meiji punarsthaapan

meiji punarsthaapan ke ant mein shogun ne apne shaasak-adhikaar aupachaarik roop se samraat meiji ko saunp diye
1870 mein bane is chitr mein chitrakaar ne Japan ki puraani aur nayi vyavastha ki muthabhed darshaane ki koshish curry
ito hirobumi meiji punarsthaapan sangraam ke ek mukhya neta the

meiji punarsthaapan (明aa治aa維aa新, meiji ishin) unneesavi shataabdi mein Japan mein ek ghatnaakram tha jis se san 1868 mein samraat ka shaasan fir se bahaal hua. is se Japan ke raajanaitik aur saamaajik vaataavaran mein bahut mahatvapoorn badlaav aaye jinse Japan teji se aarthik, audyogik aur sainya vikaas ki or badhne laga.[1] is kraanti ne Japan ke edo kaal ka ant kiya aur meiji kaal ko aarambh kiya. is punarsthaapan se pehle Japan ka samraat keval naam ka shaasak tha aur vaastav mein shogun (将aa軍) ki upaadhi vaale sainik taanaashaah raaj karta tha.

anukram

anya bhaashaaoain mein

meiji punarsthaapan ko angreji mein "meiji raistoreshan" (Meiji Restoration) kehte hain.

ghatnaakram

band desh

san 1543 mein purtagaali Japan se sampark karne waali pehli yooropiyaai shakti bane. Japan us samay apne madhyakaaleen yug mein tha. bhaalon aur talavaaron ke alaava jaapaaniyon ke paas koi astr na the. Japan ka raajanaitik vaataavaran saamantavaadi tha jismein desh bhinn hisson mein banta hua tha aur har kshetr par ek taanaashaah ka raaj tha. Japan ke kendra mein ek samraat tha lekin vah keval naam ka raaja tha. asli shakti shogun ke paas hua karti thi, jo swayam ek sainya taanaashaah hota tha. Japan ne apni sanskruti aur aarthik vyavastha bachane ke liye yooropiyaai vyaapaar ko bahut seemit rakha. 1633 mein Japan ne sakokoo (鎖aa国, band desh) neeti ki ghoshana curry. iske antargat kisi Japani ko Japan chhodkar jaane ka prayaas karne par ya kisi videshi ko Japan mein ghusne ke prayaas karne par mrutyudand diya jaata tha. kuchh Japani sangathanon ko keval paanch gair-Japani logon se vyaapar karne ki bahut seemit ijaajt thi: uttar ke hokkaaido dweep par sthit aainoo log, dakshin mein sthit rayukyu dveepasamooh ke log, Korea ka joseyon vansh aur naagaasaaki ke shahar mein sthit vyaapaari kendra mein cheeni aur dach saudaagar.

ameriki dabaav

ameriki sarkaar ne unneesavi sadi ke madhya mein Japan se vyaapar karne ka faisala kiya. 1846 mein ek nauka aur ek yuddhanauka lekar ameriki nausena ke kaptaan jemj bidl ne tokyo ke bandargaah mein langar daalkar Japan se vyaapaari samjhauta karne ki vinti kare. use dutkaar kar vaapas bhej diya gaya. 1849 mein kaptaan jemj glin ne naagaasaaki jaakar baatcheet curry aur America vaapas aakar ameriki sarkaar ko rai di ki Japan ko jbaradasti vyaapaar ke liye rajaamand karna chaahiye. 1853 mein kaptaan Matthew pairi ne tokyo bandargaah par langar daala. us samay tokugaava parivaar ka vansh shogun ki gaddi sambhaale hue tha. unhonne jab pairi ke jahaajon ko hatne ke liye kaha to pairi ne unako topon se daraaya. Japan ko iske baad vyaapaar ke liye sahamat hona pada.

1853 ke baad

is ghatna ka Japan par gahra asar pada. Japani samaaj aur bhinn kshetron ke bahut se shaktishaali vyaktiyon ne bhaanp liya ke agar Japan ko pashchimi khtare se surakshit rakhana hai to use majboot banaana hoga aur pashchimi vigyaan ko Japani samaaj ka hissa banaana hoga. shogun vyavastha ke viruddh ek lahar uthi aur 9 November 1867 mein us samay ke shogun, tokugaava yoshinoboo, ne aupachaarik roop se apne shaasak-adhikaar us samay ke samraat meiji (明aa治aa天aa皇) ke naam kar diye. 10 dinon baad unhonne isteefa de diya aur shogun pratha ka ant hua. iske baad bhi vaastav mein shaasakeeya shaktiyaaain samraat ko naheen, balki ek shaktishaali gut ko mileen, lekin unka dhyeya Japan ko teji se aadhunik banaana tha jis se Japan mein ek audyogik aur sainya kraanti ka manch taiyaar jo gaya.

prabhaav

meiji punarsthaapan se Japan mein audyogeekaran ki raftaar bahut tej ho gayi. "desh ko dhanavaan banaao, fauj ko shaktishaali banaao" (富aa国aa強aa兵, fukokoo kyohei) ke naare ke antargat vikaas kaarya hua. bahut se Japani pashchimi vishvavidyaalayon mein padhne bheje gaye aur vigyaan aur takaneeki gyaan vaapas laae. Japani samaaj chaar varnon mein banta tha, lekin shaasakon ne jaatapaat mitne par bahut jor lagaaya. dheere-dheere kshetreeya taanaashaahon ki jmeene jbt karke raashtra ko raajanaitik roop se sangathit kiya gaya. puraani vyavastha mein kshatreeya jaise saamuraai yoddhaaon ko sarkaar vetan diya karti thi jo sarkaari khjaane ke liye bahut bada bojh tha. ise band kar diya gaya. bahut se saamuraai sarkaari naukariyaaain karne lage lekin kuchh ne vidroh aur danga-fsaad kiya, jinhein nai bani shaahi Japani sena ne kuchal diya.

vishv manch par Japan ka naya sthaan

Japan ka vyaapaar fala-foola aur sena bhi shaktishaali ban gayi. 1894-1895 ke cheeni-Japani yuddh mein Japan vijayi raha aur Korea ko Japan dvaara niyantrit kshetr bana liya gaya. 1904-1905 ke roosi-Japani yuddh mein bhi Japan vijayi hua. yeh pehli baari thi jab kisi Asiaee desh ne kisi yooropiyaai desh ko yuddh mein haraaya tha. iske baad Japan ko vishv-star ki ek mahaan shakti maana jaane laga. san 1900 tak Japan ki ginti vishv ki das sab se badi audyogik shaktiyon mein bhi hone lagi thi.[2]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. William G. Beasley. "The Meiji restorationHistory e-book project". Stanford University Press, 1972. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780804708159. http://books.google.com/books?id=k2FQEaQtWHIC. "... The Meiji Restoration is at the heart of this contrast, since it was the process by which Japan acquired a leadership committed to reform and able to enforce it ..."
  2. Marvin Perry. "Western Civilization: A Brief History". Cengage Learning, 2010. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780495901150. http://books.google.com/books?id=jR534a1fK-IC. "... Commodore Matthew Perry had opened Japan, against its will, to the West the preceding year. With the Meiji Restoration of 1867, a strong central government pushed Japan until it became one of the top ten industrial nations by 1900 ..."