meril linch

Bank of America Merrill Lynch
prakaar Subsidiary
udmog Finance and Insurance
sthaapana 1914 (as Charles E. Merrill & Co.)
sansthaapak Charles E. Merrill
Edmund C. Lynch
mukhyaalaya New York City, USA
kshetr Worldwide
pramukh vyakti Brian T. Moynihan
President & CEO[1]
utpaad Financial Services
Investment Banking
Investment management
karmachaari 60,000 (2008)
maatru company Bank of America
website ML.com

bank of America meril linch[2] bank of America ke nivesh banking aur dhan prabandhan prabhaag ka hain. 20,000 se jyaada dalaalon aur 2.2 triliyn parisampattiyon ke saath yeh duniya ka sabse bada brokarej hai.[3] 2009 se pehle meril linch end kan, ink. (Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc.) ke roop mein jaani jaane waali yeh farm saarvajanik svaamitv waali thi aur MER tikr prateek [[ke tahat nyooyaurkastauk exchange ke tahat kaarobaar karti thi. 2008 ke vitteeya sankat ke dauraan kathin paristhitiyon mein bank of America|ke tahat nyooyaurkastauk exchange ke tahat kaarobaar karti thi. 2008 ke vitteeya sankat ke dauraan kathin paristhitiyon mein bank of America]] dvaara ise adhigraheet kiya gaya, jiske baad bank of America ne naye adhigrahit farm ke saath apni vaishvik banking aur dhan prabandhan prabhaag ka vilay kar diya.

is lekh mein aitihaasik meril linch aur bank ki ek sahaayak company donon mein iske chal rahe kaaryon ka varnan hai. meril linch duniya bhar mein poonji baajaar sevaaen, nivesh banking aur salaahakaar sevaaen, sampatti prabandhan, aasti prabandhan, beema, banking aur sambandhit vitteeya sevaaen upalabdh karaati hai. meril linch ka mukhyaalaya New York shahar mein hai aur mainahattan ke for world financial center bhavan ke poore 34 talle iske svaamitv mein hain.

anukram

itihaas

company ki sthaapana 6 January 1914 ko hui, jab Charles E meril end ko ne New York nagar mein 7 vaal street mein apna vyavasaaya khola. kuchh maheene baad, meril ke dost edamand si linch unke saath hue aur 1915 mein company ka naam aadhikaarik taur par badal diya gaya. us samay farm ke naam mein meril aur linch ke beech ek alpaviraam joda gaya.[4] san 1916 mein, vinthrop H.smith farm mein shaamil ho gaye.

apne praarambhik itihaas mein meril linch, end ko ne kai safal nivesh kiye. 1921 mein company ne paath exchange khareedi, jo baad mein RKO pictures ban gayi. san 1926 mein is farm ne ek samay sabse mahatvapoorn vitteeya nivesh kiya aur sefave mein niyantran hit adhikaar khareede, 1930 ke dashak tak ek chhauti si kiraane ki dukaan ko desh ki teesari sabse badi kiraane ki dukaan shrrukhala mein badal diya. is nivesh ke baad company ne EA piyrs mein apni khudara dalaali sevaaon ka hastaantaran kar apne nivesh banking ki or dhyaan badhaaya.

1940 mein farm ka EA piyrs end ko aur kaiset end ko mein vilay kar diya gaya aur kuchh samay tak ise meril linch, EA piyrs, end kaiset ke roop mein jaana gaya.[5] Wall street mein 1941 mein ek vaarshik vitteeya report prakaashit karne waali yeh pehli company ban gayi. 1941 mein bhi, fenar aur been farm mein shaamil ho gaye aur naam meril linch, piyrs, fenar aur been ho gaya. 1952 mein edamand linch ki mrutyu ke baad company ne apna naam badal meril linch end ko kar liya aur yahi naam aadhikaarik taur shaamil hua. 31 December 1957 ko New York times ne is naam ko "sonoras beet of amerikaana" ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya aur kaha ki "16 saal tak [ise] lokapriya banaane ke baad meril linch, piyrs, fenar aur been ise badalne ja rahe hain -aur is tarah ve us vyakti ko sammaan de rahe hain, jo ek brokarej gharaane ko ameriki itihaas ka hissa banaane ke liye bade paimaane par jimmedaar raha" aur vah naam hai vinthrop H.smith ka, jo 1940 se company chala rahe the. is vilay ne company ko duniya ki sabse badi pratibhooti farm bana diya, jiske 98 se adhik shaharon mein kaaryaalaya hain aur 28 eksacheinjon mein sadasyata hai. 1 March 1958 ko farm ke vitteeya varsh ke aarambh par farm ka naam' meril linch, piyrs, fenar end smith' ho gaya aur company New York stock exchange ka ek bada board sadasya bani.[6]

meril linch apne brokarej network (2006 tak 15000+) ke bal par pramukhata se ubhara aur kabhi kabhi ise "thandaring hard" ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai,[7] jo seedhe apne dastakhat se pratibhootiyon ko rakhane ki anumati pradaan karti hai.[8] iske vipreet, kai sthaapit Wall street farmo jaise stenali maurgan apne hastaaksharit pratibhootiyon ke liye dalaalon ke svatantr samoohon par nirbhar hote hain.[9] 1970 ke aakhiri varsho tak yeh vaal street mein "Catholic" company ke roop mein jaani jaati thi.[10] yeh farm 1971 mein saarvajanik hui aur 1.8 kharab ameriki dollar se adhik graahak parisampattiyon ke saath bahuraashtreeya nigam ban gayi aur jo duniya ke 40 deshon mein sanchaalit ho rahi hai. 1978 mein, isne apni pratibhootiyon ke haameedaari vyaapaar ko tab ek majaboot aadhaar diya, jab isne ek chhote lekin pratishthit puraane tareeke vaale nivesh bank white veld end ko ka adhigrahan kiya. meril linch apni vaishvik niji graahak sevaaon aur apne majaboot bikri taakat ke liye jaani jaati thi.

farm ke risk management aur sabapraaim mortagej sankat se nipatne ke tareeke ko lekar hui aajochana ke baad 1 November 2007 ko meril linch ke CEO stenali O'neel ne company chhod di, jisse 2.24 arab ameriki dollar ka apratyaashit nuksaan to hua hi, logon mein charcha bhi hone lagi ki board dvaara bina adhikrut kiye hi iska vaachoviya banking Corporation mein sambhavat:vilay ho jaayega. 161 karod dollar ka stock vikalp aur sevaanivrutti laabh ke saath unhonne meril linch ko chhoda[11]. New York share baajaar ke CEO John then ne 1 December 2007 ko unki jagah CEO bane.

17 January 2008 ko meril linch ne sab-prime mortagej se jude 16.7 arab dollar ke right daaun aastiyon ke saath chauthi timaahi mein 9.83 arab dollar ke ghaate ki soochana di. 17 April 2008 ko meril linch ne 2008 ki pehli timaahi mein 1.97 arab dollar ki shuddh haani ki soochana di. [12]meril ne pasandeeda sheyaron ki bikri ke maadhyam se poonji jutaakar nuksaan poora karne ki koshish ki, haalaanki visheshagyon ka sujhaav hai ki is tarah ki rananeeti company ki kredit rating ke liye ek jokhim ho sakti hai, jisse company ke udhaar laagat mein vruddhi ho sakti hai.[13]

22 January 2009 ko John theen ne company ke CEO pad se isteefa ke baad yeh khulaasa kiya tha ki vah 2008 ke ant tak bank of America dvaara company ke adhigrahan ko an‍aatim roop dene ke theek pehle meril karmachaariyon ko chauthi timaahi ke bonas ke roop mein 3-4 arab ameriki dollar ka bhugataan karna chaahiye.[14] then ne kathit taur par bank of America ke vaartaakaaron se bonas bhugataan ka khulaasa naheen kiya tha. bank of America ne haal hi mein sahaayak company meril linch ke ghaate ko poora karne ke liye praathamik taur par ameriki trejari se atirikt 20 billion dollar ki aapaatkaaleen poonji pradaan karne ke liye kaha.[15] 22 January 2009 ko bank of America aur meril linch ke khilaaf sheyaradhaarakon dvaara daayar ek class action mukadame mein then ko sah prativaadi ke roop mein naamit kiya gaya tha. is mukadamein mein aarop lagaaya gaya ki bank of America ke CEO ken luis, meril poorv mukhya vitteeya adhikaari nelsan chaai, meril ke poorv mukhya lekha adhikaari Gary kaarlinaind aur then bank of America ke adhigrahan se pehle meril ke nuksaan ki bhayaavahata ke baare mein sheyaradhaarakon ko chetaavani dene mein asafal rahe.

upamukhya bandhak sankat

November 2007 mein meril linch ne ghoshana ki ki vah raashtreeya aavaasan sankat se jude 8.4 arab ameriki dollar ke ghaate ko kam se kam karegi aur E Stanley O'neel ko mukhya kaaryakaari adhikaari pad se hataayegi.[16] O'neel ne board ke poorv anumodan ke bina vilay ke liye vaachoviya bank se sampark kiya tha, lekin O'neel ki barkhaastagi ke baad vaarta samaapt ho gayi.[16] December 2007 mein company ki ghoshana ki ki vah poonji jutaane ke prayaas mein apna vaanijyik vitteeya vyaapaar general ilektrik ko bech degi aur Singapore sarkaar ke ek nivesh samooh temasek holdings ko apne bade share becheingi.[17] is saude se 6 arab dollar se adhik ki ugaahi hui.[17] July 2008 mein, meril linch ke naye CEO John then ne jaari bandhak sankat mein company ki chauthi timaahi mein 4.9 arab dollar ke ghaate, jise poora naheen kiya ja saka aur kharaab nivesh ki ghoshana ki[18] July 2007 se July 2008 ke beech ke ek saal mein meril linch ko 19.2 arab dollar ya 52 million dollar ka dainik ghaata hua.[18] is avadhi mein company ke share moolya mein bhi ullekhaneeya giraavat I.[18] do hafte baad, company ne bandhak se sambandhit nivesh ke prayaason ko kam karne ke liye chune hue sanchit (hej kosh aur pratibhootiyon ki bikri ki ghoshana ki.[19] temasek holdings ne in koshon ko khareedne par sahamati jataai aur company mein apna nivesh badhaakar 3.4 arab dollar kar liya.[20]

New York ke attorney general Andrew kyumo ne August 2008 mein bandhak samarthit pratibhootiyon par jokhim ki galat bayaani ke liye meril linch par mukadama karne ki dhamaki di.[21] ek hafte pehle, meril linch ne neelaami dar rin ke jariye 12 arab dollar vaapas khareedne ka prastaav diya tha aur kaha tha ki ve mukadama daayar karne se aashcharyachakit the.[21] teen din baad company ne niyuktiyon par rok laga di aur khulaasa kiya ki lagbhag 30arab dollar ka ghaata United Kingdom mein usaki sahaayak companiyon ko hua hai aur us desh mein unhein karon mein chhoot mili.[22] 22 August 2008 ko CEO John then ne ghoshana ki ki maisaachusets ke raajya sachiv se farm mein 100 arab dollar se bhi kam jama ke saath graahakon se sabhi neelaami dar pratibhootiyon ko vaapas khareedne ke liye samjhauta hua hai aur yeh October 2008 mein shuru hoga aur January 2009 tak iska vistaar hoga.[23] 5 September 2008 ko goldamain saich‍aas ne meril linch ke share ko "kankshin sel" (drudh vishvaas waali) kehkar ise kam karke aanka aur company ke aur ghaate ki chetaavani di.[24] sitmbar 2008 mein Bloomberg ki report mein kaha gaya ki sabapraaim bandhak sankat ke ek hisse ke roop mein samarthit pratibhootiyon ke roop mein marlin ne 51.8 arab dollar ganva diya hai.[24]

CDO vivaad

kai anya bankon ki tarah meril linch,2000 ke dashak ke aakhir mein bandhak aadhaarit kolaataralaaijd debt obleegeshan(CDO) baajaar mein gaharaai tak shaamil tha. kredit patrika mein chhape ek lekh ke mutaabik meril ka kadon baajaar ke neta ke roop mein ubharana 2003 mein shuroo hua, jab Christopher rikaardi kredit susi first Boston se meril mein CDO team ko le aaye.[25]2005 mein meril ne darviyetivs week patrika ke pichhle panne par vigyaapan diye jinmein is tathya ko bhunaane ki koshish ki gayi ki yeh vaishvik baajaar va nivesh samooh hai jo "2004 mein CDO ka #1 global andararaaitar tha. all heil :itler[26] bijnes week ne baad mein iska varnan kiya ki kaise baad mein 2006 aur 2007 ke beech meril 136 CDOs mein 93000000000 dollar ka 'leed andararaaitar' tha. 2007 ke ant tak, in CDO ke moolya gir rahe the, lekin meril kuchh hisson ka bhaar uthaaya, jisse company ko arabon dollar ka ghaata hua.[27]2008 ke madhya mein meril ne CDO ke samooh, jiski kabhi keemat 30.6 arab dollar aanki gayi thi, ko loan star fands ko 1.7 arab nakadi aur 5.1 arab dollar ke karj par bech diya.[28][29]

April 2009 mein baand beema company MBIA ne meril linch ke khilaaf dhokhaadhadi aur 5 anya ullanghanon ke liye mukadama daayar kiya. ye kredit difault svaip "beema" anubandhon se sambandhit the, jise meril ne apne 4 bandhak aadhaarit kolaataralaaijd debt obleegeshan par MBIA se khareede gaye the. ye the "ML-series" CDOs, broderik CDO 2, haairaaij ABS CDO1, broderik CDO3 aur nyooberi street CDO. MBIA ne daava (anya baaton ke alaava) kiya ki meril ne in CDOs ki gunavatta ke baare mein MBIA ko gumaraah kiya hai aur kaha ki yeh in vishesh CDOs (CDOs vargaakaar aur kyub aakaar ke) ki jatil prakruti ka prayog un pratibhootiyon ki samasyaaon ko chhipaane ke liye kiya gaya, jispar ye CDOs aadhaarit hain. haalaanki, 2010 mein nyaayamoorti barnaard fraaid ne ek ko chhodkar baaki sabhi aaropon ko khaarij kar diya, nyaayamoorti ne MBIA ke is daave ko maan liya ki meril ne AAA darja vaale CDO ki bikri ka vaada kar anubandh ka ullanghan kiya hai, jabki vaastav mein ve us shreni ke naheen the. jab CDOs ki keematein gir gain to MBIA ne meril par ghaate ki ek badi raashi ka jimma thonk diya. meril ne MBIA ke daave ko vivaadit kaha.[30][31][32]

2009 mein raabobaink ne 'naurama' naam ke ek CDO ko lekar meril ke khilaaf mukadama daayar kiya. raabobaink ne baad mein daava kiya ki yeh meril ke khilaaf yeh maamala goldamain saichs ke khilaaf SEC ke dhokhaadhadi ke aaropon aur uske ebaakas CDOs se bahut milta-julata hai. raabobaink ne aarop lagaaya ki maiganetar kaipitl naam ki ek sanchit nidhi ko apni parisampattiyon ko norama mein shaamil karne ke liye chuna gaya tha aur kathit taur par unke khilaaf baaji lagaai, lekin meril ne is tathya ke baare mein raabobaink ko naheen bataaya. iske bajaay, raabobaink ne aarop lagaaya ki meril ne yeh kaha tha ki NIR samooh in aastiyon ka chayan kar raha hai. jab CDO ki keematein gir gain, to raabobaink ne meril par dhan ki ek badi raashi ka bhaar daal diya. meril ne raabobaink ki daleelon ko khaarij kar diya aur ek pravakta ka daava tha ki "donon maamalon ka ek-doosare se sambandh naheen tha aur aaj ke daave na keval bebuniyaad hain, balki lagbhag ek saal pehle raabobaink ki or se daayar mukadame mein inhein shaamil naheen kiya gaya tha".[33][34][35][36]

bank of America ki bikri

koletaraaijd debt obleegeshan ke roop mein iske bade va asanchit mortagej portfolio ki keematon mein giraavat se aham nuksaan hua. meril linch ke rin daayitvon aur alpakaalik rin punarvitt karne ki kshamata ke prati trading bhaageedaaron avishvaas ki vajah se antat: iski bikri hui.[37][38] 14 sitmbar 2008 ko bank of America ne ghoshana ki ki vah share ke roop mein meril linch ko 38.25 arab dollar mein khareedne ke liye baatcheet kar raha hai.[39] vaal street journal ne usi din baad mein report di ki meril linch bank of America ko meril linch ke pratyek aam share ke badle bank of America ke 0.8595 sheyaron ya 50 arab ameriki dollar ya pratyok share ko 29 dollar ki dar se bik gaya hai, lekin iska yeh bhi matlab hua ki apne September 2007 ki keemat par 61% ki chhoot di gayi.[40] yeh keemat September 2007 ki band keemat ke 70.1% premium ya meril linch ke prati share 21 dollar ke book moolya ke 38% premium ka hissa thi,[41] lekin iska yeh bhi matlab hua ki apne September 2007 ki keemat par 61% ki chhoot mili.[42] bank of America ke CEO keneth luis bank dvaara li gayi Congress ki gavaahi, saath hi sadan ki paryavekshan samiti dvaara jaari aantarik imel se sanket milta hai ki bank of America ne dhamaki di thi ki agar bank of America meril linch ka adhigrahan naheen karta hai to prabandhan aur bank of America ke board ko hata diya jaayega, saath hi bank aur sangheeya niyaamakon ke beech sambandh ko nuksaan pahunchega.[43][44][45]

March 2009 mein yeh soochana mili thi ki 2008 mein meril linch ne AIG ke saath apni beema vyavastha ke jariye arabon dollar haasil kiye, inmein eg ko sankat se ubaarane ke liye karadaataaondvaara pradaan ki gayi 6.8 arab dollar ki raashi bhi shaamil thi.[46][47]

oreinj County niptaan

meril linch ne in aaropon ke niptaare ke liye oreinj County California ke saath ek vishaal 400 arab dollar ka setalameint kiya, nike mutaabik isne poorv County koshaadhyaksh Robert saaitron ko anupayukt aur jokhim bhara nivesh becha tha. saaitron ko 1.69 arab dollar ka ghaata hua, jisse majaboor hokar County ko December 1994 mein divaaliyepan ki arji faail ki. County ne ek darjan ya adhik pratibhootin companiyon, salaahakaaron aur ekaaunteinton par mukadama daayar kiya, lekin June 1998 mein meril ne daayitv ko sveekaar kiye bina vivaad ka niptaara kar liya. County kareeb 600 arab dollar vaapas haasil karne (meril se mili 400 arab dollar ki raashi sahit) mein saksham hua.

niyaamak kaarravaai

research vishleshak niptaan

2002 mein, meril linch par bhraamak anusandhaan ke prakaashan ke liye 100 arab dollar ka jurmaana kiya gaya. New York ke ataarni general aur anya raajakeeya niyaamak pratibhooti niyaam kon se hue samjhaute ke ek hisse ke roop mein meril linch anusandhaan sambandhi khulaase ko aur badhaane aur nivesh banking se anusandhaan ko alag karne par sahamat ho gaya.[48]

meril linch ke ek jaan-pahachaane vishleshak henari blodaget ne company ko ek E mel bheja, jismein unhonne sheyaron ka jo aakalan kiya, vah meril dvaara saarvajanik ki gayi jaankaari se mel naheen khaata tha. 2003 mein America ke pratibhooti aur exchange aayog dvaara asainik pratibhootiyon ki dhokhaadhadi ka aarop lagaaya. unhonne aaropon ko sveekaarane ya nakaarane ki jahamat uthaaye bina hi maamale ka niptaara kar liya aur baad mein aajeevan pratibhootin udyog se pratibandhit kar diya gaya. unhonne jurmaane ke roop mein 2 arab dollar aur naajaayaj tareeke se kamaai gayi raashi ke ek hisse ke roop mein 2 arab dollar chukaaye.

us samay ke CEO David komanaskaai ne kaha, "main...saarvajanik roop se apne graahakon, sheyaradhaarakon aur apne karmachaariyon se anusandhaan ke kshetr mein apne peshevar maanakon se kam ka anupaalan karne ke liye" kshama chaahata hoon.

enaraun / meril linch naaijeeriyaai bairaaj

2004 mein meril ke adhikaariyon ko doshi paaye jaane ke baad ek misaal enaraan ki jaanch ke silsile mein dikhi, jismein sarkaar ne bankon aur pratibhootiyon farmon adhikaariyon par aaparaadhik aarop tay kiye, jisse oorja ke kshetr ki is badi company ko apne lekhaankan mein ghotaala karne mein madad mili. ye maamale 1999 ke aaspaas enaraun ki ek aur naaijeeriyaai tat par bijli utpaadak kuchh baraajon ki bikri ke aaspaas ghoomate the. ye aarop enaraun entiti i‍aitti dvaara meril linch ko 1999 mein naaijeeriyaai oorja bairaajon ki bikri se sambandhit the aur yeh sirf dikhaava tha, jisse enaraun ko laabh ke bahaane avaidh roop se 12 arab dollar book karne suvidha hue, jabki vaastav mein na koi vaastavik bikri hui aur na koi vaastavik laabh hua.

meril ke chaar poorv sheersh adhikaariyon aur do poorv madhya star ke enaraun ke adhikaariyon ko shadyantr aur dhokhaadhadi ke aaropon ka saamana karna pada. meril ne apne saude mein katauti ki, bainkaron ko hata diya aur apne dhaanchaagat vitt lenaden ke baahari nireekshan ke liye sahamat hua. isne ameriki pratibhooti aur vinimay aayog dvaara lagaaye gaye dhokhaadhadi ke civil mukadame ko bhi galati sveekaar ya asveekaar kiye bina salata liya.[49]

bhedabhaav ka aarop

26 June 2007 ko America ke samaan rojagaar avsar aayog (EEOC) ne meril linch ke khilaaf laaya mukadama daayar kiya[50] aur aarop lagaaya ki farm ne Irani raashtreeyata aur islaam dharmaraavalanbi hone ke kaaran dau॰ maa‍aijd boramand ke naagrik adhikaaron ki raksha mein "laaparavaaheepoorn upeksha" barati gayi.[51] EEOC ke kaanoon soot mein kaha gaya hai ki company ke sadasyon dvaara jaanboojhkar aur dvesh ke saath ullanghan kiye gaye. 20 July 2007 ko meril linch dvaara ek anya Irani karmachaari se badasalooki ke maamale mein ek NASD madhyasthata panel ne meril linch ko ek poorv Irani karmachaari fareeborj jojaaji ko paarasi jaateeyata ke kaaran hataane ke kaaran 1600000 dollar bhugataan karne ka aadesh diya.[52][53][54] meril linch ki kaarravaaiyon ki vajah se national iraaniyn-American kaunsil aur the American -arab- anti dikramineshan committee donon ki or se pratikriyaaen aain.[55]

apne June 2008 ank mein daaivarsiti ink ne meril linch ko purush samalaingikon, mahila samalalaingikon, ubhayalin‍aagiyon aur chauthe ling vaalon (hinjadon) ko kaam par rakhane waali sheersh 10 companiyon mein aur kul milaakar vividhta ke liye America ke sheersh 7 companiyon mein shaamil kiya. 2007 mein daaivarsiti patrika ne meril linch ko viklaang logon ke liye America mein sabse achhi company number 2 kanvani ghoshit kiya.[56] 5 June 2008 ko meril linch ne pest Indian, midl istarn aur North America (WAMENA) ka vyaavasaayik network banaaya, taaki vividh prushthabhoomi ke karmachaariyon ke liye samarthan jutaaya ja sake aur unhein atirikt sansaadhan pradaan kiye ja sakein. May 2008 mein daaivarasiti ej patrika ne "daaivars college graduate" ke liye meril linch ko number 1 ameriki company ke roop mein naamit kiya aur is tarah isne isne Microsoft se pehla sthaan chheen liya.[57]

new jersey ki ek appeal adaalat ne 13 August 2008 ko ek samalaingik karmachaari dvaara daayar bhedabhaav vaale kaanoonoo ko lekar meril linch ke khilaaf ek faisala diya.[58]

baajaar samay niptaan

2002 mein meril linch ko fort li new jersey kaaryaalaya se baahar ki farmon ki anuchit gatividhiyon ke kaaran 10 lakh dollar ka civil dand bhugatna pada. teen vitteeya salaahakaar aur ek chauthe, jo maamale mein thoda kam shareek tha, ne nimnatam 521 myuchual fandon mein ek client mileniym paartanaron ke 12,457 tredon aur kam se kam 40 vaarshikiyaan ke up nidhi khaaton me 63 myuchual fando ka niptaara kiya. mileniym ki aadhi nidhiyon aur nidhi ke up khaaton mein laabh hua. un nidhiyon, jinmein mileniym ne munaafa kamaaya, usaki maatra kareeb 60 arab dollar rahi. meril linch in vitteeya salaahakaaron par yathochit nigraani rakhane mein vifal ho gaya, jinke vipnan samay se myuchual fund se kam samay wala laabh hua aur isse lambe samay vaale niveshakon ko nuksaan pahunchaaya.[59]

2008 bonas bhugataan

meril linch ne "ek vishesh samay mein" bonas ke roop mein arabon ke bhugataan ki vyavastha ki. ye 3.6 arab ke kul bonas feds TARP ko ubaarane ke liye mili dhanaraashi ki ek tihaai thi. iske atirikt is bonas ke samay ne kai ameriki logon ko naaraaj kar diya hai, kyonki ve bank ke samaksh bank of amareekan ke adhigrahan ke liye praadhikrut kar chuke the. haalaanki yeh ab ek beeta hua nishkarsh hai ki agar BOA ne bachaaya naheen hota, to meril dhvast ho gaya hota.[krupaya uddharan jodein] 2008 mein meril ko arabon ka nuksaan hua, fir bhi isne 3.6 arab ka bhugataan bonas ke roop mein kiya.

meril ke bonas ka nirdhaaran meril ki muaavaja samiti ki 8 December 2008 ki baithak mein nirdhaarit kiya gaya aur yeh BOA boaa ke sheyaradhaarakon dvaara vilay ko manjoori dene ke ke kuchh hi samay baad, magar chauthi timaahi ke vitteeya parinaamon ke nirdhaaran se pehle tay ki gayi thi. yeh company ke saamaanya kriyaakalaap se alag dikha, kyonki meril ne jis tarah ka bonas diya tha, vah behtar kaam ke badle diya gaya bonas tha aur yeh company ki neeti ke anusaar, pradarshan ke sabhi chaar timaahiyon mein dikhe pradarshan ke aadhaar par diya jaata hai va ise January ya baad mein bhugataan kiya jaane wala tha. is maamale mein, haalaanki bonas December mein chauthi timaahi ke pradarshan nirdhaarit karne se pehle hi de diye gaye.

yeh raashi bhi meril ke liye aavantit TARP dhan ki tulana mein kaafi adhik thi. meril ke bonas uske liye aavantit TARP dhan kosh ke 36.2% ke baraabar tha. meril ke karmachaariyon ka vetan kam se kam 300000 dollar hona chaahiye tha, jisse vah vaais-presideint ya uchch pad ke liye aharta haasil kar sakta tha.[60][61]

anya mushkilein

jab yeh paaya gaya ki do maamalon mein London mein vyaapaariyon ko unki sthiti ka uchit moolyaankan naheen hua hai aur isse company ko 461 arab dollar ka nuksaan hua hai to 2009 mein bank par 2.75 arab dollar ka jurmaana kiya gaya tha. yeh isliye hua ki meril "achhi tarah paribhaashit aur paaradarshi raaste" ka anukaran karne mein vifal raha aur "vyaapaariyon ki gatividh‍ai ke nireekshan mein naakaami diya aur maah ke ant mein svatantr keemat satyaapan prakriya aparyaapt thi." iske alaava, "yeh paaya gaya ki vyaapaari ki gatividhiyon ki nigraani ke sandarbh mein baajaar jokhim ke prabhaavi tareeke se prabandhan mein bhi naakaami haasil hui."[62][63][64]

meril ki yeh kehne ke baad aalochna ki gayi ki 11 arab dollar se adhik ka shulk praapt karne baad englo aayarish bank ki "aarthik sthiti behtar" ho gayi. kuchh din baad hi sanstha koraashtreeyakrut hona tha.[65]

udyog puraskaar

2008 mein, meril linch ko "deal of the iyar" se navaaja gaya - 2008 ALB SE Asia law avaards mein ikviti market deal of the iyar avaards.[66]

2008 mein ALB China law avaards[66] mein meli linch ko "deal of the iyar" se navaaja gaya - ikviti market deal of the iyar aur saath mein deal of the iyar bhi - 2008 ALB Hongkong la avaards mein M&A deal of the iyar puraskaar se navaaja gaya.

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/c' not found.

  • vaishvik samaadhaan
  • praathamik dealer
  • kredit sankat
    • kredit nichod
  • taralata sankat
  • dhan prabandhan
  • dalaal vyaapaari
  • vishv dhan report
  • meril linch, piyers, feinnar aur smith, ink vi. debit, ek 2006 uchchatam nyaayaalaya ka daava dhokhaadhadi ke maamale shaamil pratibhootiyon.
  • meril linch aavedan

sandarbh

  1. http://people.forbes.com/profile/brian-t-moynihan/10059
  2. http://www.namedevelopment.com/blog/archives/2009/01/merrill_lynch_n.html
  3. http://www.ml.com/index.asp?id=7695_8134
  4. "maikakrori stores kaurporeshan," ka pradarshan vigyaapan, the New York times, 15 December 1915, prushth 18. sampoorn: suraksha, achhi aay aur baajaar moolya mein paryaapt pragati ki sambhaavnaaon ko samaavisht karne vaale ek nivesh ko maikakrori stores kaurporeshan (McCrory Stores Corporation) ke prifrd stock (Preferred Stock) mein prastut kiya gaya hai. paidaavaar ki keemat 7%. ke liye likhein, sarkyoolar ti. M. meril, linch end company, 7 Wall street, New York. penobaskot bilding. detraayat. telephone rektar 4940.
  5. "krusibl steel (Crucible Steel) dvaara $15,000,000 ki maang." the New York times, 19 December 1940, prushth 39, mauntena-dakota yootiliteej company (Montana-Dakota Utilities Company) dvaara baandon ke ek mudde ki haameedaari karne vaale asankhya farmon mein se ek ke roop mein "meril linch, E. A. piyrs end kaisat" ko soocheebaddh karta hai jiske saath linch aur shabd "end" ke baad ek ainparasaind ke bajaay ek singal kauma ka istemaal kiya gaya hai.
  6. "sanshodhan amerikaana tukada ka ek madhur tukada: meril linch, piyers, feinner aur smith." the New York times, 31 December 1957, prushth 29.
  7. 00.html?pg=pcu meril linch - kul meril linch - kul meril
  8. edavin J parkins, Wall street mukhya sadak ke liye: Charles meril aur madhyam varg ke niveshak, Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya: press 1999
  9. raun chernaao, the house of maurgan, tachaston books, 1990.
  10. James bi steevart, den of theevs, tachaston books, 1992. "1971 mein Wall street (Wall Street) abhi bhi "yahoodi" aur "WASP" farmon se alag tha. praarambhik samay mein, jab bade-bade nigmon aur bankon ne yahoodiyon ke khilaaf khulkar bhedabhaav kiya tha, Wall street ne yogyata aur udyam ko puraskrut kiya tha. goldamain, saiks, lehamain brothers aur kuhan, loeb end company (aitihaasik drushti se jarman mool ke yahoodiyon se nirmit) jaise farm sabse pratishthit WASP farmon ke rankon mein shaamil hue the: morgan stainali-J.pi.morgan ke vitteeya saamraajya ka ek parinaam-first Boston, diln, reed aur brown brothers haireemain. jaayant meril linch piyrs fenar end smith ko, ek visangati ke baare mein kuchh-kuchh, ek baar "Catholic" farm maan liya gaya tha. kidr, peebauya drudhtaapoorvak WASP camp mein hi rahe."
  11. http://www.tijd.be/nieuws/ondernemingen/financien/artikel.asp?Id=3331161
  12. meril linch report
  13. http://money.cnn.com/news/newsfeeds/articles/djf500/200804250840DOWJONESDJONLINE000645_FORTUNE5.htm
  14. Stephen Bernard and Ieva M. Augstums (2009-01-22). "Former Merrill chief Thain out at Bank of America". Associated Press. http://biz.yahoo.com/ap/090122/bank_of_america_merrill_lynch.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-01-22.
  15. Eric Dash, Louise Story and Andrew Ross Sorkin (2009-01-15). "Bank of America to Receive Additional $20 Billion". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/16/business/16merrill.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-01-22.
  16. a aa Jenny Anderson (2007-11-15). "NYSE Chief Is Chosen to Lead Merrill Lynch". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/15/business/15merrill.html?scp=8&sq=merrill%20lynch&st=cse. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-14.
  17. a aa Eric Dash (2007-12-25). "Merrill Lynch Sells Stake to Singapore Firm". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/25/business/25merrill.html?scp=18&sq=merrill%20lynch&st=cse. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-14.
  18. a aa i Louise Story (2008-07-11). "Chief Struggles to Revive Merrill Lynch". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/18/business/18merrill.html?scp=23&sq=merrill%20lynch&st=cse. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-14.
  19. "Merrill Lynch Announces Substantial Sale of U.S. ABS CDOs, Exposure Reduction of $11.1 Billion". Market Watch. 2008-07-28. http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/merrill-lynch-announces-substantial-sale/story.aspx?guid=%7BDFE48CEF-7EB6-4EBE-83A0-5CD18AC5CBA7%7D&dist=hppr. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-14.
  20. "Merrill Lynch to cut mortgage-backed securities, raise new capital by issuing shares". International Herald Tribune. 2008-07-29. Archived from the original on 2012-12-08. https://archive.is/a7X1. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-14.
  21. a aa "Lawsuit threat to Merrill Lynch". British Broadcasting Corporation. 2008-08-15. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7564630.stm. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-14.
  22. "Merrill Lynch freezes jobs and UK tax liability". The Banking Times. 2008-08-17. http://www.bankingtimes.co.uk/18082008-merrill-lynch-freezes-jobs-and-uk-tax-liability/. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-14.
  23. Frank Quaratiello (2008-08-22). "Merrill Lynch settles up". The Boston Herald. http://www.bostonherald.com/business/general/view/2008_08_22_auction_securities_story/. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-14.
  24. a aa Brett Miller; Chua Kong Ho (2008-09-05). "Merrill Lynch Cut to 'Sell' at Goldman on Writedowns". Bloomberg.com. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=aDWTPYeHBS8g&refer=home. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-14.
  25. daaliya fahami dvaara meril linch (profaail), kredit maigajeen (risk.net par naya prakaashan), 1 May 2005, 29 4 2010 ko pun:praapt.
  26. "Derivatives Week, Merrill Lynch advertisement" (pdf). 2005 11 7. Archived from the original on 2011-07-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20110709013816/http://www.derivativesweek.com/pdf/DW110705.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2010 4 29.
  27. meril linch kyon jal gaya, Matthew goldasteen, 2007 October 25
  28. braadali koun aur kristeen haarpar dvaara meril $8.5 ka stock bechne ke liye analod CDOs analod (apadeta3), bloomberg.com, 29 4 2010 ko pun:praapt
  29. meril's pikd paukets, rodi boyd, 6 August 2008, cnn.com, 26 4 2010 ko pun:praapt
  30. Supreme Court of New York County (2009 Apr). "MBIA Insurance Co. v Merrill Lynch" (pdf). mbia.com. Archived from the original on 2010-12-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20101218025726/http://www.mbia.com/investor/publications/Complaint2912075.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2010 4 23.
  31. MBIA syu meril linch, Wall street journal, serena enaji, 2009 1 May 23 4 2010 tak pun:praapt
  32. UPDATE 1-nyaayaadheesh adhikaansh mbiya ko soot banaam meril ko khaarij kar dete hain 9 April 2010, raayatars, edith honan, Ed. geraald E. maikakaarmik
  33. JC isingar aur jek barnsaten dvaara ek mukadama meril linch bhoomika ka sujhaav dete hai. propablika - 9 April 2010, 23 4 2010 ko pun:praapt
  34. meril linch patra ko nyaayaadheesh barnaard fraaid, NY Supreme court ne pun: raabobaink aur meril linch, jonaathan pikhaardt, kyuin emaanuel arkhaart & sulevaan, 16 4 2010, propablika, 23 4 2010 ko pun:praapt
  35. Wall street vijaardari empaleefaaid kredit kraaisis, Wall street journal, karrik molleinkanp aind serena enaji, 27 12 2007, 23 4 2010 ko pun:praapt (yeh lekh vivran naurama CDO)
  36. William maikakyulin dvaara meril yoosd sem elegd fraud ej goldamain, bank sej (apadeta1), 16 April 2010, Bloomberg bijnesaveek, 23 4 2010 ko pun:praapt
  37. Morgenson, Gretchen (2008-11-08). "The Reckoning: How the Thundering Herd Faltered and Fell". New York times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/09/business/09magic.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-13. "Some banks were so concerned that they considered stopping trading with Merrill if Lehman went under, according to participants in the Federal Reserve's weekend meetings on Sept. 13 and 14 [2008]."
  38. Paulden, Pierre (2008-08-26). "Merrill, Wachovia Hit With Record Refinancing Bill (Update1)". Bloomberg News. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=a7snTaUmiwnw. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-12. "In response to a slump in demand for their bonds, financial firms, which have incurred $504 billion of writedowns and credit losses since the start of 2007, are selling assets such as mortgage securities and collateralized debt obligations at fire- sale prices to pay down looming maturities."
  39. Andrew Ross Sorkin (2008-09-14). "Bank of America in Talks to Buy Merrill Lynch". The New York Times. http://dealbook.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/09/14/bank-of-america-in-talks-to-buy-merrill-lynch/index.html?hp.
  40. Matthew Karnitschnig; Carrick Mollenkamp, Dan Fitzpatrick (2008-09-14). "Bank of America Reaches Deal for Merrill". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122142278543033525.html?mod=special_coverage.
  41. http://www.newsweek.com/id/159010
  42. http://archive.is/20120920102434/http://www.forbes.com/equities/2008/09/15/bofa-merrill-deal-markets-equity-cx_er_0915markets2.html?partner=newsweek
  43. LOUISE STORY and JO BECKER (2009-06-11). "Bank Chief Tells of U.S. Pressure to Buy Merrill Lynch". New York Times. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601110&sid=a5A4F5W_PygQ. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-13.
  44. Scott Lanman and Craig Torres (2009-06-10). "Republican Staff Says Fed Overstepped on Merrill Deal (Update1)". Bloomberg.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/12/business/12bank.html?ref=global-home. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-13.
  45. BARBARA BARRETT (2009-06-10). "BofA documents, e-mails show pressure to buy Merrill Lynch". Miami Herald. http://www.miamiherald.com/business/nation/story/1091482.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-13.
  46. AIG ships biliyans in belaaut abraud, the paulitiko, 15 March 2009
  47. A.I.G. lists farm it ped vith taiksapeyar mani, the New York times, 15 March 2009
  48. http://www.reuters.com/article/fundsFundsNews/idUSN0519185620070905
  49. http://www.forbes.com/2004/09/20/cx_da_0920topnews.html
  50. treetameint of muslim ke dauraan yu.S. dvaara meril syu
  51. http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/eeoc062607mer1.pdf EEOC vs. Merrill Lynch $ Co. - Complaint$
  52. meril ke liye ek aur kaale netr sattaaroodh bhedabhaav
  53. meril se faired iraaniyn broker $1.6m jeetata hai$
  54. "Amended Award" (PDF). WSJ.com. 2007-07-20. http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/Zojaji20070723.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-15.
  55. "EEOC: Merrill Lynch Hired Iranian for His Brains, Fired Him for His Nationality". NIA Council. 2007-07-04. http://www.niacouncil.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=820&Itemid=2. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-15.
  56. http://magazine.diversityinc.com/link/div/2007/NOV/75
  57. "The Diversity Edge Announces its 2008 Best Companies for Diverse Graduates". The Diversity Edge. 2008-05-29. http://www.thediversityedge.com/best25_diversity_companies.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-15.
  58. "Single Anti-Gay Remark Sufficient for Hostile Workplace Claim, N.J. Court Says". Law.com. 2008-08-15. http://www.law.com/jsp/article.jsp?id=1202423802811. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-15.
  59. http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/2005/nj_merrill.html
  60. "Nearly 700 at Merrill in Million-Dollar Club". The New York Times. 2009-02-12. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/12/business/12merrill.html?fta=y. abhigman tithi: 2010-03-27.
  61. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/03/30/merrill-lynch-bonuses-22_n_180780.html
  62. http://www.independent.ie/business/irish/irish-unit-of-merrill-lynch-fined-8364275m-by-regulator-1923508.html
  63. http://www.independent.ie/business/irish/exregulator-redfaced-as-bank-hit-by-8364275m-fine-1923992.html
  64. http://www.financialregulator.ie/publications/Documents/Merrill%20Lynch%20Publicity%20statement.pdf
  65. http://www.independent.ie/national-news/failed-bank-got-all-clear-in-report-that-cost-state-836474m-1934598.html
  66. a aa www.legalbusinessonline.com.au

atirikt pathan

  • Stiles, Paul (1998). Riding the Bull: My Year in the Madness at Merrill Lynch. New York: Times Business. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0812927893.
  • Perkins, Edwin (1999). Wall Street to Main Street: Charles Merrill and Middle-Class Investors. New York: Cambridge University Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0521630290.
  • Schooley, Keith (2002). Merrill Lynch: The Cost Could Be Fatal: My War Against Wall Street's Giant. Enid: Lakepointe Publishing. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0971610363.

baahari link