masjid

musalmaanon ki ibaadat gaah ko masjid kehte hain. ise namaaj ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai musalmaanon ke praarambhik kaal mein masjide nabavi ko videsh se aane vaale ofod se mulaakaat aur charcha ke liye bhi istemaal kiya gaya tha. masjid se musalmaanon ki pehli vishvavidyaalayon (vishvavidyaalayon) ne bhi janm liya hai. iske alaava islaami vaastukala bhi mukhya roop se masjidon se vikaas hui hai.

anukram

masjid ka matlab

shabd masjid ka shaabdik arth hai 'pranaam' karne ki jagah. urdoo sahit musalmaanon ki aksar bhaashaaon mein yahi shabd istemaal hota hai. yeh arabi jaati shabd hai. angreji aur Europeeya bhaashaaon mein iske liye 'mosk' (Mosque) shabd ka prayog kiya jaata hai haalaanki kai musalmaan ab angreji aur anya Europeeya bhaashaaon mein bhi masjid (Masjid) prayog karte hain kyonki unke vichaar mein yeh Spanish shabd mosaka (Moska) basamajhani machhar se nikla hai. lekin kuchh logon ke vichaar mein yeh sahi naheen hai. ahale islaam ke paas, masjid, vah imaarat matlab hai sansaar namaaj party ada ki jaati hai. agar masjid mein namaaj shukravaar bhi hoti ho to use jaama masjid kehte hain. masjid shabd Quraan mein bhi aaya hai jaise masjid haraam ke zikr mein beshumaar aayaat mein yeh shabd istemaal hua hai. kuchh vidvaanon ke vichaar mein sabhi masjidon vaastav mein masjid haraam hi drushtaant hain haalaanki baad mein bahut shaanadaar aur vibhinn aalaanoaa shaili haaya nirmaan paida hue jisse ek alag islaami vaastukala ne janm liya.

itihaas

masjid Ali najaf, Iraq
jaama aalakairoaan aalaakabar tayoonas sabse puraana masjidon mein se ek
baniyaabaashi masjid, dafaya bulgaariya
keindreeya masjid London, Britain

pehli masjid

sabse pehli masjid kaaba tha. kaaba Allah ke aaspaas masjid haraam ka nirmaan hua. ek parampara ke anusaar kaaba vah jagah hai jahaan sabse pehle hajrat aadam alaihissalaam aur hajrat havva alaihissalaam ne jameen par namaaj padhi thi. isi jagah par hajrat ibraaheem alaihissalaam ne hajrat ismaail alaihissalaam ke saath ek masajid nirmaan ki. yahi jagah masjid al–haram kahalaai. kai paranparaaon ke anusaar yaheen hajrat muhammad sa0v a0va0 ne pehle pahal praarthana ada keen. doosari masjid, masjid kabaaya 'thi jiski neenv hajrat muhammad s upakaran aur slim madeena se kuchh baahar us samay rakhi jab vah makka se madeena hijrat farama rahe the. teesari masjid, masjide nabavi' thi jiski neenv bhi hajrat muhammad s upakaran aur slim ne madeene mein hijrat ke baad rakhi aur nirmaan mein swayam bhaag liya. masjide nabavi musalmaanon ka dhaarmik, saamaajik aur raajaneetik kendra tha. aaj masjid haraam aur masjide nabavi musalmaanon ki pavitra sabse sthaan hain.

Asia ki masjidein (masaajid=bahuvachan)

daniyaae arab se baahar islaam ke failane ke saath hi masjidein nirmaan ho gain. unamein se kuchh masjid terah sau saal puraane hain. 640 A mein misr ki jeet ke saath hi masjid ka nirmaan hua. baad mein vahaan jaamiya aalaajhar jaisi masjid nirmaan huin. misr baad mein khud ek arab kshetr ban gaya. cheen, Iran aur Hindustan mein aathaveen shataabdi mein masjid nirmaan ho chuki theen. cheen mein ژaayaan ki mahaan masjid (cheeni bhaasha mein: 西aa安 大 清aa真aa寺) aur havaayashing ki masjid (cheeni bhaasha mein : 怀 圣 寺) terah sau saal puraani hai aur vartamaan cheen ke keindreeya kshetr mein sthit hain. havaayashing ki masjid cheen ka daura karne vaale islaami dal ne 630 E. ke dashak mein banvaai thi jo islaam arab mein bilkul shuruaati daur tha. Iran ki jeet ke baad Iran, Iraq aur vartamaan afgaanistaan mein islaam faila to vahaan masjid nirmaan huin jinmein se kuchh terah sau saal puraane hain. bhaarateeya pehle sindh aur baad mein anya kshetron mein aathaveen shataabdi se masjid nirmaan hui. baad mein maruon ne badi aaleeshaan masjid ka nirmaan jinmein se kai aaj hain jaise jaama masjid Delhi (Delhi, Bhaarat) aur raajya masjid (Lahore, Pakistan) aadi. Turkey mein pehli masjid gyaarahaveen shataabdi mein banaaya hui.

afreeka ki masjidein

afreeka mein sabse pehle islaam shaayad habanag (vartamaan ithiyopiya) mein faila lekin jald hi islaam uttar afreeka ke deshon misr, tayoonas, Algeria, morakko aadi mein bhi fail gaya. tayoonas aur morakko mein sabse puraana masjidon aaj bhi maujood hain jaise jaamiya aalaajhar, vyaapak aalakairoaan aalaakabar, masjid jeene aadi. masjid jeene kachchi inton se nirmaan gayi duniya ki sabse badi imaarat hai aur vitteeya shahar jeene mein hai. isi tarah masjid katabaya jo morakko ki badi masjidon mein se ek hai, apne meenaar ke kaaran prasiddh jo vishesh morakko shaili hai. is masjid ke neeche ek samay mein kitaabon ki dhaai sau dukaanein theen. afreeka ke anya masjidon mein masjid husain (kaahira, misr) jo raas aalahasen ke naam se prasiddh hai, morakko ki masjid hasan sameeksha (duniya anya badi masjid aur duniya ke buland sabse meenaar waali masjid), mavareeaaniya ki masjid shanakee ya masjid shukravaar shanakee (masjidon mein doosra sabse puraana meenaar), Nigeria ki aaboja raashtreeya masjid aur anya anginat masjidon hain.

Europe mein masjidon

Europe mein Spain ki jeet ke saath hi masjid nirmaan huin jinmein se masjid kartabah puraatatv ke roop mein prasiddh hai. Spain ke musalmaanon ke haath se nikalne ke baad Europeeya sanyukt ne bahut sankeern vahaaain islaam ke aasaar mitaane ki bharpoor koshish ki. sabhi masjidon ko ya to dha diya gaya ya keetaaun mein parivrtit. masjid kartabah mein us samay (1492 E.) se praarthana ki kabhi anumati naheen di gayi. Europe ke adhikaansh vartamaan masjidon aadhunik daur mein bani hain haalaanki albaaniya, romaaniya, saaipras aur bosniya mein kuchh puraani masjidon hain. saaipras ki masjid laala Singh paasha (1298 E.) ki ek udaaharan hai. bosniya aur haraaabhagavoina kai praacheen masjidon ko 1990 ke dashak mein nasht kar diya gaya hai. Europe mein Turkey prabhaav ke baad kaafi masjidon ki nirmaan hua. Europe mein solahaveen shataabdi mein banane waali masjidon kuchh udaaharan hain:

  1. masjid kal shareef, kaajaan, taataarastaan, roos (1552 E.). Europe ki sabse badi masjid samajhi jaati hai
  2. bajaraakali masjid balagaraad, Serbia (1575 E.) 2004 mein use bhaari nuksaan pahunchaaya
  3. managaalaya masjid romaaniya (1525 E.)
  4. Ghaziabad khusaro bag masjid saraajeevo, bosniya (1531 E.)
  5. banavaabaashi masjid dafaya, bulgaariya (1576 E.)

aththaarahavi shataabdi mein nirmaan hone waali masjid mein tera, albaaniya ki masjid aadham be '(1789 E.) shaamil hai. unneesaveen aur beesaveen sadi mein Europe mein anginat masjidon ka nirmaan hua jo mukhya kaaran Europe ka musalmaan desh par kabja aur falasvaroop par musalmaanon aur unka mel jol aur musalmaanon ki pashchimi deshon ki taraf hijrat hain.

aadhunik yug ki masjidein

beesaveen sadi mein badi shaanadaar masjidon nirmaan hua hain vaastushilp gathabandhan hai. yeh na keval musalmaan deshon nirmaan hui hai balki Europeeya deshon mein bhi shumaar masjidon ka nirmaan hua hai. in masjidon ke udaaharan dhaaka ke beet aalamakaram, baronaai daaraalasalaam ki sultaan umar Ali saif aladeen masjid Indonesia ki masjid aajyakalaal (dakshin poorv Asia ki sabse badi masjid), Japan mein pehli masjid, masjid kobe 'Pakistan ki rajdhani Islamabad mein shaah Faizal masjid falapaan shahar Manila ki masjid aalajhab (sunahari masjid ke naam se prasiddh hai), Singapore ke aalamasajad aalaajyakaamaۃ, America mein islaami kendra Washington aur anya anginat masjidon hain.

prasiddh masjidein

  • masjid haraam, makka, Saudi arab musalmaanon ke liye pavitra sthaan
  • masjide nabavi, madeena, Saudi arab musalmaanon ke liye anya pavitra sthaan
  • masjid aakasi, baitul, Jammu filisteen. teesara pavitra sabse islaami sthaan
  • aalaajkhar masjid kaahira, misr
  • saida jainab masjid damishk, Syria majaar BBC jainab binte Ali
  • saida rakaya masjid damishk, Syria majaar BBC sakeena binte husain

masjidon ki bhoomika

dhaarmik bhoomika

masjidon musalmaanon ka dhaarmik kendra hai. ismein mukhya roop se namaaj party ka aayojan kiya jaata hai jismein panasthaana praarthana, praarthana shukravaar aur Eid ki praarthana hai. iske alaava bina kaaryon bhi hote hain. kisi jmaane mein masjidon ko daan aur jkoۃ vitran ke liye bhi istemaal kiya jaata tha jiska pratha ab kam hai. masjidein aksar Quraan ki shiksha ke liye ek kendra ka kaam karti hain. kai masjidon mein madarason bhi kaayam hain jo dhaarmik shiksha ka daayitv karta diya jaata hai.

saamaajik, shaikshanik aur raajaneetik bhoomika

masjidon musalmaanon ka kendra hai jiska uddeshya keval dhaarmik naheen balki musalmaanon ka saamaajik, shaikshanik aur raajaneetik kendra masjidein rahi hain. baajamaat praarthana musalmaanon ke aapas ke sambandh, mel jol aur sthiti traiking ke liye bada mahatvapoorn bhoomika ada karti hain. is ke alaava masjidon yuddhon aur anya aapaatkaaleen sthitiyon mein ek panaahagaah ka kaam karti rahi hain. yeh keval musalmaanon ke liye naheen balki gair musalameen ko sharan dene ke liye bhi hoti rahi hain jaise masjid peris dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan yahoodiyon ke liye sharan sthaan raha hai. masjidon vah jagah hain jahaan se pehli vishvavidyaalayon (vishvavidyaalayon) ne janm liya jaise jaamiya aalaajhar, jaamiya karaveein, jaamiya jyatoniya aadi. adhikaansh masjidon mein madarason sthaapit hain jinmein Quraan aur dharm ki shiksha ke saath saath vartamaan praathamik shiksha bhi di jaati rahi hai. poorvi deshon ke gaanvon mein kai masjidon mein saamaanya madarason bhi kaayam hain. kuchh masjidon ke islaami kendra hain jahaan deeni va daniyaavi shiksha ke saath shodh kendra sthaapit hain. masjidon ka raajaneetik charitra bhi aitihaasik taur par shuroo se jaari hai. masjide nabavi keval namaaj ke liye naheen rahi balki ismein videshon se aane vaale ofod se hajrat muhammad s upakaran aur slim ke daur mein mulaakaat hoti raheen. vibhinn gajoaat aur saraaya yojana bahas laae gaye. sadiyon tak masjidon mein kraantikaari aandolanon ne janm liya kyonki vah musalmaanon ke sampark ka ek mahatvapoorn srot rahi hain. aadhunik daur mein bhi masjidon ki raajaneetik bhoomika ki anadekhi naheen kar sakta jo spasht udaaharan laal masjid Islamabad ki hai. sarkaarein bhi masjidon aur masjidon ke jimme daaraan apne uddeshyon ke liye istemaal karti rahi hain.

vaastukala

masjid aalahajr, tareem, yaman ka meenaar

praarambhik masjidon bahut saral thi aur manjila saadhaaran imaarat bhi shaamil hoti thi jiske saath koi meenaar ya gunbad aavashyak naheen tha. islaam mein masjid ke liye keval sthaan vishesh hoti hai magar iske vaastushilp par kadagan naheen. shuruaat masjide nabavi khajoor ke tanon ke stambhon aur paton ki chhat se nirmaan hua tha. kaaba pattharon se bani ek chaukor imaarat thi jiske aaspaas khule parisar mein pooja hoti thi. lekin samay ke saath musalmaanon sansaadhan padhte chale gaye aur unhonne apni jaroorat aur kshetr ki sanskruti ke anusaar masjid nirmaan ki. masjidon mein mahange kaam aur buland meenaar aur gunbad baad mein banana shuroo hue. meenaar ke kaaran yeh tha ki masjid door se dikhaai, is par chadhkar ajaan di aavaaj door tak aae aur kshetr ki sanskruti aur kala ki jhalak thi. gunbad se masjid vakta ke bhaashan aur praarthana ki aavaaj ek goonj aur saundarya ke saath poori masjid mein faili thi. islaam choonki jeevit cheejon ki tasveerein protsaahit naheen isliye masjid ki tajin ke liye Quraan aayaat ka vibhinn sundar tareeke se istemaal kiya gaya aur vibhinn jayoomeetarak design bhi kiye gaye. samay, aavashyakta aur sanskruti ki jhalak ke kaaran masjid mein kai cheejein lagbhag aavashyak ho gain jaise meenaar, gumbad, masjid mein ek aangan, vujoo ke fvaare (ya taalaab ya nalakon jagah), namaaj ke liye haal (bada kamara) aadi. iske alaava aksar masjid ke hamaam (ya kam se kam beet lekin vahaan), pustakein box, mb (kleenik) aur kuchh masjidon ke saath madarason, anusandhaan kendra ya niyamit vishvavidyaalayon (vishvavidyaalaya) shaamil hain.

meenaar

meenaar masjid ke mukhya pehchaan hai jo masjid door se nazar aa sakta hai. mukhya roop se meenaar par chadhkar ajaan di jaati thi jisse aavaaj door tak jaati thi lekin ab ajaan masjid ke bheetar se kiya jaata hai kyonki laavad speaker se aavaaj ko door door tak pahunchaaya ja sakta hai. masjid meenaar ki oonchaai par kadagan naheen. yeh bahut chhota bhi ho sakta hai aur bahut ooncha bhi. Europe mein chhoti masjidon mein to meenaar hi naheen hote kyonki ve aksar ek ya do kamre hote hain. sabse lamba meenaar masjid hasan sameeksha, kaasaabalaanaka, morakko ka samjha jaata hai jo 210 meter (689 foot) ooncha hai.[1]
shuroo mein masjid ke meenaar naheen the aur ve bahut saral thi lekin jald hi meenaar masjid ka lagbhag hissa ban gaye. musalmaanon par aarop lagaaya hai ki meenaar keetaaoon ke meenaar dekhkar banaae gaye lekin yeh sahi naheen hai kyonki arab nirmaan mein pehle hi se meenaar bante the khaaskar vibhinn raksha kilon ke saath meenaar door tak dekhne ke liye banaae jaate the. masjidon mein menaaron ki ek se lekar chhah tak hoti hai. aksar masjidon mein chaar meenaar milte hain. Turkey ki kai masjidon mein chhah meenaar hain. masjidul haraam mein kul nau meenaar hain jo vibhinn samay nirmaan hue hain. masjide nabavi ke das meenaar hain jinmein se chhah 99 meter oonche hain.۔[2] raajya masjid Lahore, Pakistan ke meenaar 53.8 meter (17603 feet) lambe hain. meenaar ke oopar jaane ke liye do sau chaar seedhiyon hain.[3] masjid aalahajr, tareem, yaman ke meenaar ki lambaai 53 meter (175 feet) hai. masjid hasan sameeksha ki meenaar, raajya masjid ka meenaar aur masjid aalahajr ka meenaar duniya ke lambe sabse menaaron kuchh hain. menaaron ki prakaar vibhinn deshon mein alag hain. Pakistan, Bhaarat aur Iran mein meenaar aamtaur gol hote hain aur kaafi motaai hain. Turkey mein lagbhag meenaar gol par kam motaai vaale hote hain. shaam aur misr mein kai meenaar choras (varg aakaar ke) hote hain. misr mein hashat pahaloo meenaar bhi milte hain. lekin in sabhi uparokt deshon mein anya prakaar ke meenaar bhi milte hain. menaaron ke oopar laal, firoj ya anya pad va nigaar bhi banaae jaate hain jo unki khoobsoorti badh jaata hai. Iran aur Iraq mein kuchh meenaar sunahari rang ke bane hue hain jinke oopari hisse mein asli sone se malasamajh nivesh ki gayi hai.

gunbad

gunbad aajkal ki masjidon ka lagbhag hissa anivaarya hain. gunbad ka mukhya uddeshya keval saundarya naheen balki isse vakta masjid ki aavaaj poori masjid mein goonjati hai. iske alaava ab gunbad masjidon ki pehchaan ban chuki hai. hajrat muhammad sallallaahu alaihi va aur upakaran aur slim ka rauja mubaarak masjide nabavi mein hai jo hari gunbad bahut prasiddh hai. rauja mubaarak ki tasveerein sabse pramukh yahi gunbad hai.

masjid samaapt aalaanabiyaaya, beroot, Lebanon ka gunbad
masjid sultaan salaahuddeen ajeej Malaysia apne neele gunbad ke kaaran prasiddh hai

filisteen mein haram ghodasi aalashareef sthit kab aalasakhrah bhi aandolan svatantrata filisteen ki pehchaan hai. yeh musalmaanon ka shaayad sabse puraana sthaapit gunbad hai. kuchh log use masjid aksa samajhte hain jo galat hai. Iran mein masjid bahut khoobsoorat gunbad nirmaan hue hain. jaise masjid imaam, isfhaan ka gunbad ya masjid agencyan ​a​ashaad, mashahad ka gunbad. upamahaadveep Pak aur bhaarateeya gunbad bhi saksham deed hain. sindh mein arabon ke aagaman ke baad kai masjidon nirmaan hui jinke saath saral lekin bade gunbad the magar baad mein mugal baadashaahon ne badi shaanadaar masjidon nirmaan keen jaise raajya masjid Lahore, Pakistan ke safed gunbad bahut hi sundar aur bade hain. maruon nirmaan gayi baabari masjid ke gunbad bhi bahut bade the jo hindu aatankvaadiyon ne shaheed kar diya. aadhunik daur mein nirmaan hone Karachi, Pakistan ki masjidobi ka gunbad ek gunbad masjidon mein sabse bada hai jo 72 meter (236 feet) vyaas ka hai aur bina kisi stambh ke nirmaan hua hai. 1557 E. mein nirmaan hone waali saleemaya masjid aadarana, Turkey ka gunbad 27.2 meter vyaas ka hai aur yeh bhi duniya ke bade ganabadon mein shumaar hota hai. yeh gunbad puraana hone ke baavajood itna majaboot hai ki 1915 E. ki balgaariya ki topon ki bamabaari se bhi naheen toota aur keval aantarik parat ko nuksaan pahuncha. duniya mein bade ganabadon mein masjid sultaan salaahuddeen ajeej (neeli masjid), Malaysia ka gunbad bhi shaamil hai jo 170 feet vyaas ka hai. yaad rahe ki gunbad keval masjidon par naheen hote balki amareeka, vishvavidyaalayon aur kuchh jaanch kendron par bhi dekhe ja sakte hain. ganabadon ke aantarik hisson par badi sundar nakaashi bhi hoti hai aur aksar Quraan aayaat bhi likhi jaati hain. kuchh ganabadon mein sheeshe lage hote hain jisse roshani andar sakti hai. gunbad ke aantarik nakaashi adhikaansh gahre neele, firojaabaad ya laal rang mein ki jaati hai kyonki yeh rang oonche ganabadon mein gunbad ke neeche khade logon ko bakhoobi nazar aa sakte hain.

aangan masjid vujoo ki jagah, fvaare, taalaab aur hamaam

praacheen masjidon ke bade aangan hain jaise masjid haraam aur masjide nabavi ke aangan bahut bade hain jinmein samay ke saath vistaar aaya hai. in sahanon mein nissandeh laakhon log namaaj padh sakte hain. Lahore ki raajya masjid ka aangan bhi bahut bada hai jismein ek samay mein ek lakh ke kareeb log namaaj padh sakte hain. namaaj ke alaava puraane jmaane ki masjidon mein hoje (taalaab) zaroor hote the jo vujoo ke liye hote the.[4] kuchh taalaab aise bane hote the jinmein baarish paani nathar kar (filtar hokar) jaata tha. iska ek udaaharan tayoonas ki praacheen masjid jaama aalakairoaan aalaakabar hai. bade sahanon aur unke beech hoje ek aur udaaharan jaama masjid isfhaan, Iran hai. sultaan masjid burujardi, Iran ka aangan bhi bahut bada hai jiske teen aaspaas mein imaaratein hain. samarakand mein ameer timor banaae hue masjid BBC khaanam ka aangan bhi bade sahanon soochi mein shaamil hain. jaamiya aalaajhar aur misr hi ek masjid haakim ke aangan bahut bade hain. uddeshya yeh soochi bahut lambi hai. sabhi sahanon mein hoje hain aur kuchh mein fvaare bhi lage hue hain. kuchh masjidon jaise masjid peris ke hamaam bhi hain.

namaaj ke haal aur masjid ke stambh

masjid kartabah ke stambh

masjid mein namaaj ke liye aamtaur par ek bada kamara ya hall vishesh hai, jismein bahut upakaran naheen hota magar sundar aur aaraamadaayak kaaleen bichhe hain taaki adhik se adhik mein aasaani se namaaj ada kar sakein.[5] ismein aamtaur meharaab aur mimbar bhi hote hain. meharaab vah jagah hai mein imaam namaaj party karavaata hai aur mimbar par vakta bhaashan dete hain.[6] mimbar aamtaur lakdi ke banaae jaate the. sabse puraana lakdi ka mimbar vyaapak aalakairoaan aalaakabar, tayoonas mein jiska sambandh pehli sadi hijri hai. aajkal lakdi ke alaava cement aur kanakaret se mimbar banaae jaate hain jinke oopar sang maramar laga hai.
masjidon mein kendra bada kamara jo namaaj ke liye vishisht hota hai, aamtaur par beshumaar stambhon se lais hota hai kyonki bahut bade kamre ki chhat ko sahaara dene ke liye stambhon ki jaroorat padti hai. magar stambhon ka uddeshya keval chhat ko sahaara dena naheen balki isse masjid ki sundarata mein bhi vruddhi hoti hai. kuchh masjidon jaise masjid kartabah apne stambhon ke kaaran prasiddh ho jaati hain. stambhon ke nirmaan mein musalmaanon ne gyaan aalahindasah ke mahaan utkrusht janm diya hai. kuchh masjidon jaise jaama aalakairoaan aalaakabar mein chaar sau se adhik stambh hain. masjide nabavi ke kuchh stambh to aise hain jo puraane hain aur is baat ki pehchaan karte hain ki masjide nabavi hajrat muhammad s upakaran aur slim ke daur mubaarak mein kahaan tak ​a​athee. kuchh stambh nae hain. masjide nabavi aur masjidul haraam ke stambh bhi anginat hain. namaaj ke haal ka saamaanya drushya dekha jaae to kai stambhon aur sundar meharaab aur mimbar saath poore kamre mein kaaleen bichhe nazar aaenge jo aamtaur gahre laal ya safed rang ke hote hain. haal mein vibhinn konon mein topayon jagah nazar aati hai. iske alaava deevaaron ke saath vibhinn aalamaarayon mein Quraan aur anya dhaarmik pustakein padi hongi. aadhunik masjidon aur kuchh praacheen badi masjidon mein kuchh kursiyaaain bhi nazar aati hain par aise log baithate jo boodhe ya anya samasyaaon ki vajah se jameen par naheen baith sakte.

masjid mein tasveerein mana hain

musalmaan Allah se atoot prem karta hai, is ko prakat karne ki jagah masjid hai. sadiyon se masjidon Quraan aayaat aur anya nakaashi ka utkrusht banti rahi hain. kyonki islaam jeevit vastuon ki tasveerein banaane ke liye protsaahit naheen karta isliye masjidon ki aaraaish anya maapdand istemaal kiye gaye. masjidon par nakaashi ke liye gaadhe rangon ka upayog kiya jaata hai, jinmein firoj, gahra neela, sunahara aur laal rang adhik milte hain.

madarasa aalag bag, samarakand, ujbekistaan ka baareek deed jeb kaam
masjid imaam, isfhaan, Iran par aayaat aur anya nakaashi, firojaabaad aur bhoore rang mein jaane
masjid rauja shareef, majaar shareef, Afghanistan
saleemaya masjid, aadarana, Turkey ka gunbad andar se
masjidon mein Quraan aayaat ki khaatiya aur nakaashi nimnalikhit maamalon mein milti hai:
1) baahari darvaaje par, jo aamtaur par bahut bada hai aur iske aaspaas
2) gunbad aur chhat ke aantarik hisson par
3) masjid ki aantarik deevaaron par (aamtaur par) Quraan aayaat
4) meharaab aur mimbar ke paas
5) ganabadon aur menaaron ke baahar ki taraf

masjidon mein jaise upamahaadveep mein maruon nirmaan gayi masjidon, Iran aur madhya Asia mein mangolon aur safoyon nirmaan gayi masjidon, morakko, tayoonas, misr aadi mein nirmaan gayi masjidon aur Iraq aur anya arab kshetron ki masjidon sabhi ke pad aur nigaar aise hain jo sadiyon se jalavaayu taab se sthaapit hai. poorv ki garm rayatali hua ya baarish in rangon ka kuchh naheen bigaad saki. bigaad to hamlaavar sena ne khaaskar kroos sena ne. aadhunik daur mein 1993 ke lagbhag bosniya mein saikadon khoobsoorat masjidon ko nasht kiya gaya jinmein se kai kala nirmaan utkrusht theen magar itni praacheen masjidon ki tabaahi par pashchimi sansthaaon ne kan baraabar bhi chinta vyakt naheen kiya. haalaanki yeh sanyukt afgaanistaan mein mahaatma buddh ki moorti ki tabaahi bahut seekh pa hui theen. Turkey ki kai masjidon ko sangrahaalaya gharon mein badal diya gaya hai jaise pehle masjid aaya dafaya yahaan jo tasveer di gayi hai usamein lagta gunbad ke punarnirmaan ki ja rahi hai lekin vaastav mein is se musalmaanon ke nakaashi aur khaatiya ko hataakar iske neeche puraane aasaar sarch kiye ja rahe hain (jaise susamaachaar se sambandhit chitrakaari) kyonki Turkey mein islaam failane se pehle yeh amareeka thi. madhya Asia ki kai masjidon roosi kabje ke dauraan band ki gayi aur duniya ne masjidon ko samay puraatatv ka darja naheen diya isliye vah nasht ho gayi. unki suraksha par kuchh kaam ho raha hai. aadhunik masjidon par aisi khaatiya, nakaashi aur mehnat naheen milti.

masjidon ka upayog karne ke aadaab

musalmaanon ke liye masjid mein nimnalikhit baaton ka dhyaan rakhana aavashyak maana jaata hai. agar koi gair musalameen masjid mein pravesh karna chaahate hain, un par bhi yahi baatein laagoo hoti hain.

tahaarat

islaam mein tahaarat (paaki - safaai) bahut mahatva hai. ek hadees ke anusaar tahaarat hi aadha vishvaas hai. isliye masjid mein aane ke liye Pak aur saaf hona shart hai, lekin vujoo aap masjid mein aakar kar sakte hain. musalmaan aksar makaatab chinta mein masjidon mein sthiti parivaar mein thaharana vaidh naheen masjid haraam aur masjide nabavi mein aisi sthiti mein pravesh bhi jaayaj naheen. libaas ke saath shareer bhi shuddh hona chaahiye. man ki tahaarat bhi bas ke anusaar aavashyak hai yaani bure vichaaron se bachana chaahiye.[7]

sanskruti va shaayastagi

musalmaan masjid ko Allah ka ghar samajhte hain chaahe usaka sambandh musalmaanon ke kisi bhi samudaaya se ho. masjid mein chuppi aur sanskruti aur shaayastagi ki taakeed ki hai ki namaaj aur kuraaan padhne vaale tang na hon. masjidon mein ladaai jhagada ya bina jaroorat daniyaavi baaton se bachana chaahiye haalaanki saamoohik maamalon par charcha ki ja sakti hai. masjid mein daudna ya jor se kadam rakhana aur ooainchi aavaaj mein baat karna sanskruti aur shaayastagi ke khilaaf hai. isi tarah koi bhi aisa kaam karna jisse praarthana tang hooain, achha naheen samjha jaata, jaise pyaaj, lahasun, mooli ya koi boo daar cheej khaakar jaane se mana kiya jaata hai aur is silsile mein hadeeson pavitra jeevani ka havaala bhi diya jaata hai.

kapde/vastr

masjid mein saaf vastr pahan kar aana chaahiye. mahilaaon aisa vastr pahanakar aain jisse vah ba parda hooain. isi tarah purush uchit vastr pahan kar aae. aamtaur musalmaan kshetreeya vastr ke alaava arabi vastr bhi pahanana achha aur savaab samajhte hain magar islaam mein vastr par aisi koi kadagan naheen hai lekin vastr islaam ke siddhaanton ke anusaar ho.[8]

mard va aurat masjid mein

praarambhik islaam se purushon aur mahilaaon donon masjidon mein aane ki anumati hai lekin unhein alag jagah di jaati hai. shari islaam ke anusaar praarthana ke dauraan mahilaaon ki safein purushon se peechhe hain taaki purushon ki nazar mahilaaon par na pade. paigambar s alaihi va ke daur mein purush aur aurat donon masjid mein namaaj ada karte the haalaanki mahilaaon ke sammaan aur suraksha ke liye behtar maana jaata hai ki vah ghar mein namaaj ada karein. aajkal aksar masjidon mein mahilaaon ke liye alag jagah bani hoti hai. upamahaadveep, Pak aur bhaarateeya mahilaaon ke masjid mein aane ka rivaaj na ke baraabar hai lekin yeh islaam se naheen balki bhaarateeya samaaj se hai. arab deshon aur aadhunik pashchimi deshon ki mahilaaen masjidon mein aati hain, namaaj padhti hain aur vibhinn shaikshanik gatividhiyon mein bhaag leti hain.

sambandhit lekh

  • masjidon ki soochi

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. vaaltar Brian (2004-05-17). "(angreji) th profeetas peepal, call too preyar: maai trevals in Spain portugal end morokko. virtayoonaalabookvarm pabalishing, 14. ISBN 1-58939-592-1.
  2. madeena ki masjid
  3. raajya masjid Lahore
  4. dhaarmik rjpameer aur islaami sanskruti (angreji) Religious Architecture and Islamic Cultures. MIT)
  5. masjid ke baare mein tathya (babhaasha angreji) (jaamiya talasah, America)
  6. masjid ke baare mein tathya (babhaasha angreji) (jaamiya tokyo, Japan)
  7. [1]
  8. مaaقaaصaaوaaد, رaaقaaیaaہ وaaاaaرaaث (2003-04-22). خaaوaaد کaaو اaaسaaلaaاaaم سaaکaaھaaاaaئaaیaaے (Teach Yourself Islam), دaaوaaسaaرaaی طaaبaaاaaعaaت, شaaکaaاaaگaaو: McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-141963-2.