saath- saath kai sthitiyon mein vastu- vinimay se bhi kaam chala liya jaata tha. raajya karmachaariyon sevakon tatha daason ko vetan ke rup mein adhiktar krushi yogya bhoomi, kapde tatha anya vastueain di jaati thi. saath- saath naam maatr ki hi sankhya mein sikke diye jaate the. aantarik vyaapaar mein mudraaon ke saath- saath 19 veen shataabdi ke uttaraarddh tak kaudiyon ka bhi prachalan raha. kaudiyon se judi gananaaon mein ek hai-

  • 20 bhaag = 1 kaudi
  • 20 kaudi = aadha daam
  • 2 aadha daam = 1 rupaya

sar John maalkan ke anusaar

  • 4 kaudi = 1 ganda
  • 3 ganda = 1 damadi
  • 2 damadi = 1 chhadaam
  • 2 chhadaam = 1 rupaya (adhela)
  • 4 chhadaam = 1 rupaya = 96 kaudi

18 veen sadi ke poorv yahaaain mugal shaasako ke naam waali "sikka elachi' ka prachalan tha, lekin aurangajeb ke baad mugal saamraajya ka prabhaav kam ho jaane ke kaaran anya raajyon ki tarah mevaad mein bhi raajya ke sikke dhlane lage. 1774 E. mein Udaipur mein ek anya takasaal kholi gayi. isi prakaar bheelavaada ki takasaal 17 veen shataabdi ke poorv se hi sthaaneeya vaanijya- vyaapaar ke liye "bheelavaadi sikke' dhaalati thi. baad mein chittaudgadh, Udaipur tatha bheelavaada teenon sthaanon ke takasaalon par shaahaaalam (dviteeya) ka naam khuda hota tha. at: yeh "aalamashaahi' sikkon ke rup mein prasiddh hua. raana sangraamasinh dviteeya ke kaal se in sikkon ke sthaan par kam chaaaindi ke mevaadi sikke ka prachalan shuru ho gaya. ye sikke chittaudi aur udayapuri sikke kahe gaye. aalamashaahi sikke ki keemat adhik thi.

100 aalamashaahi sikke = 125 chittaudi sikke

udayapuri sikke ki keemat chittaudi se bhi kam thi. aantarik ashaanti, akaal aur maraatha atikraman ke kaaran raana arisinh ke kaal mein chaaaindi ka utpaadan kam ho gaya. aayaat ruk gaye. vaisi sthiti mein raajya- koshaagaar mein sangrahit chaaaindi se naye sikke dhaale gaye, jo araseeshaahi sikke ke naam se jaane gaye. inka moolya tha--

1 arasi shaahi sikka = 1 chittaudi sikka = 1 rupaya 4 aana 6 paisa.

raana bheem Singh ke kaal mein maraathe apni bakaaya raashiyon ka moolya- nirdhaaran saaleemashaahi sikkon ke aadhaar par karne lage the. inka moolya tha ---

saaleemashaahi 1 rupaya = chittaudi 1 rupaya 8 aana

aarthik kathinaai ke samaadhaan ke liye saaleemashaahi moolya ke baraabar moolya vaale sikke ka prachalan kiya gaya, jinhein "chaandodi- sikke' ke rup mein jaana jaata hai. uparokt sabhi sikke chaaaindi, taanba tatha anya dhaatuon ki nishchit maatra ko milaakar banaaye jaate the. anupaat mein chaaaindi ki maatra taanbe se bahut jyaada hoti thi.

in sikkon ke atirikt trishooliya, dheegala tatha bheelaadi tobe ke sikke bhi prachalit hue. 1805 -1870 ke beech saloombar jaageer dvaara "padmashaahi' dheegala sikka chalaaya gaya, vaheen bheendar jaageer mein mahaaraaja joraavarasinh ne "bheendariya' chalaaya. in sikkon ki maanyata jaageer len- den tak hi seemit thi. maraatha- atikraman kaal ke "Mehta' pradhaan ne "mehataashaahi' mudra chalaaya, jo badi seemit sankhya mein milte hain.

