meemaansa darshan

meemaansa darshan hinduon ke chh: darshanon mein se ek hai. iske pravartak jaimini hain.

paksh-pratipaksh ko lekar vedavaakyon ke nirneet arth ke vichaar ka naam meemaansa hai. ukt vichaar poorv aarya parampara se chala aaya hai. kintu aaj se praaya: sava paaainch hajaar varsh poorv saamaved ke aachaarya Krishna dvaipaayan ke shishya ne use sootrabaddh kiya. sootron mein poorv paksh aur siddhaant ke roop mein baadaraayan, baadari, etishaayan, kaashrnaajini, aatreya, aashmarathya, aalekhan, laabukaayan aur kaamukaayan maharshiyon ka ullekh milta hai, jiska vistrut vivechan sootron ke bhaashyavaartikon mein kiya gaya hai, jinse sahasraadhikran ho gaye hain.

jarman vidvaan maiksamoolar ka kehna hai ki - "yeh darshan shaastr koti mein naheen aa sakta, kyonki ismein dharmaanushthaan ka hi vivechan kiya gaya hai. ismein jeev, ishvar, bandh, moksh aur unke saadhanon ka kaheen bhi vivechan naheen hai."

maiksamoolar mat ke pakshapaati kuchh bhaarateeya vidvaan bhi ise darshan kehne mein sankoch karte hain, kyonki nyaaya, vaisheshik, saankhya, yog aur vedaant mein jis prakaar tat tat prakaranon mein pramaan aur prameyon ke dvaara aatma-anaatma, bandh moksh aadi ka mukhya roop se vivechan milta hai, vaisa meemaansa darshan ke sootr, bhaashya aur vaartik aadi mein drushtigochar naheen hota.

uparyukt vichaarakon ne sthool buddhi se granth ka adhyayan kar apne vichaar vyakt kiye hain. fir bhi spasht hai ki meemaansa darshan hi sabhi darshanon ka sahayogi kaaran hai. jaimini ne in vishyon ka beej roop se apne sootron mein upanyaas kiya hai "satsanprayoge purushasyeindriynaan buddhi janm tat pratyaksham". is chaturth sootr mein do shabd aae hain - purush aur buddhi. purush shabd se "aatma" hi vivkshit hai. yeh arth kumaaril bhatt ne "bhaattadeepika" mein likha hai. buddhi shabd se gyaan, (pramiti) pramaata, prameya aur pramaan arth ko vyakt kiya gaya hai.

vruttikaar ne "tasya nimitt pareeshti:" paryat teen sootron mein pratyaksh, anumaan shabd, arthaapati aur anupalabdhi pramaanon ka saparikr vishd vivechan tatha autpattik sootr mein aatmavaad ka vishesh vivechan apne vyaakhyaan mein kiya hai. isi ka vishleshan shaabar bhaashya, shlok vaartik, shaastradeepika, bhaatt chintaamani aadi granthon mein kiya gaya hai jismein pramaan aur prameyon ka bhed, bandh, moksh aur unke saadhanon ka bhi vivechan hai.

meemaansa darshan mein bhaaratavarsh ke mukhya praanadhan dharm ka varnaashram vyavastha, aadhaanaadi, ashvamedhaant aadi vichaaron ka vivechan kiya gaya hai.

praaya: vishv mein gyaani aur virkt purush sarvatr hote aae hain, kintu dharmaacharan ke saakshaat falavetta aur karmakaand ke prakaand vidvaan bhaaratavarsh mein hi hue hain. inmein kaatyaayan, aashvalaayan, aapastanb, bodhaayan, Gautam aadi maharshiyon ke granth aaj bhi upalabdh hain. (karmakaand ke vidvaanon ke liye upanishdon mein mahaashaala; kshotriya:, yeh visheshan praapt hota hai). bhaarateeya karmakaand siddhaant ka pratidaan aur samarthan isi darshan mein praapt hota hai. dau॰ kunnan raajaane "bruhati" ke dviteeya sanskaran ki bhoomika mein iska samuchit roop se niroopan kiya hai. yadyapi kanaad muni krut vaisheshik darshan mein dharm ka naamat: ullekh praapt hota hai - (1. 1, 11. 1. 2, 1. 1. 3) tathaapi uske vishay mein aage vichaar naheen kiya gaya hai. kisi vidvaan ka kehna hai -

"dharmavyaakhyaatukaamasya shat padaarthavivechanam.

samudran gantukaamasya himvat gamanan yatha.."

arthaat jaise koi manushya samudra paryant jaane ki ichha rakhate hue himaalaya mein chala jaata hai, usi prakaar dharm ke vyaakhyaan ke ichhuk kanaad muni shat padaarthon ka vivechan karte rah gaye. uttar meemaansa (vedaant) ke siddhaant ke anusaar karmatyaag ke pashchaat hi aatmajnyaaan praapti ka adhikaar hai, kintu poorv meemaansa darshan ke anusaar -

"kurvanneveh karmaani jijeevishechhatan sama:"

is vedamantr ke anusaar mumukshu janon ko bhi karm karna chaahiye. vedavihit karm karne se karmabandhan svat: samaapt ho jaata hai - ("karmana tyajyate hyasau.) tasmaanmumukshubhi: kaarya nityan naimittikan tatha" aadi vachanon ke anusaar bhaarateeya aastik darshanon ka mukhya praan meemaansa darshan hai.

anukram

meemaansa darshan ka svaroop

meemaansa darshan solah adhyaayon ka hai, jismein baarah adhyaaya kramabaddh hain. shaastrasangati, adhyaayasangati, paadasangati aur adhikaar sangatiyon se susanbaddh hai. in baarah adhyaayon mein jo chhoot gaya hai, usaka niroopan shesh chaar adhyaayon mein kiya gaya hai jo sankarshakaand ke naam se prasiddh hai. usamein devata ke adhikaar ka vivechan kiya gaya hai. at: use devata kaand bhi kehte hain athva dvaadash adhyaayon ka parishisht bhi kah sakte hain.

bhaaskar rai Dixit ne sankarshan kaand ki vyaakhya ke ant mein likha hai ki shodashaadhyaayi meemaansa ke rahate hue bhi pathanapaathan madhya kaal mein dvaadashaadhyaaya ka hi hota tha.

jis tarah chatushpada gaayatri ke rahane par bhi vidvaan varg tripda gaayatri ko hi japate hain, usi tarah vartamaan kaal mein dvaadashaadhyaayi meemaansa ka hi adhyayan adhyaapan prachalit hai.

kuchh vidvaanon ke anusaar meemaansa ke bina vaakyaarth ka nirnaya karna kathin hai, kyonki amuk vaakya upasthit arth mein pramaan hai athva anya arth mein, is vichaar ke nirnaya mein jo nishkarsh aata hai use meemaansa kaha gaya hai, kintu yahaaain meemaansa shabd ka arth darshan se hai.

dharmajnyaaan ke liye paraspar virodh rahit vedamantron ke arthon ke vichaar ka naam meemaansa hai. aur vichaarapoorvak praapt dharmajnyaaan meemaansa ka fal hai. yahi baat jaimini ne apne meemaansa darshan mein kahi hai - athaato dharm jijnyaaasa. 1. 1. 1. kumaaril bhatt ne ise is prakaar varnan kiya hai -

"dharmaakhyan vishyan vaktun meemaansaaya: prayojanam."

aage vaakyaarth nirnayopayogi sahasron nyaayon ka varnan kiya gaya hai. yahaaain tak chhah adhyaayon ka sankshipt vishyanirdesh kiya gaya.

is darshan mein praaptaapraapt vivek nyaaya se, athva adagdh dahan nyaaya se uddeshya vidheya bhaav ka vichaar kar ved-vaakyaarth-nirnaya se katrtavya katrtavya ka gyaan hota hai. isliye dharmajnyaaan hi meemaansa darshan ka prayojan hai. is darshan mein dharmavichaar se upakram (praarambh) hai. vyaakaran ke liye "padashaastr", vaisheshik nyaaya ke liye "pramaanashaastr" aur meemaansa ke liye "vaakyashaastr" ka prayog sanskrut saahitya mein hota hai. is shaastr mein hi dharmavichaar ki charcha hain. bhaarateeya janta ka mukhya uddeshya dharmaanushthaan hai. anushthaan fal ke bina naheen ho sakta aur falasaadhanata bhi saadhan saamagri ke bina naheen ho sakti. at: sankshep mein saadhan ka bhi vivechan kiya jaata hai.

anushthaan ke poorv dharm ka lakshan, pramaan aur saadhan fal jaanana aavashyak hai. is shaastr mein saadhan, ang aur shesh, ye teenon paryaayavaachak shabd hain. aise hi saadhya, sheshi aur angi ye teenon paryaayavaachi hain. udaaharan ke liye svargapraapti ke nimitt darsh poornamaas ka anushthaan yadi karna ho to usamein darsh aur poornamaas angi honge aur prayaaj aadi ang honge. darsh yaag amaavasya tithi ko aur poornamaas yaag poornima tithi ko hota hai.) ismein angi pradhaan ang ka prayojak hai aur ang prayojya hai. is prakaar dharmapraapti ke saadhanon ko jaanakar anushthaan ke liye paurvaaparya ka bhi gyaan apekshit hai evam fal ke liye anushtheya agni hotraadi karmon ke prakaran mein poorvaang aur uttaraang saadhanon ka bhi vivechan hai, jinke liye "prakruti" shabd ka prayog hota hai. kintu sauryaadi karmake sannidhi mein ang ka paath naheen hai. us sthal par aakaanksha ke udaya hone par darsh poornamaas mein pratipaadit angon ko lena hota hai jise atidesh kehte hain. (yahaaain tak uttar shatk ka sankshipt vishyanirdesh hua).

anya angon ka sankshipt vichaar

saamaanya roop se nirnaya hone par bhi kis karm se kis karm mein ang ka aagaman hota hai, iska vivechan visheshaatidesh se kaha gaya hai. angon ka atidesh hone par bhi prakruti mein bhed hone ke kaaran praakrut pad ke sthaan par padaantar ko rakhakar paath kiya jaata hai. udaaharanaarth "agneya tva jushtan nirvapaami". is shrutivaakya mein agni pad ke sthaan mein "sauryoyeshti" ke sooryapad rakhakar "sooryaaya tvaajushtan nirvapaami" is shruti ko padhte hain. aise vaakya ko "ooh" kehte hain. in baaton ke gyaan bina yeh samajh lena sambhav naheen hai ki kis ang ka kahaaain aur kaise upayog karna chaahiye jisse anushthaan samuchit faladaayak ho sake. jis sthal par ang pathit na ho vahaaain anya sthal se ang laana chaahiye, kintu jo vikruti yaag ke upakaar kar sakte hon ve hi prakruti mein liye ja sakte hain. jo vikruti mein upakaar naheen kar sakte vahaaain anya angon ka adhyaahaar naheen hota. aur unka anushthaan bhi naheen hota. aise vachanon ko "baadh" kehte hain. kis ang ka baadh hota hai aur kiska naheen, iska nirnaya "ooh" baadh ke adheen hai. evam abheepsit faladaata karm ek hi hota hai. kintu kaheen kaheen anek bhi hote hain. kuchh angon ka anushthaan pradhaan se poorv tatha kuchh ka pradhaan ke pashchaat bhi kiya jaata hai. udaaharanaarth saamidheni praayaajaadi tatha svisht krut anuyaajaadi. ek hi samay par un angon ka ek baar athva anek baar prayog karne ke vishay mein kaha gaya hai -

ek baar prayog karne ka naam tantr hai aur anek (asakrut) baar ke karne ka naam "aavrutti" athva "aavaap" hai. kaheen kaheen angon ka tantr se anushthaan hota hai aur kaheen kaheen aavrutti se. isliye tantr aur aavaap ka vichaar bhi aavashyak hai.

kisi fal vishesh ke liye pradhaan angi ka anushthaan karte hain aur uske angon ko bhi karte hain. un angon ko bhi anya angon ki apeksha hone par jiske prayog ki aavashyakta hoti hai use prasangi kehte hain. ismein pradhaan tantri hota hai, jise prasang kehte hain. udaaharanaarth agnishtomeeya pashu purodaashaadi poorvokt vishyon ka poornajnyaaata vyakti hi saangopaang dharmaanushthaan kar sakta hai, jiski vivechana "meemaansa darshan" mein jaimini ne ki hai.

dharm mein pramaan ka nirdesh

(1) is darshan ke prathamaadhyaaya mein dharmapramaanon ka niroopan kiya gaya hai aur vidhi, arthavaad mantra, smruti, shishtaachaar, naamadheya, sandigdhaarth nirnaayak vaakyashesh aur saamathrya ka niroopan kiya gaya hai.

(2) dviteeyaadhyaaya mein shabdaantar, abhyaas, sankhya, sanjnyaa, gun aur prakaranaantar, ye chhah karm bhed ke pramaan hain.

(3) truteeyaadhyaaya mein shruti, ling, vaakya, prakaran, sthaan aur samaakhya ye chh: viniyojak (angata bodhak) pramaan hain.

(4) chaturthaadhyaaya mein, shruti arth, paath, sthaan, mukhya aur pravrutti mein chhah bodhak pramaan hain

(5) panchamaadhyaaya mein atidesh, pratyakshavachanaatidesh, naamaatidesh, kalpit vachanaatidesh, aashrayaatidesh aur sthaanaapatti atidesh ye saat prakaar ke atidesh hain. ant ke do bhed saptamaadhyaaya mein varnit naheen hain. ye indriya kaamaadhikran tatha sthaanaapatti atidesh mein niroopit hain.

(6) navam adhyaaya mein mantroh, saamoh aur sanskaaroh ke bhed se teen prakaar ke "ooh" ka niroopan hai.

(7) dashamaadhyaaya mein arthalop, pratyaamnaaya aur pratishedh ke bhed se teen prakaar ke baadh ka niroopan hain.

(8) ekaadashaadhyaaya mein tantr aur aavaaya ka niroopan hai.

