manusmruti

manusmruti hindu dharm ka sabse mahatvapoorn evam praacheen dharmashaastr (smruti) hai. ise maanav-dharm-shaastr, manusanhita aadi naamon se bhi jaana jaata hai. yeh upadesh ke roop mein hai jo manu dvaara rishiyon ko diya gaya. iske baad ke dharmagranthakaaron ne manusmruti ko ek sandarbh ke roop mein sveekaarate hue iska anusaran kiya hai. hindu maanyata ke anusaar manusmruti brahma ki vaani hai.

dharmashaastreeya granthakaaron ke atirikt shankaraachaarya, shabarasvaami jaise daarshanik bhi pramaanaroopen is granth ko uddhrut karte hain. paranparaanusaar yeh smruti svaayanbhuv manu dvaara rachit hai, vaivasvat manu ya praachanes manu dvaara naheen. manusmruti se yeh bhi pata chalta hai ki svaayanbhuv manu ke moolashaastr ka aashray kar bhrugu ne us smruti ka upavruhan kiya tha, jo prachalit manusmruti ke naam se prasiddh hai. is 'bhaargaveeya manusmruti' ki tarah 'naaradeeya manusmruti' bhi prachalit hai.

manusmruti vah dharmashaastr hai jiski maanyata jagavikhyaat hai. na keval Bhaarat mein apitu videsh mein bhi iske pramaanon ke aadhaar par nirnaya hote rahe hain aur aaj bhi hote hain. at: dharmashaastr ke roop mein manusmruti ko vishv ki amoolya nidhi maana jaata hai. Bhaarat mein vedon ke uparaant sarvaadhik maanyata aur prachalan 'manusmruti' ka hi hai. ismein chaaron varnon, chaaron aashramon, solah sanskaaron tatha srushti utpatti ke atirikt raajya ki vyavastha, raaja ke kartavya, bhaanti-bhaanti ke vivaadon, sena ka prabandh aadi un sabhi vishyon par paraamarsh diya gaya hai jo ki maanav maatr ke jeevan mein ghatit hone sambhav hai. yeh sab dharm-vyavastha ved par aadhaarit hai. manu mahaaraaj ke jeevan aur unke rachanaakaal ke vishay mein itihaas-puraan spasht naheen hain. tathaapi sabhi ek svar se sveekaar karte hain ki manu aadipurush the aur unka yeh shaastr aadi:shaastr hai.

anukram

bhoomika

'manusmruti' bhaarateeya sanskruti ka abhinn ang hai. iski ganana vishv ke aise granthon mein ki jaati hai, jinse maanav ne vaiyaktik aacharan aur samaaj rachana ke liye prerana praapt ki hai. ismein prashn keval dhaarmik aastha ya vishvaas ka naheen hai. maanav jeevan ki aavashyakataaon ki poorti, kisi bhi prakaar aapasi sahayog tatha suruchipoorn dhang se ho sake, yeh apeksha aur aakaanksha pratyek saamaajik vyakti mein hoti hai. videshon mein is vishay par paryaapt khoj hui hai, tulanaatmak adhyayan hua hai aur samaalochanaaeain bhi hui hain. hindu samaaj mein to iska sthaan vedatrayi ke uparaant hain. manusmruti ke bahut se sanskaran upalabdh hain. kaalaantar mein bahut se prakshep bhi svaabhaavik hain. saadhaaran vyakti ke liye yeh sambhav naheen hai ki vah baad mein sammilit hue anshon ki pehchaan kar sake. koi adhikaari vidvaan hi tulanaatmak adhyayan ke uparaant aisa kar sakta hai.

manusmruti ke praneta evam kaal

manusmruti ke kaal evam praneta ke vishay mein naveen anusandhaanakaari vidvaanon ne paryaapt vichaar kiya hai. kisi ka mat hai ki "maanav" charan (vaidik shaakha) mein prokt hone ke kaaran is smruti ka naam manusmruti pada. koi kehte hain ki manusmruti se pehle koi maanav dharmasootr tha (jaise maanav gruhyasootr aadi hain) jiska aashray lekar kisi ne ek mool manusmruti banaai thi jo baad mein upabrunhit hokar vartamaan roop mein prachalit ho gayi. manusmruti ke anek mat ya vaakya jo nirukt, mahaabhaarat aadi praacheen granthon mein naheen milte hain, unke hetu par vichaar karne par bhi kai uttar pratibhaasit hote hain. is prakaar ke anek tathyon ka boohalar (Buhler, G.) (saikred books ov East series, sankhya 25), paandurang vaaman kaane (history ov dharmashaatr mein manuprakaran) aadi vidvaanon ne paryaapt vivechan kiya hai. yeh anumaan bahut kuchh sangat prateet hota hai ki manu ke naam se dharmashaastreeya vishay parak vaakya samaaj mein prachalit the, jinka nirdesh mahaabhaarataadi mein hai tatha jin vachanon ka aashray lekar vartamaan manusanhita banaai gayi, saath hi prasiddhi ke liye bhrugu naamak praacheen rishi ka naam uske saath jod diya gaya. manu se pehle bhi dharmashaastrakaar the, yeh manu ke "AK" aadi shabdon se hi gyaat hua hai. kautilya ne "maanava: (manumataanuyaayiyon) ka ullekh kiya hai.

paashchaatya vidvaanon ke anusaar manu parampara ki praacheenata hone par bhi vartamaan manusmruti isa poorv chaturth shataabdi se praacheen naheen ho sakti (yeh baat doosari hai ki ismein praacheenatar kaal ke anek vachan sangruheet hue hain) yeh baat yavan, shak, kaanboj, cheen aadi jaatiyon ke nirdesh se gyaat hoti hai. yeh bhi nishchit he ki smruti ka vartamaan roop dviteeya shati isa poorv tak drudh ho gaya tha aur is kaal ke baad ismein koi sanskaar naheen kiya gaya.

manusmruti ki sanrachana evam vishyavastu

manusmruti bhaarateeya aachaar-sanhita ka vishvakosh hai, manusmruti mein baarah adhyaaya tatha do hajaar paaainch sau shlok hain, jinmein srushti ki utpatti, sanskaar, nitya aur naimittik karm, aashramadharm, varnadharm, raajadharm va praayashchit aadi vishyon ka ullekh hai.

(1) jagat ki utpatti;

(2) sanskaaravidhi; vratacharya, upachaar;

(3) snaan, daaraaghigman, vivaahalakshan, mahaayajnya, shraaddhakalp;

(4) vruttilkshan, snaatak vrat;

(5) bhakshyaabhakshya, shauch, ashuddhi, streedharm;

(6) gruhasthaashram, vaanaprasth, moksh, sannyaas;

(7) raajadharm;

(8) kaaryavinirnaya, saakshiprashnavidhaan;

(9) streepunsadharm, vibhaag dharm, dhoot, kantakashodhan, vaishyashoodropachaar;

(10) sankeernajaati, aapaddharm;

(11) praayashchitt;

(12) sansaaragati, karm, karmagunadosh, deshajaati, kuladharm, nishreyas.

teekaaen

manu par kai vyaakhyaaeain prachalit hain-

(1) pedhaatithikrut bhaashya;
(2) kullookakrut manvarth muktaav li teeka;
(3) naaraayanakrut manvarth vivrutti teeka;
(4) raaghavaanand krut manvarth chandrika teeka;
(5) nandanakrut nandini teeka;
(6) govindaraaj krut manvaashayaanasaarini teeka aadi.

manu ke anek teekaakaaron ke naam gyaat hain, jinki teekaaeain ab lupt ho gayi hain, yatha- asahaaya, bhartruyajnya, yajva, upaadhyaaya riju, vishnusvaami, udayakar, bhaaruchi ya bhaaguri, bhojadev dharaneedhar aadi.

mahatva

Bhaarat mein vedon ke uparaant sarvaadhik maanyata aur prachalan 'manusmruti' ka hi hai. ismein chaaron varnon, chaaron aashramon, solah sanskaaron tatha srushti utpatti ke atirikt raajya ki vyavastha, raaja ke kartavya, bhaanti-bhaanti ke vivaadon, sena ka prabandh aadi un sabhi vishyon par paraamarsh diya gaya hai jo ki maanav maatr ke jivn mein ghatit hone sambhav hain yeh sab dharm-vyavastha ved par aadhaarit hai. manu mahaaraaj ke jeevan aur unke rachanaakaal ke vishay mein itihaas-puraan spasht naheen hain. tathaapi sabhi ek svar se sveekaar karte hain ki manu aadipurush the aur unka yeh shaastr aadi:shaastr hai. kyonki manu ki samast maanyataaeain satya hone ke saath-saath desh, kaal tatha jaati bandhanon se rahit hain.

manusmruti ke kuchh chune hue shlok

dhruti kshama damosteyan, shauchan indriynigrah:.
dheervidya satyan akrodho, dasakan dharm lakshanam .

arth - dharm ke das lakshan hain - dhairya, kshama, sanyam, chori na karna, svachhata, indriyon ko vash me rakhana, buddhi, vidya, satya aur krodh na karna (akrodh).

naasya chhidran paro vidyaachhidran vidyaatparasya tu.
goohetkoorm ivaangaani rakshedvivramaatman: .
vakavachchintayedarthaan sinhavachch paraakramet.
vrukavachchaavalumpet shashavachch vinishpatet .

arth - koi shatru apne chhidr (nirbalata) ko na jaan sake aur swayam shatru ke chhidron ko jaanta rahe, jaise kachhuaa apne angon ko gupt rakhata hai, vaise hi shatru ke pravesh karne ke chhidr ko gupt rakkhe. jaise bagula dhyaanamagn hokar machhali pakadne ko taakata hai, vaise arthasangrah ka vichaar kiya kare, shastr aur bal ki vruddhi kar ke shatru ko jeetne ke liye Singh ke samaan paraakram kare. cheete ke samaan chhip kar shatruon ko pakade aur sameep se aaye balavaan shatruon se shash (kharagosh) ke samaan door bhaag jaaye aur baad mein unako chhal se pakade.

nochhishthan kasyachiddadyaannaadyaachaiv tathaantara.
na chaivaatyashanan kuryaann chochhisht: kvachid vrajet .

arth - na kisi ko apna joontha padaarth de aur na kisi ke bhojan ke beech aap khaave, na adhik bhojan kare aur na bhojan kiye pashchaat haath-munh dhoye bina kaheen idhar-udhar jaaye.

tailakshaume chitaadhoome mithune kshaurakarmani.
taavadbhavati chaandaal: yaavad snaanan na samaacharet .

arth - tel-maalish ke uparaant, chita ke dhoonain mein rahane ke baad, mithun (sanbhog) ke baad aur kesh-mundan ke pashchaat - vyakti tab tak chaandaal (apavitr) rahata hai jab tak snaan naheen kar leta - matlab in kaamon ke baad nahaana jaroori hai.

anumanta vishsita nihnta krayavikrayi.
sanskartta chopahartta ch khaadakashcheti ghaataka: .

arth - anumati = maarane ki aajnyaa dene, maans ke kaatne, pashu aadi ke maarane, unako maarane ke liye lene aur bechne, maans ke pakaane, parosane aur khaane vaale - ye aathon prakaar ke manushya ghaatak, hinsak arthaat ye sab ek samaan paapi hain.

sambandhit kadiyaaain

baahari kadiyaaain