raana svarup Singh ne vaigyaanik sikka dhlavaane ka prayatn kiya. british sarkaar ki sveekruti ke baad naye rup mein svarupashaahi svarn va rajat mudraaeain dhaali jaane lagi. jinka vajan kramash: 116 gren va 168 gren tha. 169 gren shuddh sone ki mudra ka upayog raajya- kosh ki jama - pooainji ke rup mein tatha kai shubh- kaaryon ke rup mein hota tha. pun: raajya kosh mein jama moolya ki raashi ke baraabar chaaaindi ke sikke jaari kar diye jaate the. isi samay mein britishon ka anusaran karte hue aana, do aana va aath aana, jaise chhote sikke dhaale jaane lage, jisse hisaab- kitaab bahut hi suvidhaajanak ho gaya. rupaye- paison ko chaar bhaagon mein baaainta gaya paav (1/2), aadha (1/2), poon (1/3) tatha poora (1) saanketik arth mein inhein. .. ... tatha 1 likha jaata tha. poorn ikaai ke pashchaat ansh ikaai likhne ke liye naap mein s chinh ka tatha rupaye - paise mein o) chinh ka prayog hota tha.

british Bhaarat sarkaar ke sikkon ko bhi raajya mein vaidhaanik maanyata thi. in sikkon ko kaldaar kaha jaata tha. mevaadi sikkon se iske moolyaantar ko batta kaha jaata tha. chaandi ki maatra ka nirdhaaran isi batte ke aadhaar par hota tha. udayapuri 2.5 rupaya ko 2 rupaye kaldaar ke rup mein maana jaata tha. 1928 E. mein naveen sikkon ke prachalan ke baad tatkaaleen raana bhoopaalasinh ne raajya mein prachalit in praacheen sikkon ke prayog ko band karva diya.

is prakaar ham paate hain ki yahaaain ki aarthik vyavastha, vastu- vinimay ki parampara tatha jan- jeevan par graameen vaataavaran ke prabhaav ne mudra ki aavashyakta ko seemit rakha. vaise 19 veen sadi uttaraarddh mein sadak nirmaan, rel line nirmaan va raajakeeya bhavan nirmaan tatha raaj ka parimaapan mudra mein hone laga tha, fir bhi adhiktar- chukaara evam vasooli jeenson mein hi prachalit thi. dhaatuon se nirmit in mudraaon ke saath ek samasya yeh bhi thi ki sankatakaal mein in mudraaon ko hi galaakar shuddh dhaatu ko bechakar laabh kamaane ki koshish ki ja rahi thi. raajya mein mahaaraanaaon dvaara vaigyaanik sikke ke prachalan mein vishesh ruchi naheen rahane ke kaaran shaantikaal mein bhi raajya- koshaagaar samruddh naheen raha, doosari tarah bhoo- utpaadan dvaara raajya- bhandaar samruddh rahe.

sanchaar- vyavastha : baamani - daak

mevaad raajya mein aaj ki tarah susangathit sanchaar vyavastha naheen thi. jan- saadhaaran mein jaatiyon ke apne-apne naai, sevak, chaaran ya bhaat hi paarivaarik sandeshon ka aadaan- pradaan karte the. aisi sandesh- prakriya praay: maukhik hoti thi. raajya kaarya ke liye paidal (daudaayat), ooaint savaar, saandeevaar tatha ghudsavaar rakhe jaate the. ve raaj- kaaj se sambaddh soochana vaartaaon ko praay: maukhik rup se hi idhar- udhar pahuainchaate the. maukhik sandesh- prakriya ka kaaran sanbhavat: us samay ka sanshayaatmak raajaneetik vaataavaran tha. vyaapaarik patra maal vaahanon athva yaatriyon ke saath bheje jaate the.

19 veen sadi ke poorvaarddh tak isi rudhigt vyavastha ka prayog kiya gaya. is ke baad soochana sanchaar ke liye baggiyaaain kaam mein bhi jaane lagi. ab likhit soochana ka prachalan shuru ho gaya tha. kintu janasaadhaaran mein abhi bhi soochana- vinimay ki koi raajya aadhaarit vyavastha naheen thi. yeh vyavastha raana svarupasinh ke shaasan se aarambh hui, jo niyamit raajakeeya daak laane le jaane ka kaarya karti thi. yeh vyavastha "baamani- daak vyavastha' ke naam se jaani jaati thi.

baamani daak vyavastha sanbhavat: Bengal ke harakaara- daak vyavastha se prabhaavit thi. is vyavastha mein braamhan jaati ke logon ko vaarshik theke ke aadhaar par daak sambandhi uttaradaayitv pradaan kiya gaya tha. braahman varg ke prati logon ka aadar va daya maan tha. saath- hi- saath chooainki braahman ko maarana ya lootana paap- karm maana jaata tha, at: paise va patra jyaada surakshit rahate the. theke mein haani hone ki sthiti mein raajya dvaara aarthik- anudaan kar kshatipoorti kiya jaata tha. theka lene vaale vyakti ko daak- vyavastha banaaye rakhane ke liye harakaare rakhane padte the, jinka maasik vetan nishchit kiya jaata tha. 19 veen shataabdi ke uttaraarddh mein yeh prati maah 4 rupaya tha. is daak- vyavastha ko jan- saadhaaran ke upayog hetu raana shanbhoosinh ke shaasan- kaal mein khola gaya. jan- saadhaaran ko prati patra ki keemat ke aadhaar par ek nishchit laagat chukaani padti thi. mevaad raajya ke andar patron ke aadaan- pradaan ki laagat nishchit thi, kintu baahar bheji jaane waali daak par alag se prati kos ke hisaab se paisa liya jaata tha.

20 veen shataabdi ke ek dashak tak vaamani daak niyamit rup se pratyek paragane ke mukhyaalaya tak jaati thi. alag se koi daak- kaaryaalaya naheen tha. thekedaar ka ghar tatha harakaare swayam daak- ghar ka kaarya karte the. san 1865 E. mein aangl sarkaar ne daak- ghar sthaapit kiya. iske saath hi naseeraabaad, kheravaada, kotada va chhaavani par chhaavani ke chhaak- ghar khule. inka prayog british Bhaarat sarkaar, agenton evam raajya ke karmachaariyon ke samaachaaron ka aadaan- pradaan karna tha. railway ke vikaas ke baare mein jan- saadhaaran ke prayog ke liye pratyek railway- station par prashaasan ne ek- ek daak ghar tatha taar- ghar khol diya. 19 veen sadi ke ant tak jan- saadhaaran ki soochana niyamit tatha vyavasthit rup se aane- jaane lagi thi.

viksit udyog-dhandhe

mevaad raajya mein jan- jeevan mein jyaadaatar kuteer graamodyog ka prachalan tha. in udyogon ka vistaar aatmanirbhar aarthik- vyavastha ke anurup raajya ki maaaing tatha poorti tak seemit tha. jyaadaatar udyog- dhandhe jaati samaaj ki jaatiyon va vanshaanugat sthitiyon par aadhaarit the. jaatigt udyogon mein kaaryarat shilpiyon ke do star the -

  • k. graamya shilpi
  • kh. nagar shilpi

graamya shilpi krushi tatha graamya- jeevan ki aavashyakataaon ki poorti ke liye kaarya karte the. inka aarthik jeevan krushi- aashrit rahata tha. ve arddh- krushak ho sakte the. nagar shilpi kushal shilpi ki shreni mein aate the. unhein do shreniyon mein baaainta gaya hai -

  • nagar shilpi -- shramik shilpi
  • -- vyavasaayi shilpi

shramik shilpiyon mein bhavan- nirmaan karne vaale misri va anya kaareegar, kapadon ki silaai karne vaale mahidaaj, reja bunane vaale balaai, kapda rangane vaale rangarej, kaagaj banaane vaale kaagadi, sona- chaaaindi ke barak banaane vaale, kapado ki chhapaai karne vaale chheepa, bartan gadhne vaale kasaara ityaadi jaati ke log pramukh hai. sunaar, luhaar, suthaar, kumhaar, darji, jeenagar, sikleegar, antaar- gandhi, usta, patava, kalaal aadi jaatiyaaain vyavasaayi shilpiyon ke varg mein aate the.

mevaad raajya ke pramukh udyog nimn the -

1. vastr udyog

pratyek gaaainv mein charkhe dvaara soot kaatane tatha mote sooti kapde (reja) ki bunaai ka kaam kiya jaata tha. ek kahaavat ke anusaar -

moto khaanon, moto peranon ar chhoto rehanon

arthaat aadarshavaan namr vyakti mote anaaj (makki- dhaan aadi) khaate hai tatha reja pahanate hai.

mevaad raajya ke madhya evam poorvi dakshini bhaag mein kapaas ka utpaadan hone ke kaaran yeh kshetr rejaakaari ka pramukh kendra tha. muslim jaati ke julaahe baareek kapde ki bunaai ka kaam karte the, lekin in vasron ka prachalan maatr abhijaat va kuleen varg mein hi hone ke kaaran mote reja udyog jaisa prachalit naheen ho paaya. vasr- nirmaan, rangaai, chhapaai va kadhaai ka kaam muslim jaati ke rangarejon, chhipaaon tatha hindooon mein patava logon dvaara kiya jaata tha. chhapaai mein lakdi ke blaakon ka prayog hota tha, jiska nirmaan shilpi- suthaar karte the. gote- kinaari ke vyavasaaya par paarakh jaati ke braahmanon ka ekaadhikaar tha.

2. kaashth- udyog

mevaad raajya ki tihaai bhoomi vanaachhaadit thi. seesam, saagavaan, aam, babool va baaains ke vruksh bahutaayat mein the. lakadiyon ka prayog vishesh rup se krushi- upakaran, bhavan tatha baratan banaane mein hota tha. lakdi mein khudaai va nakkaashi ka kaam suthaar log karte the.

3. luhaari va charmakaari udyog

graamya luhaar, chamaar va gaadooliya- luhaar (ek ghumakkad vyavasaayi jaati) krushi ke liye lauh- upakaranon, jaise hal, kudaal, neeraai- gudaai karne ki khaap, chads aadi tatha ghareloo- saamaanon (chimta, dantuli, saankal, chaakoo aadi) banaane ka kaarya karti thi. nagaron mein yeh kaam sikleebar, jeenagar va mochi dvaara kiya jaata tha.

4. bartan - udyog

jan- saadhaaran ki sthaaneeya aavashyakataaon ki poorti ke liye mitti ke bartan banaaye jaate the. baans ki sulabhata ke kaaran baans ke barttanon ka bhi prachalan tha. baans ka kaarya gaanchhi tatha harijn jaati ke log karte the. ve tokariyaaain, chhaab, kundaya, tata aadi banaane ka kaarya karte the. taanba, peetal tatha kaansa ke mishrit barttanon ka nirmaan kaarya kasaara jaati ke log karte the. Udaipur mein peetal, taanba aadi ke saath- saath soniyon dvaara sone- chaaaindi ke baratan bhi banaane ke kaarobaar kiya jaata tha.

5. aabhooshan udyog

kalaatmak aabhooshan banaane tatha jadaai karne ka kaarya soni tatha jadiya jaati ke log karte the. ve talavaaron va kataariyon ki moothon par bhi jadaai va khudaai ka kaam karte the. meenaakaari ka kaam vishesh rup se naathadvaara mein hota tha.

6. anya udyog

uparokt udyogon ke alaava yahaaain moorti evam chitrakaari, choodi, itr, kaagaj va sharaab banaane ke udyog viksit the. chataara udyog ka vyaapak prachalan vibhinn thikaanon, haveliyaaain va lok- shilp ke rup mein sabhi gharon mein tha. vaise to kaagaj ka Gujarat se aayaat kiya jaata tha, lekit mevaad mein bhi ghaas ki guda, maans, kapadon ko sadaakar lep taiyaar kar mota kaagaj banaane ka prachalan tha. banaane vaale "kaagadi' kahalaate the. baarud sonagaron dvaara taiyaar kiye jaate the. kralaal jaati ke log mahuaa, keshav va gulaal se sharaab banaate the.

raajamahalon mein kai kaarkhaane kaam karte the. vahaaain shilpiyon ko shaasan dvaara begaar mein athva vetan- majadoori par kaam karna hota tha. yahaaain mukhyat: patthar - nakkaashi, moorti shilp, chitrakaari, vasr- silaai, aabhooshan- jadaai, doli, svarnakaari, aushadhi va naav aadi banaane ka kaam hota tha. kaarkhaane ke utpaadon ka prayog raajya ke mardaana mahal tatha janaana mahal mein rahane vaale log karte the.

mevaad raajya ke udyog- dhandhe
vastu ka naam sambaddh nirmaan - sthal

dupatta evam chheent ke vasr hammeeragadh

reja ki jaajam va pachhevada,

vasr-bandhaai, rangaai va chhapaai chittaud, akola, Udaipur

pagadiyaan, mothade, choondadiyaaain va lahariyon ki chhapaai va rangaai Udaipur

bahumoolya kapadon par sone chaandi ke taar tatha resham ke dhaagon dvaara kadhaai Udaipur

kapaas tatha oon otane ka kaarkhaana bheelavaada

lakdi ke kalaatmak khilaune va chudiyaaain Udaipur, bheelavaada, jahaajapur, shaahapur

paavada par paulish bheelavaada, jahaajapur, shaahapur

bhavan- nirmaan mein upayukt kalaatmak kaashth - nirmit vastueain saloombar, kurabad, bheendar

talavaar, khanjar- chhoori, kataari, bhaale dhaal, haathi, ghode tatha ooainton ki jeen ya kaathi Udaipur

mitti ke kalaatmak barttan kuainaariya, Udaipur tatha kapaasan

lauh- nirmit hamaamadasta va tagaariyaaain vigod

taaainba, peetal va kaansa aadi dhaatuon ke baratan bheelavaada, Udaipur

sone- chaaaindi ke baratan Udaipur

aabhooshan nirmaan va nageena- jadaai Udaipur

meenaakaari naathadvaara

haatheedaaaint, lakh va naariyl ki choodiyaaain Udaipur, bheelavaada

mombatti kothaariya

gulaabajal va gulaab ka itr khamanor

kanbal devagadh

hare gheeya patthar ki moortiyaaain riashabhadev

bheettichitr va kalamakaari udyog naathadvaara, Udaipur

mota kaagaj udyog ghusunda

baarud kevala, chittaud va pur

deshi saabun Udaipur, bheendar

vaanijya

vaanijya-vyavastha se vanik- samooh pratyaksh rup se juda tha. vyavasaaya ki drushti se vanikon ko teen shreniyon mein baaainta ja sakta hai -

  1. graamya vanik
  2. nagar vanik tatha
  3. bohara ya saahookaar

saahookaar tatha anya sampann dvij jaati ke vyakti graamya- vanik tatha nagar- vanik ke madhya ki kadi hote the. ve gaaainvon mein udhaar len- den tatha maal kraya- vikraya ka kaarya karne the tatha saath - hi saath nagar-vaanijya ki aavashyakataanusaar graamya- bhandaar se maal ko mandi mein thok se vikraya karte the. is prakaar dohara vyaapaari graameen praja ke liye bank tatha mandi maal ke mukhya sangrahakartta evam vitrak ka kaarya karte the. kuchh saude boharon ke bina, pratyaksh bhi kiye jaate the. maal sangrah praay: krushak athva gram- bhandaar mein hi rakha jaata tha tatha aavashyakataanusaar mangavaaya jaata tha. isse dalaali ke 4 se 6 ऽ tak ki bachat hoti thi.

achhi sthiti vaale krushak tatha jaageeradaar athva upaj seedhe mandiyon mein bechate the. raajya dvaara dalaalon ko dalaali- patte diye jaate the. dalaali ka vaarshik shulk aamdani ke anupaat mein liya jaata tha. shulkon ko sangrah karne ka vaarshik theka pratyek vaanijya- vyaapaar samooh ke pramukh aadhtiya ko pradaan kar diya jaata tha. bina raajyaajnyaa ka koi vyakti dalaali naheen kar sakta tha. raajya ki taraf se sahana aur dhaani mandi mein raajyahiton ka dhyaan rakhate the. patta paddhati dvaara raajya ke kshetreeya vaanijya- vyaapaar par pratyaksh niyantran rahata tha. vyaapaari manamaane bhaav naheen badha sakte the. maal ki kami ho jaane par maal ki aapoorti raajya dvaara raajya bhandaar se ki jaati thi ya fir baahar se raajya ki jamaanat par mangavaaya jaata tha.

vyaapaar ke pramukh kendra

gaaainvon mein vyaapaar ka kaam saaptaahik (saati) athva maasik (maasi) hatavaad (baajaar) laga kar kiya jaata tha. aise hatavaad pratyek 10- 12 gaaainvon ke madhya lagaaye jaate the. raajya ke aantarik vyaapaar ke pramukh kendra Udaipur, bheelavaada, raashami, samavaad, kapaasan, jahaajapur tatha chhoti saadadi the. antarraajyeeya vyaapaar ke liye mevaad ke vanik- gan samuh bana kar kraya- vikraya hetu durasth pradeshon mein jaate the. ye vyaapaarik yaatraaeain sardi ke baad praarambh ho jaati thi tatha varshaakaal se poorv samaapt ho jaati thi.

vyaapaarik yaataayaat- vyavastha

aalochyakaal mein vyaapaarik yaataayaat ka mukhya saadhan kachche va pathareele maarg rahe the. inheen maargon se banajaare bailon va bhainson dvaara, gaaduliya luhaar bailagaadiyon se, rebaari log ooainton dvaara, kumhaar tatha od log khachchar va gadhon par maal laane- le jaane ka kaam karte the. vaise sthaan jahaaain pashuon dvaara dh�aalaai sambhav naheen thi, maal aadmi ki peeth par laad kar laaya jaata tha. lambi doori par maal- dh�aalaai ka kaarya chaaran, banajaara tatha gaadooliya luhaar, jaise ladaakoo - bahaadur jaati ke log sampann karte the. chaaran jaati ko samaaj mein braahman - tulya sthaan praapt tha, at: inke kaafilon ka lootana paap maana jaata tha. vyaapaarik kaafile, jo bailon ke jhund par maal laad kar chalte the, baalad (taanda) kahalaate the. ek baalad mein ek se ek hajaar tak bail ho sakte the. ooainton ka kaafila ek din mein kareeb 22 meal ki doori tay karta tha, vaheen ghode se 50 meal tak ki yaatra ki ja sakti thi. bailagaadi, gadhe, khachchar aadi ek din mein 25- 30 meal ki doori tay kar lete the.

yaatra ke dauraan raatri ko maarg par sthit gaaainvon, dharmashaalaaon, dhaarmik sthalon ya chhaayaadaar vrukshon ke aas- paas vishraam kiya jaata tha, jahaaain paani ke liye kuaine baavadiyon ki vyavastha hoti thi. maarg sthit sabhi baavadiyon ke kinaare pashu ke peya hetu pyaaueain bani hoti thi.

18 veen shataabdi ke uttaraarddh mein yaatriyon va vyaapaariyon ko surakshaarth sambaddh jaageeradaaron ka rakhavaali evam bolaai naamak raahadari (maarg- shulk) dena padta tha. vaise to british sanrakshan kaal mein in shulkon ko samaapt kar diya gaya, fir bhi jaageeradaaron in adhikaaron ka anadhikrut prayog karte the. maraatha atikraman kaal mein maarg ka surakshit yaatra beema tatha prati bail ke hisaab se vyaapaarik maal beema dena padta tha. varsha ke dinon mein maarg avaruddh ho jaane ki sthiti mein keer naamak jaati ke log "utaraai' shulk lekar logon ko surakshit nadi paar karaati thi.

abhijaatya tatha sampann varg ke log paalakiyon va baggiyon par yaatra karte the.

chungi vyavastha

vyaapaarik maal ki aamad (aayaat) aur nikaas (niryaat) par vyaapaariyon ko daan, bisva evam maapa naamak shulk raajya ko dena padta tha. ek gaaainv se doosare gaaainv maal le jaane ke liye gram- panchaayaton ko ""maana' chukaana padta tha. daan va bisva ke adhikaar praay: raana ke paas hota tha, lekin 18 veen sadi mein vishisht sainya- yogyata pradarshit karne vaale kshatriyon ko bhi daan lene ke adhikaar pradaan kiye gaye the. in adhikaaron ka san 1818 E. ke baad keindreekaran karne ki vyavastha ki gayi, jo raana svarup Singh tak chali bhi. fir se theke ki saayar (chungi) vyavastha todkar sthaan- sthaan par raajya ke daani- chontare banaaye gaye.

rel ki suvidha aa jaane ke baad pratyek stationon par daani - ghar banaaye gaye. daani va harakaare niyukt kiye gaye. yahaaain se maal utaarane va maal chadhaane ki chungi li jaati thi. pehle chugi nagon ki ginti, anaaj ki tol va pashu ganana ke aadhaar par li jaati thi. baad mein 20 veen sadi ke poorvaarddh mein shulk liya jaane laga. aayaat shulk niryaat shulk se adhik liya jaata tha. poonyaarth dharmaarth vastuon, ladki ke vivaah va mrutyubhoj ki vastuon par chungi naheen li jaati thi.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain