mastishk

maanav mastishk

mastishk jantuon ke kendreeya tantrika tantr ka niyantran kendra hai. yeh unke aacharanon ka niyman env niyantran karta hai. stanadhaari praaniyon mein mastishk sir mein sthit hota hai tatha khopadi dvaara surakshit rahata hai. yeh mukhya jnyaaanendriyon, aaainkh, naak, jeebh aur kaan se juda hua, unke kareeb hi sthit hota hai. mastishk sabhi reedhdhaari praaniyon mein hota hai parantu ameroodandi praaniyon mein yeh kendreeya mastishk ya svatantr gaingaliya ke roop mein hota hai. kuchh jeevon jaise nidaariya env taara machhali mein yeh kendreebhoot na hokar shareer mein yatr tatr faila rahata hai, jabki kuchh praaniyon jaise spanj mein to mastishk hota hi nahi hai. uchch shreni ke praaniyon jaise maanav mein mastishk atyant jatil hote hain. maanav mastishk mein lagbhag 1 arab (1,00,00,00,000) tantrika koshikaaen hoti hai, jinmein se pratyek anya tantrika koshikaaon se 10 hajaar (10,000) se bhi adhik sanyog sthaapit karti hain. mastishk sabse jatil ang hai.[1]

mastishk ke dvaara shareer ke vibhinn ango ke kaaryon ka niyantran evam niyman hota hai. at: mastishk ko shareer ka maalik ang kehte hain. iska mukhya kaarya gyaan, buddhi, tarkashakti, smaran, vichaar nirnaya, vyaktitv aadi ka niyantran evam niyman karna hai. tantrika vigyaan ka kshetr poore vishv mein bahut teji se viksit ho raha hai. bade-bade tantrikeeya rogon se nipatne ke liye aanvik, koshikeeya, aanuvanshik evam vyavahaarik staron par mastishk ki kriya ke sandarbh mein samagr kshetr par vichaar karne ki aavashyakta ko poori tarah mahasoos kiya gaya hai. ek naye adhyayan mein nishkarsh nikaala gaya hai ki mastishk ke aakaar se vyaktitv ki jhalak mil sakti hai. vaastav mein bachchon ka janm ek alag vyaktitv ke roop mein hota hai aur jaise jaise unke mastishk ka vikaas hota hai uske anurup unka vyaktitv bhi taiyaar hota hai.[2]

mastishk (Brain), khopadi (Skull) mein sthit hai. yeh chetna (consciousness) aur smruti (memory) ka sthaan hai. sabhi jnyaaaneindriyon - netr, karn, naasa, jihra tatha tvacha - se aaveg yaheen par aate hain, jinko samajhna arthaat gyaan praapt karna mastishk ka kaamr hai. peshiyon ke sankuchan se gati karavaane ke liye aavegon ko tantrikaasootron dvaara bhejane tatha un kriyaaon ka niyman karne ke mukhya kendra mastishk mein hain, yadyapi ye kriyaaeain meroorajju mein sthit bhinn kendro se hoti rahati hain. anubhav se praapt hue gyaan ko sagrah karne, vichaarane tatha vichaar karke nishkarsh nikaalne ka kaam bhi isi ang ka hai.

anukram

mastishk ki rachana

mastishk mein oopar ka bada bhaag pramastishk (hemispheres) kapaal mein sthit hain. inke peechhe ke bhaag ke nache ki or anumastishk (cerebellum) ke do chhote chhote golaargh jude hue dikhaai dete hain. iske aage ki or vah bhaag hai, jisko madhyamastishk ya madhyamasturlug (midbrain or mesencephalon) kehte hain. isse neeche ko jaata hua meroosheersh, ya medula aublaangeta (medulla oblongata), kehte hai.

pramastishk aur anumastishk jhilliyon se dhake hue hain, jinko taanikaaeain kehte hain. ye teen hain: drudh taanika, jaali taanika aur mrudu taanika. sabse baaharavaali drudh taanika hai. ismein ve badi badi shiraaeain rahati hain, jinke dvaara rakt lautata hai. kalaapaasthi ke bhagn hone ke kaaran, ya chot se kshati ho jaane par, usamein sthit shiraaon se rakt nikalkar mastishk me jama ho jaata hai, jiske dabaav se masshtishk ki koshikaaeain bekaam ho jaati hain tatha angon ka pakshaaghaat (paralysis) ho jaata hai. is taanika se ek falak nikalkar donon golaardho ke beech mein bhi jaata hai. ye falak jahaaain tahaaain do staron mein vibhkt hokar un chaudi nalikaaon ka nirmaan karte hain, jinmein se haakar lautanevaala rakt tatha kuchh pramastishk meroodrav bhi lautate hai.

pramastishk

iske donon golaargho ka anya bhaagon ki apeksha bahut bada hona manushya ke mastishk ki visheshata hai. donon golaardh kapaal mein daahini aur baain or saamane lalaat se lekar peechhe kapaal ke ant tak faile hue hain. anya bhaag inse chhipe hue hain. golaardho ke beech mein ek gahari khaai hai, jiske tal mein ek chaudi feete ke samaan mahaasanyojak (Corpus Callosum) naamak rachana se donon golaardh jure hue hain. golaardho ka rang oopar se ghoosar dikhaai deta hai.

golaardho ke baahya prushth mein kitne hi gahre vidr bane hue hain, jahaaain mastishk ke baahya prushth ki vastu uske bheetar ghus jaati hai. aisa prateet hota hai, maano prushth par kisi vastu ki tah ko failaakar samet diya gaya hai, jisse usamein silvatein pad gayi hain. is kaaran mastishk ke prushth par anek badi chhoti khaaiyaaain ban jaati hain, jo parikha (Sulcus) kahalaati hain. parikhaaon ke beech dhoosar mastishk prushth ke mude hue chakraanshavatad bhaag karnak (Gyrus) kahalaate hain, kyonki ve karnashushkali ke samaan mude hue se hain. badi aur gahari khaaiyau vidr (Fissure) kahalaati hai aur mastishk ke vishisht kshetron ko pruthak karti hai. mastishk ke saamane, paarshv tatha peechhe ke bade-bade bhaag ko unki sthiti ke anusaar khaand (Lobes) tatha khaandika (Lobules) kaha gaya hai. golaardh ke saamane ka khand lalaatakhand (frontal lobe) hai, jo lalaataasthi se dhainka rahata hai. isi prakaar paarshvika (Parietal) khand tatha pashchakapaal (Occipital) khand tatha shankh khand (temporal) hain. in sab par parishkhaaeain aur karnak bane hue hain. kai vishesh vidr bhi hain. chitr 2. aur 3 mein inke naam aur sthaan dikhaae gaye hain. kuchh vishisht vidron tatha parikhaaon ki vivechana yahaaain ki jaati hai. paarshivk khand par madhyaparikha (central sulcus), jo rolaido ka vidr (Fissure of Rolando) bhi kahalaati hai, oopar se neeche aur aage ko jaati hai. iske aage ki or pramastishk ka sanchaalan bhaag hai, jiski kriya se peshiyaaain sankuchit hoti hai. yadi vahaaain kisi sthaan par vidyutadutejana di jaati hai to jin peshiyon ko vahaaain ki koshikaaon se sootr jaate hain unka sankoch hone lagta hai. yadi kisi arbud, shoth daab aadi se koshikaaeain nasht ya akarmanaya ho jaati hain, to peshiyaaain sankoch naheen, karateen. unamein pakshaghaat ho jaata hai. das vidr ke peechhe ka bhaag aaveg kshetr hai, jahaaain bhinn bhinn sthaanon ki tvacha se aaveg pahuaincha karte hain. peechhe ki or pashchakapaal khand mein drushtikshetr, shook vidr (calcarine fissure) drushti ka sambandh isi kshetr se hai. drushtitantrika tatha path dvaara gaye hue aaveg yahaaain pahuainchakar drusht vastuon ke (impressions) prabhaav utpann karte hain.

neeche ki or shankhakhand mein vilviyv ke vidr ke neeche ka bhaag tatha pratham shankhakarnak shravan ke aavegon ko grahan karte hain. yahaaain shravan ke chihron ki utpatti hoti hai. yahaaain ki koshikaaeain shabd ke roop ko samajhti hain. shankhakhand ke bheetari prushth par hippokainpi karnak (Hippocampal gyrus) hai, jahaaain gandh ka gyaan hota hai. svaad ka kshetr bhi isse sambandhit hai. gandh aur svaad ke bhaag aur shaktiyaaain kuchh jantuon mein manushya ki apeksha bahut viksit hain. yaheen par rolaindo ke vidr ke peechhe sparshajnyaaan praapt karanevaala bahut sa bhaag hai.

lalaatakhand anya sab jantuon ki apeksha manushya mein badha hua hai, jiske agrim bhaag ka vishesh vikaas hua hai. yeh bhaag samast prerak aur aavegakeindron se sanyojakasootron (association fibres) dvaara sambaddh hai, visheshakar sanchaalak kshetr ke sameep sthit un keindron se, jinka netr ki gati se sambandh hai. isaliye yeh maana jaata hai ki yeh bhaag sookshm kaushalayukt kriyaaon ka niyman karta hai, jo netr mein pahuainche hue aavegon par nirbhar karti hain aur jinmein smruti tatha anubhaav ki aavashyakta hoti hai. manushya ke bolne, likhne, haath ki aainguliyon se kala ki vastueain taiyaar karne aadi mein jo sookshm kriyaaeain hoti hain, unka niyantran yaheen se hota hai.

pramastishk uchch bhaavanaaon ka sthaan maana jaata hai. manushya ke jo gun use pashu se pruthak kate hain, un sabka sthaan pramastishk hai.

paarshv nilya (Lateral Ventricles) - yadi golaardho ko anuprasth disha mein kaata jaaya to uske bheetar khaali sthaan ya guha milegi. donon golaardho mein yeh guha hai, jisko nilya kaha jaata hai. ye golaardho ke agrim bhaag lalaatakhand se peechhe pashchakhand tak vistrut hain. inke bheetar mastishk par ek ati sookshm kala aachhaadit hai, jo antareeya kahalaati hai. mrudutaanika ki jaalika donon nilyon mein sthit hai. in guhaaon mein pramastishk meroodrav bhara rahata hai, jo ek sookshm chhidr kshara, jise munaro ka chhidr (Foramen of Munro) kehte hain, drushtichetakaan (optic thalamii) ke beech mein sthit truteeya nilya mein jaata rahata hai.

pramastishk praantastha (Cerebral Cortex)- pramastishk ke prushth par jo dhoosar rang ke padaarth ka mota star chadha hua hai, vah praantastha kahalaata hai. iske neeche shvet rang ka antasth (medulla) bhaag hai. usamein bhi jahaaain tahaaain dhoosar rang ke dweep aur kai chhoti chhoti dveepikaaeain hain. inko keindrak (nucleus) kaha jaata hai.

praantastha star visheshakar tantrika koshikaaon ka bana hua hai, yadyapi usamein koshikaaon se nikle hue sootr aur nyooromliya naamak sanyojak ootak bhi rahate hain, kintu is star mein koshikaaon ki hi pradhaanata hoti hai.

swayam praantastha mein kai star haate hain. sootron ke star mein do prakaar ke sootr hain: ek ve jo bhinn bhinn keindron ko aapas mein jode hue hain (inmein se bahut se sootr neeche meroosheersh ya me degree ke keindron tatha anumastishk se aate hain, kuchh mastishk hi mein sthit keindron se sambandh sthaapit karte hain); doore ve satr hain J vahaaain ki koshikaaon se nikalkar neeche ant:-sanput mein che jaate hain aur vahaaain piraamideeya path (pyramidial tract) mein ekatr haakar me degree mein pahuainchate hain.

manushya tatha uchch shreni ke pashuon, jaise ep, gaarilla aadi mein, praantastha mein vishisht staron ka banana vikaas ki unnat seema ka dyotak hai. nimn shreni ke jantuon mein na praantastha ka stareebhavan hi milta hai aur na pramastishk ka itna vikaas hota hai.

antatastha - yeh visheshataya praantastha ki kaashikaaon se nikle hue apavaahi tatha unamein janevaale abhivaahi sootron ka bana hua hai. in sootrapunjon ke beech kaashikaaon ke samooh jahaaain tahaaain sthit hain aur unka rang dhoosar hai. anntastha shvet rang ka hai.

anumastishk

mastishk ke pichhle bhaag ke neeche anumastishk sthit hai. uske saamane ki or maghyamastishk hai, jiske teen stambhon dvaara vah mastishk se juda hua hai. baahya prushth dhoosar padaarth se aachhaadit hone ke kaaran iska rang bhi dhoosar hai aur pramastishk ki hi bhaaainti uske bheetar shvet padaarth hai. ismein bhi do golaardh hain, jinka kaatne se beech mein shvet rang ki, vruksh ki shaakhaaon ki si rachana dikhaai deti hai. anumastishk mein vidron ke gahre hone se vah patrakon (lamina) mein vibhkt he gaya hai. aisi rachana prashaakhaaroopita (Arber vitae) kahalaati hai.

anumastishk ka sambandh visheshakar ant:karn se aur peshiyon tatha sandhiyon se hai. anya angon se sanvedanaaeain yahaaain aati rahati hain. un sabka saamanjasya karna is ang ka kaam hai, jisse angon ki kriyaaeain sam roop se hoti rahein. shareer ko theek banaae rakhana is ang ka vishesh karm hai. jin sootron dvaara ye sanveg anumatishk ki antastha mein pahuainchate hain, ve praantastha se golaardh ke bheetar sthit dantur keindrak (dentate nucleus) mein pahuainchate hain, jo ghoosar padaarth, arthaat koshikaaon, ka ek bada punj hai. vahaaain se nae sootr madhyamastishk mein doosari or sthit laal keindrak (red nucleus) mein pahuainchate hain. vahaaain se sanveg pramastishk mein pahuainch jaate hain.

madhyamastishk (Mid-brain)

anumastishk ke saamane ka oopar ka bhaag madhyamastik aur neeche ka bhaag meroosheersh (Medulla oblongata) hai. anumastishk aur pramastishk ka sambandh madhyamastishk dvaara sthaapit hota hai. maghyamastishk mein hote hue sootr pramastishk mein usi or, ya madhyarekha ko paar karke doosari or ko, chale jaate hain.

madhyamastishk ke beech mein silviys ki anunalika hai, jo trutiya nilya se chaturth nilya mein pramastishk meroodrav ko pahuainchaati hai. iske oopar ka bhaag do samakon parikhaaon dvaara chaar utsedhon mein vibhkt hai, jo chatushtaya kaaya ya pind (Corpora quadrigemina) kaha jaata hai. oopari do utsedhon mein drushtitantrika dvaara netr ke retina patal se sootr pahuainchate hain. in utsedhon se netr ke taare mein honevaali un prativrt kriyaaon ka niyman hota hai, jinse taara sankuchit ya vistrut hota hai. neeche ke utsedhon mein ant:karn ke kaalkeeya bhaag se sootr aate hain aur unke dvaara aae hue sanvegon ko yahaaain se nae sootr pramastishk ke shankhakhand ke pratistha mein pahuainchaate hain.

meroorajju se anya sootr bhi madhyamastishk mein aate hain. peeda, sheet, ushnata aadi ke yahaaain aakar, kai punjo mein ekatr hokar, meroosheersh dvaara usi or ko, ya doosari or paar hokar, pauns aur madhyamastishk dvaara thailemas mein pahuainchate hain aur mastishk mein apne nirdisht kendra ko, ya praantasya mein, chale jaate hain.

anunalika ke saamane yeh neeche ke bhaag dvaara bhi prerak tatha sanvedanasootr anek bhaagon ko jaate hain. sanyojanasootr bhi yahaaain paae jaate hain.

pauns vaaroliaai (Pons varolii)- yeh bhaag meroosheersh aur madhyamastishk ke beech mein sthit hai aur donon anumastishk ke golaardhon ko milaae rahata hai. chitr mein yeh gol urootsedh ke roop mein saamane ki or nikla hua dikhaai deta hai. mastishk ki peeraksha karne par usapar anuprasth disha mein jaate hue sootr chhaae hue dikhaai dete hain. ye sootr ant:sanput aur madhyamastishk se pauns mein hote hue meroosheersh mein chale jaate hain. sab sootr itne uttal naheen hain. kuchh gahre sootr oo par se aanevaale piraamid path ke sootron ke neeche rahate hain. piraamid pathon ke sootr vishesh mahatva ke hain, jo pauns mein hokar jaate hain. anya kai sootrapunj bhi pauns mein hokar jaate hain, jo anudairdhya, madhyam aur paarshv panj kahalaate hain. is bhaag mein paaainchaveen, chhathi, saataveen aur aathaveen tantrikaaon ke keindrak sthit hain.

meroosheersh (Medulla oblongata) - dekhne se yeh me degree ka bhaag hi dikhaai deta hai, jo oopar jaakar madhyamastishk aur pauns mein mil jaata hai; kintu iski rachana meroorajju se bhinn hai. iske peechhe ki or anumastishk hai. yahaaain iska aakaar merurajju se dugana ho jaata hai. iske chaude aur chapate prushthabhaag par ek chaukor aakaar ka khaat ban gaya hai, jispar ek jhilli chhaai rahati hai. yeh chaturth nilya (Fourth ventricle) kahalaata hai, jismein silviys ki nalika dvaara pramastishk meroodrav aata rahata hai. iske peechhe ki or anumastishk hai.

meroosheershak atyant mahatva ka ang hai. hrutsanchaalak kendra, shvaasakeindr tatha raktasanchaalak kendra chaturth nilya mein nichle bhaag mein sthit hain, jo in kriyaaon ka niyantran karte hain. isi bhaag mein aathaveen, naveen, dasveen, gyaarahaveen aur baarahaveen mastishkeeya tantrikaaon ke kendra bhi sthit hain. yeh bhaag pramastishk, anumastishk tatha madhyamastishk se anek sootron dvaara juda hua hai aur anek sootr meroorajju mein jaate aur vahaaain se aate hain. ye sootr punjon mein samoohit hain. ye vishesh sootrapunj hain:

1. piraamid path (Pyramidal tract), 2. madhyam anudairdhyapunj (Median Longitudinal bundles), tatha 3. madhyam punjika (Median filler).

piraamid path mein keval prerak (motor) sootr hain, jo pramastishk ke praantastha ki prerak koshikaaon se nikalkar ant:sanput mein hote hue, madhyamastishk aur pauns se nikalkar, meroosheershak mein aa jaate hain aur do punjon mein ekatrit hokar rajju ki madhya parikha ke saamane aur peechhe sthit hokar neeche ko chale jaate hain. neeche pahuainchakar kuchh sootr doosari or paar ho jaate hain aur kuchh usi or neeche jaakar tab doosari or paar hote hain, kintu ant mein sast sootr doosari or chale jaate hain. jahaaain ve peshiyon aadi mein vitrit hote hain. isi kaaran mastishk par ek or chot lagne se, ya vahaaain raktasraav hone se, us or ki koshikaaaan ke akarmanaya ho jaane par shareer ke doosari or ki peshiyon ka sanstanbh hota hai.

madhyam anudairdhya punjon ke sootr maghyamastishk aur pauns mein hote hue meroosheersh mein aate hain aur kai tantrikaaaan ke kendra ko us or tatha doosari or bhi jodte hain, jisse donon or ki tantrikaaon ki kriyaaon ka niyman sabhav hota hai.

'madhyam punjika mein keval sanvedan sootr hain. chah punjika uparyukt donon punjon ke beech mein sthit hai. ye sootr merurajju se aakar, piraamid sootron ke aarapaar hone se oopar jaakar, doosari or ke daahine sootr baain or aur vaam disha ke sootr daahini or ko pramastishk mein sthit keindro mein chale jaate hain.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain