matadaan

matadaan ek mahatvapoorn lokataantrik prakriya hai.

matadaan (Voting) nirnaya lene ya apna vichaar prakat karne ki ek vidhi hai jiske dvaara koi samooh (jaise koi nirvaachan kshetr ya kisi milan mein ikatthe log) vichaar-vinimay tatha bahas ke baad koi nirnaya le paate hain. matadaan ki vyavastha ke dvaara kisi varg ya samaaj ka sadasya raajya ki sansad ya vidhaanasabha mein apna pratinidhi chunane ya kisi adhikaari ke nirvaachan mein apni ichha ya kisi prastaav par apna nirnaya prakat karta hai. is drushti se yeh vyavastha sabhi chunaavon tatha sabhi sansadeeya ya pratyaksh vidhinirmaan mein prayukt hoti hai. adhinaayakavaadi sarkaar mein adhinaayak dvaara pehle se liye gaye nirnayon par vyakti ko apna mat prakat karne ke liye kaha ja sakta hai, parantu apne nirnayon ko aaropit karne ke adhinaayak ke vibhinn dhang is prakaar ke matadaan ko keval aupachaarik pravidhi tak seemit kar dete hain. janatantraatmak sarkaar mein hi matadaan ko pramukh kshetr tatha mahatva praapt hota hai.

anukram

itihaas

praacheen Bhaarat mein gutikaapaat (lot) ke atirikt matadaan dvaara bhi adhikaariyon ke nirvaachan ki vyavastha thi. dhaarmik sansthaaon mein, visheshat: bauddh sanghon mein, nirvaachan ke nishchit niyamon ka paalan kiya jaata tha. "chullabagg" mein sakya dvaara matadaan ki teen pravidhiyon ka ullekh hai : gupt matadaan, kaan mein kehkar mat prakat karne ki, pravidhi tatha khula matadaan. gupt matadaan ke liye bauddh sangh matapariptr ke roop mein rangeen kaashth shalaakaaon ka prayog karte the. shalaakaaon ka sangraahak matadaataaon ko rangon ke arth samajhaakar unke mat sangrah karta tha aur bahumat ka nirnaya maanya hota tha. Europe mein praacheen yoonaan tatha Italy mein matadaan ki vyavastha ankur roop mein vidyamaan thi. praacheen raajatantron mein yeh prachalan tha ki kuchh gambhir vishyon par swayam nirnaya lene ke poorv raaja apni praja ki sanmati praapt karne ke liye use aamantrit kare. aisi sabhaaon mein mat prakat karne ka dhang maukhik tha. Athens mein gutikaapaat ke atirikt jahaaain matadaan ki vyavastha thi vahaaain haath uthaakar mat prakat karne ki pratha thi. parantu kisi vyakti ke saamaajik star par prabhaav daalne vaale vishyon par gupt matadaan ki vyavastha thi. rom mein idru poodru doosari shataabdi tak matadaan ka dhang "vibhaajan" ka (arthaat ek mat ke logon ka doosare mat ke logon se alag ho jaana) tha. parantu adhiktar matadaataaon ka saamanton par aarthik tatha saamaajik avalanb hone ke kaaran yeh vyavastha svatantr matadaan ke liye upayukt na ho saki. at: vidhaan dvaara matapariptr ki vyavastha ki gayi jiske liye momaranjit kaashthashalaaka prayukt hoti thi.

mahatva

aadhunik janatantron ke matadaan ke mahatva tatha usaki pranaali ke sambandh mein vibhinn siddhaant pratipaadit kiye gaye hain. in siddhaanton ke falasvaroop, aavashyakta ke samay sangharsh nivaaran ki saamaajik pravidhi ke roop mein; shaasan satta ke prati anuvrutti praapt karne ke dhang ke roop mein; saamaajik sangharsh ke beech saamanjasya sthaapit karne ke saadhan ke roop mein; theek paristhitiyon mein theek nirnaya praapt karne ki paddhati ke roop mein, saamaajik aavashyakataaon tatha asantoshon ko anaavrutti ki vyavastha ke roop mein; tatha alpasankhyakon ko raajya ke laabhon se vanchit rakhane ki vyavastha se bachaane ke dhang ke roop mein, matadaan ko maanyata praapt hui hai. haal mein, is samasya par yathesht dhyaan diya jaane laga hai ki jinhein mataadhikaar praapt hai ve kis seema tak is adhikaar ke prayog mein bhaag lene ka kasht karte hain. is vishay mein ki gayi khoj ke anusaar un janatantraatmak deshon ke log matadaan mein adhiktam sankhya mein bhaag lete hain jahaaain "anivaarya matadaan" ki vyavastha apnaai gayi hai. anivaarya matadaan ka siddhaant sarvapratham vistaar ke saath Switzerland ke seintagailen naamak kaintan mein vyavahrut hua jiske liye san 1835 idru mein ise kaintan ne jila parishd ke chunaavon mein akaaran bhaag na lenevaalon ke liye vidhaan dvaara arthadand ki vyavastha ki. yeh vyavastha Swiss naagrikon ko mataadhikaar ke uttaradaayitv ka anubhav karaane mein safal hui hai. saath hi, is vyavastha ke falasvaroop matadaataaon ko matadaan mein sanmilit hone ke liye unhein ghar se baahar laane ka raajaneetik sangathanon ka kaaryabhaar bhi halka hua hai. isi prakaar baveriya ne san 1881 idru mein, bulageriya ne san 1882 idru tatha Belgium ne san 1893 idru anivaarya matadaan ki vyavastha apnaai. baveriya ki vyavastha ke anusaar yadi matadaataaon ki poori sankhya ke ek tihaai se adhik log matadaan mein bhaag naheen lete to anupasthit matadaataaon ko pun: chunaav karaane ka poora vyaya vahan karna padega. Belgium ne anupasthit matadaataaon ke liye teen dand nirdhaarit kiye antarvivek par—aarth dand, saarvajanik bhartsana tatha mataadhikaar apaharan.

anivaarya matadaan ke vipaksh mein saamaanyat: yeh kaha jaata hai ki yeh vyavastha aadhaarit aapatti karanevaale (conscientious objector) ke liye koi sthaan naheen chhodti, tathaapi matadaan na karne vaalon ka charitra utana mahatvapoorn vishay naheen hai jitna is baat par dhyaan dena ki mat praapt karne ke liye kin saadhanon ka prayog kiya jaata hai. yadi kisi desh mein anuchit saadhanon dvaara keval vishisht uddeshyon evam svaarthon ki poorti ke liye sachesht raajaneetik sangathan hi matadaataaon ko matadaan mein sanmilit hone ki prerana dete hain, tatha is prakaar apne paksh mein unke mat sangrah karte hain to nishchaya hi nirvaachan tatha matadaan ka prabandh sarkaar ke haathon saupana adhik shreyaskar hoga taaki yeh kaarya adhik uttaradaayitv ke saath sampann ho sake.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain