matiraam

matiraam, hindi ke prasiddh brajabhaasha kavi the. inke dvaara rachit "rasaraaj" aur "lalit lalaam" naamak do granth hain; parantu idhar kuchh adhik khojabeen ke uparaant matiraam ke naam se milne vaale aath granth praapt hue hain. in aathon granthon ki rachana shaili tatha unamein aae aur unase sambandhit vivranon ke aadhaar par spasht gyaat hota hai ki matiraam naam ke do kavi the. prasiddh matiraam foolamanjari, rasaraaj, lalit lalaam aur satasai ke rachayita the aur sambhavat: doosare matiraam ke dvaara rachit granth alankaar panchaasika, chhandasaar (pingal) sangrah ya vruttakaumudi, saahityasaar aur lakshanashrungaar hain.

anukram

jeevani

matiraam ka janm san 1617 mein uttar pradesh ke Kanpur jile mein sthit tikvaaainpur (trivikramapur) mein hua. ve aachaarya kavi chintaamani tatha bhooshan ke bhaai the.[1] iska ullekh "vanshabhaaskar" evam "tajakire sarve aajaad hind" mein hua hai. bhooshan ne apne ko kashyap gotreeya kaanyakubj tripaathi ratnaakar ka putr bataaya hai aur charkhaari naresh vikramaaditya ke raajyakavi bihaareelaal ne vikramasatasai ki teeka rasachandrika mein apna parichay diya hai jisse spasht hai ki bhooshan aur bihaareelaal ek hi gotr ke the aur matiraam unke parabaaba the, paranaana naheen; anyatha ve matiraam se apna sambandh na jodkar apne samagotriya poorvaj bhooshan se apna sambandh adhik spasht karte. isaliye doosare vatsagotreeya matiraam in matiraam se bhinn hain.

matiraam aur bhooshan ka bhaai bhaai ka sambandh tha, yeh "lalit lalaam" aur "shivraaj bhooshan" mein diye gaye alankaaron ke samaan lakshanon se bhi spasht hota hai. bhooshan ne lalit lalaam se ni:sankoch lakshan grahan kiye hain. matiraam ka adhikaansh samay booaindi darbaar mein vyateet hua. vahaaain ke haada raajaaon ka varnan aur charitrachitran unhonne bade prabhaavashaali dhang se kiya hai.

krutiyaaain

inki pratham kruti 'foolamanjari' hai jo inhonne sanvat 1678 mein jahaaaingeer ke liye banaai aur isi ke aadhaar par inka janm sanvat 1660 ke aaspaas sveekaar kiya jaata hai kyonki "fool manjari" ki rachana ke samay ve 18 varsh ke lagbhag rahe honge. inka doosra granth 'rasaraaj' inki prasiddhi ka mukhya aadhaar hai. yeh shrungaararas aur naayikaabhed par likha granth hai aur reetikaal mein bihaari satasai ke samaan hi lokapriya raha. iska rachanaakaal savant 1690 aur 1700 ke madhya maana jaata hai. is granth mein sukumaar bhaavon ka atyant lalit chitran hai. inke anek chhand hindi saahitya ke utkrusht chhandon mein parignit hain. yeh rasikjanon ka kanthahaar raha hai aur iski anek teekaaeain huin hain.

inka teesara granth 'lalit lalaam' booaindi naresh bhaavasinh ke aashray mein likha gaya alankaaron ka granth hai. iska rachanaakaal sanvat 1720 ke aaspaas maana jaata hai. is granth mein lakshan chandraalok, kuvalayaanand naamak sanskrut granthon ke aadhaar par hain, par udaaharan apne hain. ismein rasaraaj ke bhi kuchh chhand aae hain. rasaraaj ki nishhal bhaavukata ke sthaan par ismein sookshm kalpanaasheelata spasht hoti hai.

matiraam ki antim rachana 'satasai' hai. yeh sankalan sanvat 1740 ke aaspaas bihaari satasai ke uparaant kiya gaya jaan padta hai. iski rachana bhoop bhoganaath ke liye ki gayi thi. satasai mein saras evam lalit brajabhaasha ke dohe hain. adhikaansh vishay shrungaar aur neeti sambandhi hain.

yadyapi matiraam ke sabhi granth mahatvapoorn hain, fir bhi sabse adhik mahatvapoorn satasai, rasaraaj aur lalit lalaam hain.

matiraam (dviteeya)

dviteeya matiraam ka parichay keval "vruttakaumudi" ke aadhaar par praapt hota hai. iske anusaar in matiraam ke pita ka naam vishvanaath, pitaamah ka balabhadr aur prapitaamah ka giridhr tha. ye vats gotreeya tripaathi the aur inka nivaasasthaan banapur tha. inki rachana "alankaar panchaasika" alankaar par sanvat 1747 vikram mein likha sankshipt granth hai. granth ke antargat 116 vein dohe mein rachanaakaal diya hua hai. yeh kumaayooain naresh udotachandr ke putr jnyaaanachandr ke liye likha gaya tha. ismein doha, kavitt, savaiya aadi chhandon ka prayog hai. 'saahityasaar' das prushthon ka chhota sa granth naayikaabhed par likha gaya tha. iska rachanaakaal samvat 1740 vikram ke aaspaas hai. "lakshan shrungaar" shrungaar ras ke bhaavon evam vibhaavon ka varnan karanevaala granth hai.

dviteeya matiraam ka sabse bada granth vrutt kaumudi hain. vrutt kaumudi ke anek chhandon mein chhandasaar sangrah naam milta hai. yeh granth sanvat 1758 mein shreenagar (gadhvaal) ke raaja fatehasaahi bundela ke putr svaroop Singh bundela ke aashray mein likha gaya. yeh paaainch prakaashon mein chhand sambandhi vividh soochana denevaala granth hai. chhand par yeh ek mahatvapoorn granth hai.

dviteeya matiraam yadyapi prasiddh matiraam ke samaan utkrusht pratibhaavaale kavi na the, fir bhi reetikaaleen kaviyon mein inka mahatvapoorn sthaan hona chaahiye.

sandarbh

  1. hindi saahitya ka adyatan itihaas, daa0 mohan avasthi, sarasvati press Allahabad, sanskaran 1973, prushth-147