(9) dvaadashaadhyaaya mein "prasang" ka niroopan hai.

is prakaar ek ek vishay ka pratipaadan dvaadashaadhyaayaatmak meemaansa darshan mein kiya gaya hai jise "dvaadashalakshani" bhi kaha gaya hai. yahaaain lakshan shabd adhyaayavaachak hai. isko do prakaar se vibhkt kiya gaya hai jise upadesh aur atidesh kehte hain. pratham (poorv shatk) adhyaayon mein upadesh ka vivechan hai. dviteeya (uttar shatk) ke chhah adhyaayon mein atidesh ka vivechan hai. ukt upadesh atidesh dvaya vichaaraatmak shaastr hai. shaastr deepikaakaar paarthasaarathi mishr ke anusaar upadesh vichaar ke anantar atidesh vichaar ka aarambh hota hai.

vartamaan kaal mein upalabdh meemaansa darshan mein dvaadash adhyaaya hain. pratyek adhyaaya mein chaar paad hote hain, kintu truteeya, shashth aur dasham adhyaayon mein aath aath paad hain, jise "shabara" adhyaaya bhi kehte hain. is tarah sampoorn granth mein saath paad hain.

is darshan ki sootrasankhya mein vivaad hai. kisi ke mat mein do sahasr chhah sau baavan (2652), kisi ke mat mein do sahasr saat sau bayaalees (2742) sootr hain. uparyukt varnan "aisekit" ki "karmameemaansa" naamak pustak prushth chaar mein pratipaadit hai. aanand aashram poona se prakaashit "nyaayamaala" mein do sahasr saat sau paintaalees (2745) sootron ka pratipaadan hai.

isi prakaar kuchh vyaktiyon ke mat se adhikran sankhya nau sau saat (907) praapt hoti hai. kuchh ke mat se nau sau pandrah (915) sootr hain. kintu "meemaansaasaar sangrah" ke karta shankar bhatt ke anusaar "poorvashatk" mein paaainch sau tees, (530) uttarashatk mein chaar sau sattar (470) sootr hain. is prakaar sampoorn adhikran ek sahasr sankhya mein vibhaajit hai.

"natvaaganesh-vaagraam-gurvad.dhreen bhattashankar:.

sahasran vakti siddhaantaan saardhashlok shatadvayaan..

uparyukt shlok ke anusaar adhikranon ki sankhya ek sahasr do sau pachaas (1250) hai.

adhikranon tatha sootron ke niyam

anek sootron se ek adhikran banta hai, jismein ek pradhaan sootr tatha anya gun sootr hote hain. pradhaan sootr poorv paksh ka pratipaadan karta hai aur anya sootr siddhaant ka pratipaadan karte hain. kaheen kaheen par do sootron ke dvaara poorvottar paksh ka pratipaadan kiya gaya hai. aise hi kaheen kaheen par bina sootr ke hi poorv paksh ka utthaapan karke sootr se siddhaant ka pratipaadan kiya gaya hai. kaheen kaheen siddhaant roop se upakram dvaara poorv paksh kar siddhaant ka pratipaadan kiya hai. ek paad mein katipya adhikran hote hain. udaaharanaarth pratham paad mein aath adhikran hain.

adhikran mein chh: padaarth hote hain - vishay, sanshaya, poorvapaksh, siddhaant prayojan aur sangati. sangati teen prakaar ki hoti hai - shaastr sangati, adhyaaya sangati aur paad sangati.

pratham sootr - pratham adhikran ka naam jijnyaaasa adhikran hai. vichaar shaastr vishay hai. vichaar shaastr (vishay) aarambh karne yogya hai ya naheen, yeh sanshaya hai. aarambh karne yogya naheen hai, yeh poorv paksh hai. siddhaant hai ki vichaar shaastr aarambh karna chaahiye. is vishay ka mool hai kumaaril bhatt ke mat mein adhyayan vidhi aur "prabhaakar" (guru) mat mein adhyaapan vidhi. poorvapaksh mein adhyayan ka adrushya prayojan hai aur siddhaant paksh mein arth-gyaan-roop drusht prayojan hai.

dharm ke vichaar shaastr sambandhi hone ke kaaran is vichaar shaastr mein iska vivechan sangat hai. is (pratham) adhikran mein adhyayan drushtaarth hota hai, yahi siddh kiya gaya hai. ataev vichaar shaastr ka mool adhyayan vidhi hai. arthajnyaaan ka saadhan (vichaar) adhyayan vidhi se aakshipt hota hai. iseeliye vichaar shaastr ka aarambh vaidh hai.

dviteeya sootr - dviteeya adhikran mein dharm ka lakshan aur pramaan hai, jiski kartavyata vidhivaakya se prateet hoti hai. vah shreya ka saadhan hai. yahaaain shreya shabd se aihik aur aamushmik donon arth abhipret hain. gamya dharm mein gamak vidhivaakya pramaan hota hai. jo nishedh dvaara pratipaadit hota hai vah anarth ka saadhan hota hai, use hi adharm kehte hain.

truteeya sootr - truteeya adhikran mein vidhi vaakya hi pramaan hai. yahaaain pratijnyaa maatr ki gayi hai. ve do prakaar kahi hain - "chodanaiv lakshanan yasya, chodana lakshanamev yasya" arthaat yahaaain pratyaksh aadi pramaan dharm se pramaan naheen hote, kintu vidhivaakya hi dharm mein pramaan maana gaya hai.

chaturth sootr - is sootr mein pratham pratijnyaa ke samarthan ke liye chaturth adhikran hai. is adhikran mein lok siddh pratyaksh pramaan ka lakshan - "indriyaarthasannikrshajanyan jnyaaanan pratyaksham". arthaat pratyaksh vartamaan sannikrusht ko hi grahan karta hai aur dharm utpadyamaan hai, ataev pratyaksh dharm mein pramaan naheen ho sakta, kyonki dharm bhavishyat kaalik hai. in vachanon se meemaansaakaar ne pratyakshopajeevi anumaan ushmaan aur arthaapatti ko bhi pramaan naheen maana hai.

pancham sootr - chaturth sootr mein chaturth adhikran ki pratham jijnyaaasa ka samarthan karke pancham sootr ke pancham adhikran mein dviteeya pratijnyaa ka samarthan kiya gaya hai. is adhikran mein vidhivaakya hi pramaan hai, isi pratijnyaa ka samarthan kiya gaya hai. isi prasang mein pramaanon ka praamaanya svat: utpann aur svat: gruheet hota hai. arthaat jnyaaanajanak saamagri se praamaanya utpann hota hai aur usi saamagri se praamaanya gruheet bhi hota hai.

vaakya do prakaar ke hote hain - laukik aur vaidik. laukik vaakya paurusheya (purushakrut) hone ke kaaran purushagat bhram, pramaad, vipralanbh (vipralipsa), karanaapaatav aadi doshon se yukt hota hai, ataev paurusheya vaakya pramaan naheen hota.

mantra braahmanaatmak shabdaraashi ved apaurusheya (purushaapraneet) hai. at: vidhivaakya mein apraamaanya ke kaaran bhramaadi naheen hone se vidhivaakya hi dharm mein pramaan hain. is dviteeya pratijnyaa ka samarthan karne ke liye pramaan ka lakshan aur shabdaarth ka sambandh nitya hai. baadaraayan ne bhi praamaanya mein paraapeksha ko sveekaar naheen kiya hai.

ved se purush ka sambandh

padaarth-pratipaadan mein sanket dvaara shabd se padaarthon ka, vaakyaarth-pratipaadan mein granth ka aur rachana dvaara (pad ka) purush ka tridha sambandh hota hai. shabd aur arth ka vaachya-vaachak-sambandh nitya maankar ved mein purush-pravesh ka khandan kiya gaya hai. arthaat, ved purush ke dvaara praneet hain -aisa kehne ka kaaran yeh hai ki hamanein vaakyon ko bina vyakti ke kabhi naheen suna, padha ya jaana hai. jabki meemaansakon ke mat mein shabd (pad ya vaakya) tatha uske dvaara pratipaadya ghatapataadi-arth ka sambandh nitya hai. at: 'ye pad is arth ko bataata hai'- is baat ka hamein pata na hone par bhi pad apne pratipaadya ko bataata hi hai. arthaat shaktigrah na hone par bhi pad mein pratipaadanasaamarthya hai hi. aur vaakyaarth sambandh ke dvaara purush sambandh ko pruthak karne ke liye vaakyaadhikran ki pravrutti hai. is adhikran mein yatha pad ki padaarth mein shakti hoti hai, vaise hi vaakya ki vaakyaarth mein shakti hoti hai, aise jo pratipaadan karte hain usaki aavashyakta naheen hoti, kyonki pad se upasthit padaarth hi aakaanksha, yogyata aur aasakti se anvit hokar anshatraya vishisht bhaavanaaroop vaakyaarth ka pratipaadan karta hai. vaiyaakaran mat se vaakyaarth vaakyashakti se bhaasit hota hai. is mat ke anusaar shabdabodh mein padaarthon ka paraspar sambandh sansarg maryaada se bhaasata hai. yeh naiyaayikon ka mat hai, jisse vaakya ki vaakyaarth mein pruthak shakti ki prateeti hoti hai, kintu kumaaril bhatt ne abhihitaanvaya ka samarthan kiya hai. prabhaakar ne anvitaabhidhaan ka samarthan kiya hai. is tarah vaakyaarth mein purush sandandh dviteeya prakaar se nirast hua. truteeya prakaar granth rachana dvaara hota hai.

sandarbh vaakya ka purush ke saath do prakaar se sambandh hota hai, ek kartru-karm-bhaav-sambandh dvaara aur dviteeya prayukt-pravachan-bhaav-sambandh dvaara hota hai. pravachan sarvasaadhaaran aur rachana asaadhaaran hoti hai. asaadhaaran visheshan hota hai. ataev ved paurusheya hai.

kuchh vidvaanon ke anusaar vedon mein purush, desh, nadi, vruksh aadi ke nirdesh hone ke kaaran vedon ko purushapraneet athva paurusheya kehte hain, kintu meemaansa darshan ke anusaar pravachan bhi asaadhaaran maana gaya hai. udaaharanaarth "kathasanhita" athva "kath braahman" ke vishay mein kinvadanti hai ki anek shaakha adhyaayiyon ke madhya "kasht" maharshi ne poorn roop se adhyayan kiya tha. dviteeya hetu hai ki ved mein purush, nadi aadi ka naam aata hai, isse bhi ved paurusheya siddh hota hai, kintu yeh kalpana chatur-buddhi-vihit naheen; kyonki praaya: sarvapratham saansaarik vastuon ke naam ved se hi aae hain, usi drushti se lok -naam ki parampara chali hai. arthaat ved itihaas ko anitya naheen maanata, kintu itihaas ke nityatv ka pratipaadan karta hai, iska vistrut vivechan meemaansa ke "shaabarabhaashya" mein drushtavya hai. nitya vishay aur vaakya athva vachan ko yathaanupoorvi brahmarshign samaadhi mein darshan karte hain, ataev ved mein poorvapurush kartrutvakalpana ka lesh bhi samaavesh naheen hai." laukik rachanaaeain purush vishesh kartrutv hone ke kaaran paurusheya hain, yatha mahaabhaarat, raamaayan aadi.

kumaaril bhatt ke anusaar adhyayan parampara anaadi hai. ataev ved bhi apaurusheya hain. aise hi adhikran siddhaant nyaaya se hi ved granth rachana ke dvaara purush sambandh naheen ho sakta, ataev vidhi vaakya hi dharm mein pramaan hai.

moksh aur usaka saadhan

meemaansa-darshan mein aatm-tatv ka pratipaadak koi bhi maulik sootr naheen hai. yadyapi uttarameemaansa (vedaant) ke '"ek evaatman: shareere bhaavaat" is sootr ke bhaashya mein shankaraachaarya ne likha hai ki "poorv-tantr" (poorvameemaansa) mein aatmapratipaadak sootr naheen hai, is vachan ko kehkar aatm svaroop ka vivechan kiya hai. vruttikaar mat ko pramaan roop se uddhrut karte hue likha hai : "aatmaabhidhaanaprasaktau yathaatmaastitvan tatha shaareerake vakshyaam:". abhipraaya yeh hua ki poorvameemaansa bhi uttarameemaansa ki tarah advaya aatma ko maankar hi nirmit hue hain, tathaapi poorvameemaansa shareer ke atirikt kartta-bhokta aatmatatv ko maankar hi prachalit hua hai, kyonki karm-siddhaant ke antargat "krutahaani" aur "akrutaabhyaagam" nihit hai. aur yaheen se punarjanm aadi ki siddhi bhi hoti hai. "chodana punaraaranbh:" "satsanprayoge purushasyendriyaanaam" in donon sootron se aatmabeej ka pratipaadan kiya gaya hai. aur vapan aadi sanskaar fali (falabhokta) ka sanskaar (upachayaadhaanaksham) hai. purushaarth mein purush shabd se asthi yagya aur krut yaag se aatma ko fal praapti hoti hai.

shabar svaami ne sootr vishesh ke bina hi "yajnyaaayudh vaakya" ko nimitt maankar anaatmavaadi ke mat ka khandan karte hue aatmasvaroop ko tark aur shrutiyon ke dvaara siddh kiya hai jisse ved praamaanya ki bhi siddhi hoti hai.

uttar-meemaansa mein aatma ko ek hi maana gaya hai; kintu "saankhya yog", nyaaya, vaisheshik aur poorvameemaansa mein aatma ko anek maana gaya hai, jiska karm ke dvaara shareer, indriya aur man se sambandh hota hai. ataev shareer, indriya aur vishay ko bandh kaha gaya hai. ukt traya aatma ko bandhan mein daalte hain, jisse aatma sukhadu:khaadi dvandv ko bhogata hai. nitya naimittik karmon ko katrtavya buddhaya karte hue praarabdh karmon ko jeev bhogata rahata hai. shareer indriya se atirikt jo brahm buddhi se aatma ki upaasana karta hai usaka shareer indriya aadi se sambandh ka koi kaaran (kaamya aur nishiddh karm) naheen hai, aisa vyakti vartamaan shareer ke naash ke pashchaat sv svaroop mein sthit ho jaata hai. uttarameemaansa ke anusaar shareer, indriya aur vishay ko bandhan kaha gaya hai jo ajnyaaan ka kaaran hai; usaki nivrutti hi moksh hai. udaaharanaarth -

"nivrutiraatma mohasya jnyaaatatvenopalakshit:"

poorvameemaansa bhi yahi sveekaar karta hai ki shareer, indriya aur vishyon ka sambandh hi bandhan hain, tatha usaka vilay hi moksh hai, jiska saadhan, gyaan (upaasana) aur karm samuchchaya hai. aatmajnyaaan do prakaar ka hota hai. shareeraatirikt aatmajnyaaan ritu ka ang hota hai, jo ni:shreyasakaarak hai. vaidik aur laukik vaakyon ka sahasron ki sankhya mein vaakyaarth nirnayopayogi nyaayon ka poorvameemaansa ne hi pratipaadan kiya hai. ataev bhaarateeya darshanon mein pratham sthaan karm pratipaadak poorvameemaansa darshan ka hi hai.

srushti pralaya ke vishay mein meemaansak mat

uttarameemaansa (vedaant) ajnyaaan se srushti aur aatmajnyaaan se srushti ka vinaash (moksh) maanata hai. nyaaya, vaisheshik darshan ne dvayanukaadi kram se mahaabhoot paryant mahaasrushti aur mahaabhoot se parmaanu paryant vinaash ko mahaapralaya kaha hai. arthaat sampoorn bhaav kaarya dvayanukaadi kram se utpann hote hain aur sthool se parmaanu paryant jaakar nasht ho jaate hain. panch mahaabhooton mein pruthvi, jal, tej aur vaayu ke parmaanu nitya hain. aakaash swayam hi nitya hai, kintu poorv meemaansa ke anusaar do prakaar ki srushti aur teen prakaar ke pralaya hote hain, jinmein mahaasrushti aur khand srushti shabd se do srushti kahi gayi hai. aise hi pralaya, mahaapralaya aur khand pralaya shabd se teen pralaya kahe gaye hain. unamein khand srushti aur khand pralaya aajkal ke samaan hi maana gaya hai. udaaharanaarth kisi sthal vishesh ka bhookamp aadi se vinaash ho jaata hai aur kaheen par naveen vastu ki srushti ho jaati hai. mahaasrushti mein paramaanuon se dvayanukaadi dvaara panchamahaabhoot paryant navagrahaadikon ki srushti hoti hai, jiska ullekh rigved ke dasham mandal mein praapt hota hai -

"sooryaachandramasaudhaata yathaapoorvamakalpayat"

matsyapuraanaadi mein bhi khand pralaya ke antargat vidyamaan padaarthon ki sthiti ka vivran praapt hota hai, kintu poorv meemaansa mahaasrushti aur mahaapralaya ko sveekaar naheen karta. uske anusaar sabhi padaarthon ke naash mein koi bhi pramaan upalabdh naheen hota. jaisa ki vaartikkaar ne kaha hai -

"pralayeऽpi pramaanan na: sarvochhedaatmake nahi.

tasmaadadyavadevaatr sargapralayakalpana."

meemaansa darshan khand srushti aur khand pralaya ko hi maanata hai.

ishvar ke sambandh mein poorvameemaansa ka mantavya

bhaarateeya chh: aastik darshanon mein nyaaya, vaisheshik aur vedaant ki ishvar saadhak yuktiyaaain praaya: samaan hi hain. udaaharanaarth "yato va imaani bhootaani jaayante", "dyaavaabhoomi janayan Dave ek:" "vishvasya katrta bhuvanasya gopta" in shrutiyon ke dvaara aur "janmaadyasya yat:" is vedaant sootr ke dvaara ishvar ki siddhi hoti hai. isi prakaar nyaaya shaastr ke "kshityankuraadik kartrujanrya kaaryatvaat ghatavat" anumaan se bhi ishvar ki siddhi ki gayi hai, kintu vedaantiyon ne shrutiyon se ishvar ko siddh kar anumaan pramaan ko unka sahakaari kaaran maana hai. aur naiyaayikon ne anumaan se ishvar ke siddh kar shrutiyon ko sahakaari kaaran maana hai. saankhya darshan mein do mat hain - seshvar aur nireeshvar. seshvar saankhyavaadi ishvar ko maanate hain, kintu use purush vishesh shabd se vyavahaar karte hain. nireeshvar saankhyavaadi ishvar ka nishedh karte hain, "kintu vigyaan bhikshu ne "ishvaraasiddhe:" is sootr mein "pramaanaabhaavaat" is pad ka ullekh kar ishvar ko sveekaar kiya hai.

meemaansa darshan naiyaayikon ke samaan vidhi mukh se ishvar ka samarthan air nireeshvar saankhyavaadiyon ke samaan nishedh bhi naheen karta, kintu "sanbandhaakshepaparihaar" granth mein kumaaril bhatt ne shabdaarth ke sambandh ka karta ishvar ka niraakaran kiya hai. abhipraaya yeh hai ki sambandh ka karta ishvar naheen hai. uparyukt vachanon ko sveekaar kar lokaprasiddhi hai ki meemaansak nireeshvaravaadi hai. kumaaril bhatt, nandeeshvar aadi meemaansakon ne anumaanasiddh ishvar ka niraakaran kiya hai aur vedasiddh ishvar ko sveekaar kiya hai.

devata sambandh vishyak vichaar

vedavihit yaagaadi karm dravya aur devata in do se saadhya hain. dravya dadhyaadi hai aur devata shaastraik samadhigmya hai. arthaat vidhi vaakya jisko devata kehta hai use hi devata maana jaata hai. yahaaain devata ke vishay mein teen paksh dashamaadhyaaya ke chaturthapaad mein aur shaabar bhaashya aadi granthon mein bhi sveekaar kiya gaya hai. arth devata, shabd vishisht arth devata aur shabd devata hain. in teenon mein antim paksh hi siddhaant hai, kyonki arth ka smaran shabd ke dvaara hua karta hai. ataev shabd ki pratham upasthiti hone ke kaaran shabd hi devata maana gaya hai. udaaharanaarth "indraaya svaaha, takshakaaya svaaha" shabdon mein indraaya aur takshakaaya ye chaturthaant pad hi devata hain. arth ko devata sveekaar karne vaale vyakti bhi shabd ki upeksha naheen kar sakte. at: teenon pakshon mein shabd mukhya hone ke kaaran meemaansakon ne shabd ko hi devata sveekaar kiya hai. yahaaain par ek niyam hai - vidhi vaakya mein jo devataavaachak shabd hai usaka aavaahan, tyaag aur sookt vaakya aadi mein uchchaaran karna chaahiye, na ki uske paryaayavaachi shabdon ko. udaaharanaarth "aagneyamashtaakapaalam" mein agni ke paryaayavaachi "jaatavedas" shabd ka prayog naheen karna chaahiye. ukt baaton se vidit hota hai ki "shabdamayi devata" hi meemaansa darshan ka siddhaant hai.

devata ke vigrahaadi sadasad bhaav ka vichaar - agni aadi devata ke vigrahaadi paaainch is darshan mein maane jaate hain.

"vigraho havishaan bhog aishvarya ch prasannata.

faladaatrutvamitye tat panchakan vigrahaadikm."

arthaat vigrah, havish, bhog, aishvarya, prasannata aur faladaatrutv (faladaayakata) ye paaainch vigrah kahe jaate hain. ukt vachan ke aadhaar par hi vedaantiyon ne devata ke vigrahaadi paaainch svaroop maane hain. abhipraaya yeh hai ki manushya aadi ke samaan hi kar, charan aadi avayav devataaon ke bhi hote hain, ve havish sveekaar karte hain, bhakshan karte hain aur prasann hokar yajamaan ko fal dete hain. at: devata vigrahaadimaan hain. uparyukt vichaar hi yaask maharshi ne "nirukt" ke "athaakaar chintanam" vaakya se purushavigrahata ko siddh kiya hai.

meemaansa darshan ke anusaar "shabdamayi devata" ka samarthan kiya gaya hai, kintu shabar svaami ne apne shashth devataadhikran bhaashya mein devata vigrah ka khandan kiya hai. praaya: paarthasaarathi, khandadev aadi sabhi vidvaanon ne isi maarg ka avalanban kiya hai, kintu kumaaril bhatt ne apni teeka mein devata ko pradhaan na maankar dravya ke samaan use ang maana hai aur karm ko hi pradhaanataya sveekaar kiya hai tatha kaha hai ki karm hi fal deta hai. svaami ke rahate hue das se koi fal ki yaachana naheen karta.

(1) karmana falajanakatvan tatha (2) shabdamayi devata, ukt dvaya siddhaanton ka samarthan devata vigrahaadi ko maankar anya meemaansakon ne kiya hai. bhaashyakaar shabar ka devata vigrah ka niraakaran praudhivaad se jaanana chaahiye. ataev poorvameemaansa "shabdamayi devata" ko hi sveekar karta hai. usaka gyaan, taddhit, chaturthi vibhkti aur mantravarn in teenon se hota hai. keval inmein paraspar antar yeh hai ki taddhit shakti ki aavrutti se devata k bodhan karta hai. chaturthi vibhkti lakshanaya aur mantravarn adhishthaan ka bodhan karta hai.

shaabd bodh ke vishay mein meemaansak mat

vaakyon ke dvaara jo bodh (gyaan) hota hai use vaakyaarth bodh ya shaabd bodh kehte hain. vaakya bhi aakhyaataant hi hota hai -

(1) subantachaya: vaakyam, (2) tingantachayovaakyam, (3) suptingantachayo vaakyam. usamein ye teen paksh hain, jinmein kaarakaanvit kriya honi chaahiye. amarakosh ke anusaar - "tid.subant chayo vaakyan kriya va kaarakaanvita".

arthaat subant aur tingant vaakyon ka kaarakaanvit kriya paryavasaan hota hai. poorvameemaansa mein kumaaril bhatt, prabhaakar aur muraari ke teen mat prasiddh hain, kintu antim mein "tripaad neeti nayan" is naam se khyaat granth bhi vidit hua hai. meemaansakon mein abhihitaanvayavaad air anvitaabhidhaanavaad naam se do prasthaan prasiddh hain. inmein pratham kumaaril bhatt aur dviteeya prabhaakar ka mat hai. shaabdh bodh mein bhaavana ko mukhya roop se bhatt ne sveekaar kiya hai. prabhaakar ne kaarya ko mukhya sveekaar kiya hai. abhihitaanvaya shabd ka yeh arth hai ki padon se pratipaadit padaarth gyaan aakaanksha, yogyata aur aasakti samanvit hokar lakshana ke dvaara shaabdabodh (vaakyaarth bodh) karaate hain

nyaayamat mein padon ki padaarth mein shakti hai aur pad gyaan lakshan ya bodh karte hain. padon se padaarth ki upasthiti hoti hai. isi prakaar meemaansa mein kaha gaya hai, udaaharanaarth jyotishtomen svarg kaamo yajet". yahaaain "yajet" mein do ansh hain -"yaj" dhaatu aur "t" pratyaya. pratyaya aakhyaataansh ko lekar aarthi bhaavana ka pratipaadan karta hai. us bhaavana ki teen aakaankshaaeain hoti hain - saadhyaakaanksha saadhanaakaanksha aur "itikrtavyataakaanksha". saadhyaakaanksha hone par (svargakaamaadhikran se) svarg ka saadhyatven anvaya hota hai. saadhanaakaanksha hone par dhaatvarth ka kaaranatven anvaya hota hai. (bhaavaarthaadhikran nyaaya se). iti kartavyataakaanksha hone par (deekshineeyaadi) itikrtavyataatven anvaya hota hai. vaakyaarthaadhikran mein kaha gaya hai-

"bhaavanaiv hi vaakyaarth: sarvatraakhyaat vattaya.

anek gun jaatyaadi kaarakaarthaanuraajita."

vishisht arth ka bodh karne ke liye vaakya lok mein prayukt hota hai. padashravan se padaarthon ka pruthak pruthak gyaan hota hai. yeh vaachyaarth hai, kintu jo padaarthajnyaaan hota hai vah shrota ko abhipret naheen aur jiske liye vaakya prayukt hua usase shrota ka kaarya naheen hota, aise sthal mein vaakya taatparya ki anutpatti hoti hai. ataev anupapatti ke nivaaranaarth lakshana maani gayi hai. sabhi daarshanikon ne taatparyaanupapatti ko lakshana ka beej sveekaar kiya hai. padon ke do prakaar ke taatparya maane gaye hain, pratham taatparya tatha dviteeya mahaataatparya. pratham avaantar taatparya padaarth vishay ka pratipaadan karta hai aur mahaataatparya vaakyaarth vishay ka pratipaadan karta hai. abhihitaanvayavaad mein vaakya se vaakyaarth ka bodh lakshanaya hota hai. kumaaril bhatt ne nimn shlokon se pratipaadan kiya hai -

"saakshaat yadyapi kurvanti padaarthapratipaadanam.

varnaastathaapi naitasmin payanvasyanti nishfale..

"vaakyaarthamitye teshaan pravrutto naantareegakam.

paake jvaalev kaashthaanaan padaarth-pratipaadanam.."

is vachan se bhatt paadaka abhihitaanvayavaad ka svaroop digdarshit hota hai. kuchh vidvaanon ka kathan hai ki "ananvitaavasth" padaarth padon se abhihit hote hain. unki anvitaavastha keval lakshit hoti hai. ataev "anvitaabhidhaanavaad" kumaaril bhatt ka hai, kintu bhatt mat ka anuvaadak anvitaabhidhaanavaad maankar jo khandan karte hain, yeh uchit naheen hai, kyonki unke granthon mein uparyukt lekh ki charcha kaheen bhi naheen hai.

prabhaakar mat : anvitaabhidhaanavaad

anvitaabhidhaan shabd ka yeh arth hai - pad anvitaarth (anvaya aur padaarth ko shaktya vrutya) bodhan karte hain. ataev pad shakti se hi padaarth aur vaakyaarth donon ka bodh ho jaata hai. pad shakti se atirikt lakshana aadi maanane ki koi aavashyakta naheen hai. vayovruddh purush kisi vastu ko laane le jaane ke liye shabd ka prayog karta hai. uske paas ka baalak us shabd ko shravan kar au doosare purush ke le aane aur le jaane ka kaarya karte dekhkar shabd ka arth samajh leta hai. yahi pravrutti ka kaaryataajnyaaan kaaran hai. lok mein kriya ko bhi kaarya samjha jaata hai, usi prakaar ved mein bhi yaagaadi kriya ko prathamat: kaarya samjha jaata hai. yaagaadi kriya kshanik hai aur svarg kaalaantar bhaavi hai. ataev ukt (svargakaam pad samabhivyavahaar anyathaanupapatti:) ved vaakya vimarsh se yaagaatirikt "apoorv, naamak vastu samajhi jaati hai. yahaaain par "ek kaarya shabd" ki poorvokt do shaktiyaaain do arthon mein sveekaar karni padti hain. ek mein shakti (abhidha) aur doosare se lakshana maanani hoti hai. usamein bhi alaukik kaarya mein vishesh shakti hai, jaisa vidvaanon mein prachalit hai -

"ananyalabhya: shabdaarth:"

lok mein kriya roop kaarya mein lakshana hoti hai. ved mein pad hi vaakya hote hain (padaanyev vaakyam) aur padaarth hi vaakyaarth hota hai (vaakyaarth: padaarth:). is mat mein vaakyaarth, anvaya aur sansarg ye sab paryaaya hain. arthaat anvit hi anvaya mein nimitt hota hai. prabhaakar ne graahak grahan ko maana hai, usase bhi anvitaabhidhaanavaad siddh hota hai. is mat mein - "yajet svargakaam:" is vaakya se anvitaabhidhaan ka shaabd bodh hota hai.

is darshan mein svargapraapti ke liye yaag ka hi vidhaan hai. svarg se abhipraaya yeh hai - jo du:kh se grast na ho tatha du:kh utpann ki usamein sambhaavana na ho aur abhilaasha ko poorn kare use svarg kehte hain. "dashanpoornamaasaabhyaan svargakaamo yajet" ityaadi vaakyon dvaara darshapoornamaas yaag se svarg ke saadhan ka vidhaan kiya gaya hai. yaag ko kshanik maana gaya hai, kyonki kisi devata ke uddeshya se dravya ke tyaag ka naam yaag hai. "indraaya idan na mam" is vaakya se maanas vyaapaar ka tyaag hota hai. us kshan mein us vyaapaar ka naash ho jaata hai. nirtishya preeti vishay ko svarg kaha gaya hai. vah kaalaantar athva janmaantar mein praapt hota hai. yeh darshan shaastr ka niyam hai, kaayontpatti ke avyavahit poorv kshan mein kaaran ko rahana chaahiye aur kshanik yaag janmaantar bhaavi svargotpatti ke avyavahit poorvakshan mein sambhav naheen hai. etadarth ukt shruti ke aadhaar se yaag ka saadhya, svarg ka saadhan athva yaag ki uttaraavastha evam fal ki poorvaavastha, ye sab ek vastu siddh hoti hain, jise atishya, apoorv, ya yogyata kehte hain. iska vistrut vivechan kumaaril bhatt ne apoorvaadhikran mein yuktipoorvak kiya hai. yaagaanushthaan ke poorv purush mein svarg ke upabhog karne ki yogyata naheen hoti. anushthaan ke poorv yaag mein bhi svargaadi fal dene ki yogyata naheen hoti evam purush ki ayogyata tatha karm ki ayogyata ka niraakaran kar shaastragamya saamathrya ab va atishyayogyata ko apoorv maana gaya hai. yatha

"karmabhya: praagayogyasya karman: purushasya va.

yogyata shaastrajanya ya sa paraaऽpoorvamuchyate."

ise adhikaaraapoorv athva falaapoorv kehte hain. jahaaain ek hi pradhaan ho vahaaain pradhaan yaag se jo apoorv utpann hota use utpatyapoorv kehte hain. angon se jo apoorv utpann hota hai, use angaapoorv kehte hain. angaapoorv aur pradhaanaapoorv donon milkar paramaapoorv ko utpann karte hain. usase svargaadi fal ki praapti hoti hai. kuchh yaagon mein anek pradhaanon se fal hota hai. udaaharanaarth - darsh mein teen yaag hote hain aur paurnamaas mein bhi teen yaag hote hain. yahaaain teenon pradhaanon se utpann honevaale teen utpatyapoorvo se ek samudaaya poorv utpann hota hai. donon samudaayaapoorvon se ek paramaapoorv utpann hota hai. abhipraaya yeh hua ki uparyukt pratham udaaharan mein teen apoorv (utpatyayapoorv, angaapoorv aur paramaapoorv) maane jaate hain. dviteeya udaaharan mein utpatyapoorv, angaapoorv, samudaayaapoorv aur falaapoorv, chaar apoorv maane jaate hain. ye hi meemaansakon ka sarvasv hai. ismein bhaatt meemaansak shaabar bhaashya 2. 1. 2 ke "yaagen apoorv krutva svarg bhaavayet" anusaar shabd se tatha shrutaarthaapatti se apoorv ki siddhi karte hain. aur use lingaadi ka vaachya tatha shabdabodh mein mukhya visheshya maanate hain. sabhi daarshanikon ke dvaara apoorv ka jo khandan kiya gaya hai vah vaachyatvaansh aur praadhaanyaansh ka hi khandan hai.

praamaanya vichaar

darshan shaastron mein padaarthavivechana ke liye chaar kotiyaaain maani gayi hain -

(1) pramaan (2) prameya (3) pramiti (4) pramaata.

pramaan - pramaan use kehte hain jisse vishay ka nishchayaatmak gyaan ho aur vishay ka nirdhaaran ho.

prameya - pramaan ke dvaara jiska gyaan ho use prameya (vastu-vishay) kehte hain.

pramiti - pramaan ke dvaara jis kisi bhi vishay ka nishchayaatmak gyaan ho, use pramiti kehte hain.

pramaata - pramaan ke dvaara prameya gyaan ko jo jaanta hai - use pramaata kehte hain.

yahaaain vibhinn bhaarateeya daarshanikon ne gyaan ke vishay mein dvividh vichaar kiya hai -

gyaan ka praamaanya svat: graahya hai athva parat: graahya hai. svat: koti mein meemaansak, vedaanti aur bauddh aate hain. parat: koti mein nyaaya, vaisheshik, yog, jain aur chaarvaak aate hain. yahaaain praamaanya shabd se arthatathaatv lakshan (vishay ka yathaarth svaroop) praamaanya samajhna chaahiye, na ki ajnyaaataarth jnyaaapakatv lakshan praamaanya. chodanaalakshanodharm: sootr mein - "nanu atathaabhootamapyarth brooyaat chodana" ityaadi bhaashya se arthatathaatv hi vivkshit hai. "tachch abaadhittvan, arthanirutho dharm vishesh:, tasya jnyaaanen niroopranaat". chaudana sootr ke bhaashya "atathaatv bhootan arth" se abaadhitv arthanishth dharm vivkshit hai, jiska niroopan gyaan ke dvaara hota hai. ataev praamaanya ko jnyaaananishth kaha jaata hai. vah parat: utpann aur parat: gruheet hota hai. yeh naiyaayikon ka siddhaant hai. arthaat jis saamagri se gyaan utpann hota hai, usase praamaanya utpann na hokar anya saamagri se utpann hota hai evam jisse gyaan graheet hota hai, usase praamaanya gruheet na hokar anya gun jnyaaanaadi se gruheet hota hai. isse yeh aaya ki jnyaaanotpaadak saamagri se bhinn saamagri se praamaanya utpann hota hai aur gyaan graahak saamagri se bhinn saamagri ke dvaara praamaanya gruheet hota hai. is mat mein praamaanya aur apraamaanya donon parat: hote hain. yeh naiyaayik sanmat vivechana hai.

uparyukt mat mein meemaansak log anavastha dosh bataate hain (anavastha use kehte hain jismein kalpana ka vishraam na ho.) jisse jnyaaanamat praamaanya kabhi siddh naheen ho sakta. arthaat lokavyavahaar vichhinn ho jaaega. at: jnyaaanagat praamaanya svat: utpann aur svat: gruheet hota hai. abhipraaya yeh hai ki jis samaagri se gyaan utpann hota hai, usi saamagri se praamaanya bhi utpann hota hai; aur jis saamagri se gyaan gruheet hota hai usi saamagri se praamaanya bhi gruheet hota hai. yahi svat:praamaanyavaadi meemaansakaadikon ka praamaanya ka svatastv hai, jiska kumaaril bhatt ne apne granth bhaatt vaartik mein anek yuktiyon se samarthan kiya hai -

"svat: sarvapramaanaanaan pramaanyamiti gamyataam.

nahi svatoऽsati shakti: kartumanyen paaryate..

"paraapekshan pramaanatvan naatmaanan labhate kvachit.

moolochhedakaran pakshan kohi naamaadhyavasyati.." -- shaa0 dee0

yahaaain bhattamat mein gyaan anumeya hai. gyaan ke vishay mein kuchh atishya utpann hota hai jisse "jnyaaatoghat:" yeh anubhav hota hai. isse jnyaaatata naamak ek dharm ghataadi vishay mein utpann hota hai, jise praakatyam, bhaasanan, prakaash: aadi shabdon se kaha jaata hai. isse yeh aaya ki jnyaaatata lingak anumaan se gyaan ka grahan hota hai. isi se praamaanya ka bhi grahan hota hai.

prabhaakar (guru) mat mein gyaan swayam prakaash hai. at: gyaan se hi jnyaaananishth praamaanya ka bhi grahan hota hai. ataev svat: praamaanya donon maton mein samaan hai, jiska vivechan "shlok vaartik", "prakaran panjika", "nyaaya ratnamaala" mein vistrut roop se kiya gaya hai.

vidhi

pratyaksh anumaanaadi se anavagat (agyaat) arth ke bodhak vaakya ko vidhi kehte hain. arthaat ajnyaaatajnyaaapak apravruttapravartak jo vaakya hain usaka naam "vidhi" hai. vidhyarth ke sambandh mein meemaansakon ke do paksh hain - ek pravartana ko vidhyarth maanata hai. ismein praayash: sabhi meemaansak aa jaate hain. doosra kaarya ko vidhyarth maanata hai. yeh prabhaakar ka siddhaant hai. is paksh mein is prakaar ka utpaadan hota hai -

lok mein pravartak purush, aachaarya athva raaja apne shishya athva bhrutya ko pravrutt karaane ke liye "gaamaanaya" ityaadi vaakya ka prayog karte hai. shishya ya bhrutya ukt vaakya ko sunakar uske arth ka anusandhaan karta hai. pashchaat "gavaanayan" (gaaya laane) aadi kaarya mein pravrutt hota hai. isliye pravartak purush ka jo abhipraaya vishesh hai, use lok mein vidhyarth kehte hain. vah purush ki kriya hai jo purush mein rahati hai. ataev ise purushaabhipraaya bhi kehte hain. ved apaurusheya hone ke kaaran vaidik lingaadi ka arth purushaabhipraaya naheen kaha ja sakta. at: purush ke sthaan par lingaadi (ling lung aadi lakaar) shabd ka prayog hota hai. usaka vyaapaaravishesh hi vidhyarth hai. shabdanishth hone ke kaaran ise shaabdi bhaavana bhi kehte hain. iska lakshan is prakaar kiya gaya hai "purushapravrutyanukool: pravartak lingaadinishtho vyaapaaravishesh: shaabdi bhaavana". shaastr mein ise hi pravartana, prerana aadi kaha gaya hain. lok mein pravrutti do prakaar ki hoti hai - pratham apni ichha se (isht saadhan samajhakar) purush pravrutt hota hai. dviteeya pravartak purush, athva shabd ke dvaara vyakti pravrutt hota hai, jise "prerana janya" kehte hain. jahaaain prerana ke pashchaat pravrutti hoti hai, vahaaain pravartan gyaan hi pravartak maana jaata hai, jise mandan mishr, paarthasaarathi prabhruti vidvaanon ne "ishtasaadhan" maana hai. nyaaya sudhaakar ne ise alaukik dharm vishesh maana hai. prabhaakar mishr ne pravrutti ke prati kaaryataajnyaaan ko kaaran maana hai, jisse ishtasaadhanatv aadi aakshipt ho jaata hai. at: "chodana lakshano dharm:" sootr mein likha hai - "aachaarya chodit" karomi" is bhaashya ki vyaakhya karte hue shaaliknaath ne kaha hai - chodit: pravartit:, kaaryamavabodhit: ityarth:, kaaryataajnyaaan vina pravrutterasanbhavaaditi" (tadabhootaadi pra0 pan0) ataev prabhaakar mat mein kaha gaya hai - "kaarya vidhyarth:, tachch kaarya dhaatvarthaatiriktam, apoorv shabd vaachyam tadev vidhyarth iti"

vidhi ka bhed

ved vaakyaarth nirnaya ke liye pravrutt meemaansa darshan mein chaar prakaar ki vidhi ka pratipaadan kiya gaya hai -

(1) uttpattividhi : jis vaakya se karm svaroop ki katrtavyata prathamat: vidit hoti ho use utpattividhi kehte hain. udaaharanaarth "agnihotran juhoti" is vaakya se agnihotr naamak hom se isht ko praapt karna arth hota hai.

(2) viniyogavidhi : angapradhaan ka sambandh jis vidhivaakya se gyaat hota hai, use viniyogavidhi kehte hain. udaaharanaarth "dadhna juhoti" is vaakya se dahi se havan karne ka arth bodhit hota hai. ismein dadhi saadhan hai aur hom saadhya hai. yahaaain viniyog vidhi mein viniyog shabd se sambandh ko samajhna chaahiye. vah sambandh saadhya-saadhan-bhaav, angaangi bhaav athva sheshasheshi bhaav mein samaapt hota hai.

(3) prayogavidhi : jo pradhaan aur ang ke anushthaan mein kram ka bodh karaata hai use prayogavidhi kehte hain. udaaharanaarth prayaajaadi ang se upakrut pradhaan darshapoornamaas yaag se svarg ki praapti hoti hai. isi abhipraaya se lakshan kiya gaya hai "angaanaan kramabodhako vidhi; prayogavidhi:"

(4) adhikaaravidhi : jis vidhi se karmajanya fal ka bhokta karta ko maana jaata ho use adhikaaravidhi kehte hain. udaaharanaarth "yajet svarg kaam:" yahaaain jo yaagakarta hai vahi svargafal ka bhokta hai.

isi prakaar se apoorv vidhi, niyam vidhi aur parisankhya vidhi ke bhed se teen prakaar ki vidhiyaaain prasiddh hain -

  • (k) jo atyant apraapya vishay ka vidhaan karta ho use apoorv vidhi kehte hain. udaaharanaarth "breeheen prokshati, darshapoorn maasaabhyaan svargakaamo yajet" yahaaain breehi mein prokshan kriya ka vidhaan hai aur darshapoornamaas mein svarg ke saadhan ka vidhaan hai. yeh baat uparyukt vaakyon ke atirikt anya pramaanon se sarvada aur sarvatha apraapt hai. at: yeh apoorvavidhi hai.
  • (kh) jo paksh praapt arth ko niyamit (apraaptaansh poorak) karta hai use niymavidhi kehte hain. udaaharanaarth "breeheen avahanti". yahaaain vaitushya ke prati avadhaat saadhan hai. aise hi ashm kuttanaadi saadhan hai. jo purush shaastreeya upaaya avadhaat ko tyaagakar ashm kuttanaadi ya nakhavidlanaadi se vaitushya karta ho use shaastreeya vidhi ke anusaar avadhaat se hi vaitushya karna chaahiye - "breeheenavahanyaadev" yahaaain avadhaat ke pratyaksh hone par bhi avadhaat niyam apratyaksh hai.
  • (g) jahaaain ek kaal mein do samuchchaya se praapt hon aur unamein ek ki vyaavrutti (nivrutti) karna hi jiska fal ho use parisankhya vidhi kehte hain. udaaharanaarth - 'panch panchanakha bhakshya:' yeh panchanakh bhakshan raag praapt hone ke kaaran iska vidhaan naheen karta. panchanakhetar panchanakh bhakshan bhi praapt hai arthaat raag se panchanakhavaale paaainch ka bhakshan jaise praapt hota hai vaise hi panchanakh se bhinn panchanakhavaalon ka bhi bhakshan raagat: praapt hai. isliye yahaaain apoorv vidhi ya niyam vidhi naheen. panchetar panchanakh bhakshan nivrutti hai. isliye yeh parisankhyaavidhi ka udaaharan hai. niyam vidhi mein itar nivrutti ka vaachak shabd naheen kintu arthaat hoti hai. parisankhya vidhi mein itar nivrutti ka bodhak shabd rahata hai. evakaar ka donon mein prayog hota hai. lekin niymavidhi mein evakaar ayog vyaavrutti ka bodhak hai aur parisankhyaavidhi mein evakaar anya yog vyaavrutti ka bodhak hai.

oopar vidhiyon ke do prakaar bataae gaye hain, use is prakaar samajhna chaahiye ki apoorvavidhi mein utpatti, viniyog prayog aur adhikaar vidhi chaaron antargat hote hain. niyam tatha parisankhya vidhi, viniyog vidhi mein hi antargat hai. is vishay ka vishesh gyaan bhaatt chintaamani mein drashtavya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain