manovijnyaaan

manovijnyaaan (Psychology) vah shaikshik va anuprayogaatmak vidya hai jo praani (manushya, pashu aadi) ke maanasik prakriyaaon (mental processes), anubhavon tatha vyakt va avyakt daaenaaein prakaar ke vyavahaaraaein ka ek kramabaddh tatha vaigyaanik adhyayan karti hai.[1] doosare shabdon mein yeh kaha ja sakta hai ki manovijnyaaan ek aisa vigyaan hai jo kramabaddh roop se (systematically) prekshaneeya vyavahaar (observable behaviour) ka adhyayan karta hai tatha praani ke bheetar ke maanasik evam daihik prakriyaaon jaise - chintan, bhaav aadi tatha vaataavaran ki ghatnaaon ke saath unka sambandh jodkar adhyayan karta hai. is pariprekshya mein manovijnyaaan ko vyavahaar evam maanasik prakriyaaon ke adhyayan ka vigyaan kaha gaya hai. 'vyavahaar' mein maanav vyavahaar tatha pashu vyavahaar donon hi sammilit hote hain. maanasik prakriyaaon ke antargat sanvedan (Sensation), avadhaan (attention), pratyakshan (Perception), seekhana (adhigm), smruti, chintan aadi aate hain.

manovijnyaaan anubhav ka vigyaan hai, iska uddeshya chetanaavastha ki prakriya ke tattvon ka vishleshan, unke paraspar sambandhon ka svaroop tatha unhein nirdhaarit karanevaale niyamon ka pata lagaana hai.

anukram

itihaas

praak-vaigyaanik kaal (pre-scientific period) mein manovijnyaaan, darshanashaastr (Philosophy) ka ek shaakha tha. jab vilhelm vunt (Wilhelm Wundt) ne 1879 mein manovijnyaaan ki pehla prayogashaala khola, manovijnyaaan darshanashaastr ke changul se nikalkar ek svatantr vigyaan ka darja pa sakane mein samarth ho saka.

manovijnyaaan par darshanashaastr ka prabhaav

manovijnyaaan par vaigyaanik pravrutti ke saath-saath darshanashaastr ka bhi bahut adhik prabhaav pada hai. vaastav mein vaigyaanik parampara baad mein aarambh hui. pehle to prayog ya paryavekshan ke sthaan par vichaaravinimya tatha chintan samasyaaon ko sulajhaane ki sarvamaanya vidhiyaaain theen. manovaigyaanik samasyaaon ko darshan ke parivesh mein pratipaadit karanevaale vidvaanon mein se kuchh ke naam ullekhaneeya hain.

dekaart (1596 - 1650) ne manushya tatha pashuon mein bhed karte hue bataaya ki manushyon mein aatma hoti hai jabki pashu keval machine ki bhaaainti kaam karte hain. aatma ke kaaran manushya mein ichhaashakti hoti hai. pityootari granthi par shareer tatha aatma paraspar ek doosare ko prabhaavit karte hain. dekaart ke mataanusaar manushya ke kuchh vichaar aise hote hain jinhe janmajaat kaha ja sakta hai. unka anubhav se koi sambandh naheen hota. laayabaneets (1646 - 1716) ke mataanusaar sampoorn padaarth "monaid" ikaai se milkar bana hai. unhonne chetanaavastha ko vibhinn maatraaon mein vibhaajit karke lagbhag do sau varsh baad aanevaale fraayad ke vichaaron ke liye ek buniyaad taiyaar ki. lauk (1632-1704) ka anumaan tha ki manushya ke svabhaav ko samajhne ke liye vichaaron ke strot ke vishay mein jaanana aavashyak hai. unhonne vichaaron ke paraspar sambandh vishyak siddhaant pratipaadit karte hue bataaya ki vichaar ek tatv ki tarah hote hain aur mastishk unka vishleshan karta hai. unka kehna tha ki pratyek vastu mein praathamik gun swayam vastu mein nihit hote hain. gaun gun vastu mein nihit naheen hote varan vastu vishesh ke dvaara unka bodh avashya hota hai. Berkeley (1685-1753) ne kaha ki vaastavikta ki anubhooti padaarth ke roop mein naheen varan pratyaya ke roop mein hoti hai. unhonne doori ki sanvedanaake vishay mein apne vichaar vyakt karte hue kaha ki abhibinduta dhuaindhalepan tatha svat: samaayojan ki sahaayata se hamein doori ki samvedna hoti hai. mastishk aur padaarth ke paraspar sambandh ke vishay mein lauk ka kathan tha ki padaarth dvaara mastishk ka bodh hota hai. hyoom (1711-1776) ne mukhya roop se "vichaar" tatha "anumaan" mein bhed karte hue kaha ki vichaaron ki tulana mein anumaan adhik uttejanaapoorn tatha prabhaavashaali hote hain. vichaaron ko anumaan ki pratilipi maana ja sakta hai. hyoom ne kaarya-kaaran-siddhaant ke vishay mein apne vichaar spasht karte hue aadhunik manovijnyaaan ko vaigyaanik paddhati ke nikat pahuainchaane mein ullekhaneeya sahaayata pradaan ki. haartale (1705-1757) ka naam daihik manovaigyaanik daarshanikon mein rakha ja sakta hai. unke anusaar snaayu-tantuon mein hue kanpan ke aadhaar par samvedna hoti hai. is vichaar ki prushthabhoomi mein nyootan ke dvaara pratipaadit tathya the jinmein kaha gaya tha ki uttejak ke hata lene ke baad bhi samvedna hoti rahati hai. haartale ne saahacharya vishyak niyam bataate hue saannidhya ke siddhaant par adhik jor diya.

haartale ke baad lagbhag 70 varsh tak saahacharyavaad ke kshetr mein koi ullekhaneeya kaarya naheen hua. is beech skaatalaind mein reed (1710-1796) ne vastuon ke pratyaksheekaran ka varnan karte hue bataaya ki pratyaksheekaran tatha samvedna mein bhed karna aavashyak hai. kisi vastu vishesh ke gunon ki samvedna hoti hai jabki us sampoorn vastu ka pratyaksheekaran hota hai. samvedna keval kisi vastu ke gunon tak hi seemit rahati hai, kintu pratyaksheekaran dvaara hamein us poori vastu ka gyaan hota hai. isi beech France mein kaandilaik (1715-1780) ne anubhavavaad tatha la metri ne bhautikvaad ki pravruttiyon ki buniyaad daali. kaandilaink ka kehna tha ki sanvedan hi sampoorn gyaan ka "mool strot" hai. unhonne lauk dvaara bataae gaye vichaaron athva anubhavon ko bilkul aavashyak naheen samjha. la metri (1709-1751) ne kaha ki vichaar ki utpatti mastishk tatha snaayumandal ke paraspar prabhaav ke falasvaroop hoti hai. dekaart ki hi bhaaainti unhonne bhi manushya ko ek machine ki tarah maana. unka kehna tha ki shareer tatha mastishk ki bhaaainti aatma bhi naashavaan hai. aadhunik manovijnyaaan mein prerakon ki buniyaad daalte hue la metri ne bataaya ki sukhapraapti hi jeevan ka charam lakshya hai.

James mil (1773-1836) tatha baad mein unke putr jaan stuart mil (1806-1873) ne maanasik rasaayani ka vikaas kiya. in donon vidvaanon ne saahacharyavaad ki pravrutti ko aupachaarik roop pradaan kiya aur vunt ke liye upayukt prushthabhoomi taiyaar ki. ben (1818-1903) ke baare mein yahi baat laagoo hoti hai. can't ne samasyaaon ke samaadhaan mein vyaktinishthaavaad ki vidhi apnaai ki baahya jagat ke pratyaksheekaran ke siddhaant mein janmajaatavaad ka samarthan kiya. harabaart (1776-1841) ne manovijnyaaan ko ek svaroop pradaan karne mein mahatvapoonr yogadaan kiya. unke mataanusaar manovijnyaaan anubhavavaad par aadhaarit ek taatvik, maatraatmak tatha vishleshaatmak vigyaan hai. unhonne manovijnyaaan ko taatvik ke sthaan par bhautik aadhaar pradaan kiya aur lautse (1817-1881) ne isi disha mein or aage pragati ki.

manovaigyaanik samasyaaon ke vaigyaanik adhyayan ka aarambh

manovaigyaanik samasyaaon ke vaigyaanik adhyayan ka shubhaaranbh unke aupachaarik svaroop aane ke baad pehle se ho chuka tha. san 1834 mein vebar ne sparshendriya sambandhi apne prayogaatmak shodhakaarya ko ek pustak roop mein prakaashit kiya. san 1831 mein feknar swayam ekadish dhaara vidyut ke maapan ke vishay par ek atyant mahatvapoorn lekh prakaashit kar chuke the. kuchh varshon baad san 1847 mein helmo ne oorja sarankshan par apna vaigyaanik lekh logon ke saamane rakha. iske baad san 1856 E, 1860 E tatha 1866 idru mein unhonne "aaptik" naamak pustak teen bhaagon mein prakaashit ki. san 1851 E tatha san 1860 E mein feknar ne bhi manovaigyaanik drushti se do mahatvapoorn granth (jeind aavesta tatha elimeinte deyar saaikofijik prakaashit kiye.

san 1858 E mein vunt haaidalavarg vishvavidyaalaya mein chikitsa vigyaan mein daaktar ki upadhi praapt kar chuke the aur sahakaari pad par kriyaavijnyaaan ke kshetr mein kaarya kar rahe the. usi varsh vahaaain baun se helmolts bhi aa gaye. vunt ke liye yeh sampark atyant mahatvapoorn tha kyonki isi ke baad unhonne kriyaavijnyaaan chhodkar manovijnyaaan ko apna kaaryakshetr banaaya.

vunt ne anginat vaigyaanik lekh tatha anek mahatvapoorn pustak prakaashit karke manovijnyaaan ko ek dhuaindhale evam aspasht daarshanik vaataavaran se baahar nikaala. usane keval manovaigyaanik samasyaaon ko vaigyaanik parivesh mein rakha aur unapar nae drushtikon se vichaar evam prayog karne ki pravrutti ka udghaatan kiya. uske baad se manovijnyaaan ko ek vigyaan maana jaane laga. tadanantar jaise-jaise mareej vaigyaanik prakriyaaon par prayog kiye gaye vaise-vaise nai nai samasyaaeain saamane aain.

aadhunik manovijnyaaan

aadhunik manovijnyaaan ki aitihaasik prushthabhoomi mein iske do sunishchit roop drushtigochar hote hain. ek to vaigyaanik anusandhaanon tatha aavishkaaron dvaara prabhaavit vaigyaanik manovijnyaaan tatha doosra darshanashaastr dvaara prabhaavit darshan manovijnyaaan. vaigyaanik manovijnyaaan 19veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh se aarambh hua hai. san 1860 E mein feknar (1801-1887) ne jarman bhaasha mein "elimeints aav saaikofijiks" (iska angreji anuvaad bhi upalabdh hai) naamak pustak prakaashit ki, jismein ki unhonne manovaigyaanik samasyaaon ko vaigyaanik paddhati ke parivesh mein adhyayan karne ki teen vishesh pranaaliyon ka vidhivt varnan kiya : madhya truti vidhi, nyoonatam parivartan vidhi tatha sthir uttejak bhed vidhi. aaj bhi manovaigyaanik prayogashaalaaon mein inheen pranaaliyon ke aadhaar par anek mahatvapoorn anusandhaan kiye jaate hain.

vaigyaanik manovijnyaaan mein feknar ke baad do anya mahatvapoorn naam hai : helmolats (1821-1894) tatha vilhem vunt (1832-1920) . helmolats ne anek prayogon dvaara drushteerdriya vishyak mahatvapoorn niyamon ka pratipaadan kiya. is sandarbh mein unhonne pratyaksheekaran par anusandhaan kaarya dvaara manovijnyaaan ka vaigyaanik astitv oopar uthaaya. vunt ka naam manovijnyaaan mein vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hai. unhonne san 1879 E mein laaipajig vishvavidyaalaya (Germany) mein manovijnyaaan ki pratham prayogashaala sthaapit ki.[2] manovijnyaaan ka aupachaarik roop paribhaashit kiya. laaipajig ki prayogashaala mein vunt tatha unke sahayogiyon ne manovijnyaaan ki vibhinn samasyaaon par ullekhaneeya prayog kiye, jismein samay-abhikriya vishyak prayog vishesh roop se mahatvapoorn hain.

kriyaavijnyaaan ke vidvaan hering (1834-1918), bhautiki ke vidvaan maikh (1838-1916) tatha ji E myoolar (1850 se 1934) ke naam bhi ullekhaneeya hain. hering ghatna-kriya-vigyaan ke pramukh pravartakon mein se the aur is pravrutti ka manovijnyaaan par prabhaav daalne ka kaafi shreya unhein diya ja sakta hai. maikh ne shaareerik paribhraman ke pratyaksheekaran par atyant prabhaavashaali prayogaatmak anusandhaan kiye. unhonne saath hi saath aadhunik pratyakshavaad ki buniyaad bhi daali. ji E myoolar vaastav mein darshan tatha itihaas ke vidyaarthi the kintu feknar ke saath patravyavahaar ke falasvaroop unka dhyaan manodaihik samasyaaon ki or gaya. unhonne smruti tatha drushteendriya ke kshetr mein manodaihiki vidhiyon dvaara anusandhaan kaarya kiya. isi sandarbh mein unhonne "jaast niyam" ka bhi pata lagaaya arthaat agar samaan shakti ke do saahacharya hon to duharaane ke falasvaroop puraana saahacharya nae ki apeksha adhik drudh ho jaaega ("jaast niyam" myoolar ke ek vidyaarthi edaalf jaast ke naam par hai).

sampradaaya evam shaakhaaeain (Schools & branches)

vyavahaar vishyak niyamon ki khoj hi manovijnyaaan ka mukhya dhyeya tha. saiddhaantik star par vibhinn drushtikon prastut kiye gaye. manovijnyaaan ke kshetr mein san 1912 E ke aaspaas sanrachanaavaad, kriyaavaad, vyavahaaravaad, gestaaltavaad tatha manovishleshan aadi mukhya mukhya shaakhaaon ka vikaas hua. in sabhi vaadon ke pravartak is vishay mein ekamat the ki manushya ke vyavahaar ka vaigyaanik adhyayan hi manovijnyaaan ka uddeshya hai. unamein paraspar matabhed ka vishay tha ki is uddeshya ko praapt karne ka sabse achha dhang kaun sa hai. saranchanaavaad ke anuyaayiyon ka mat tha ki vyavahaar ki vyaakhya ke liye un shaareerik sanrachanaaon ko samajhna aavashyak hai jinke dvaara vyavahaar sambhav hota hai. kriyaavaad ke maananevaalon ka kehna tha ki shaareerik sanrachana ke sthaan par prekshan yogya tatha drushyamaan vyavahaar par adhik jor hona chaahiye. isi aadhaar par baad mein Watson ne vyavahaaravaad ki sthaapana ki. gestaaltavaadiyon ne pratyaksheekaran ko vyavahaaravishyak samasyaaon ka mool aadhaar maana. vyavahaar mein susangathit roop se vyavastha praapt karne ki pravrutti mukhya hai, aisa unka mat tha. fraayad ne manovishleshanavaad ki sthaapana dvaara yeh bataane ka prayaas kiya ki hamaare vyavahaar ke adhikaansh kaaran achetan prakriyaaon dvaara nirdhaarit hote hain. aadhunik manovijnyaaan mein in sabhi "vaadon" ka ab ekamaatr aitihaasik mahatva rah gaya hai. inke sthaan par manovijnyaaan mein adhyayan ki suvidha ke liye vibhinn shaakhaaon ka vibhaajan ho gaya hai.

prayogaatmak manovijnyaaan mein mukhya roop se unheen samasyaaon ka manovaigyaanik vidhi se adhyayan kiya jaane laga jinhein daarshanik pehle chintan athva vichaaravimrsh dvaara sulajhaate the. arthaat samvedna tatha pratyaksheekaran. baad mein iske antargat seekhane ki prakriyaaon ka adhyayan bhi hone laga. prayogaatmak manovijnyaaan, aadhunik manovijnyaaan ki praacheenatam shaakha hai.

manushya ki apeksha pashuon ko adhik niyantrit paristhitiyon mein rakha ja sakta hai, saath hi saath pashuon ki shaareerik rachana bhi manushya ki bhaaainti jatil naheen hoti. pashuon par prayog karke vyavahaar sambandhi niyamon ka gyaan sugamata se ho sakta hai. san 1912 E ke lagbhag thaurnadaaik ne pashuon par prayog karke tulanaatmak athva pashu manovijnyaaan ka vikaas kiya. kintu pashuon par praapt kiye gaye parinaam kahaaain tak manushyon ke vishay mein laagoo ho sakte hain, yeh jaanane ke liye vikaasaatmak kram ka gyaan bhi aavashyak tha. iske atirikt vyavahaar ke niyamon ka pratipaadan usi dasha mein sambhav ho sakta hai jab ki manushya athva pashuon ke vikaas ka poorn evam uchit gyaan ho. is sandarbh ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue vikaasaatmak manovijnyaaan ka janm hua. san 1912 E ke kuchh hi baad maikdoogal (1871-1938) ke prayatnon ke falasvaroop samaaj manovijnyaaan ki sthaapana hui, yadyapi iski buniyaad samaaj vaigyaanik harabart speinsar (1820-1903) dvaara bahut pehle rakhi ja chuki thi. dheere-dheere gyaan ki vibhinn shaakhaaon par manovijnyaaan ka prabhaav anubhav kiya jaane laga. aasha vyakt ki gayi ki manovijnyaaan anya vishyon ki samasyaaeain sulajhaane mein upayogi ho sakta hai. saath hi saath, adhyayan ki jaanevaali samasyaaon ke vibhinn paksh saamane aae. parinaamasvaroop manovijnyaaan ki nai-nai shaakhaaon ka vikaas hota gaya. inmein se kuchh ne abhi haal mein hi janm liya hai, jinmein prerak manovijnyaaan, sattaatmak manovijnyaaan, ganiteeya manovijnyaaan vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hain.

manovijnyaaan ki moolabhoot evam anuprayukt - donon prakaar ki shaakhaaen hain. iski mahatvapoorn shaakhaaen saamaajik evam paryaavaran manovijnyaaan, sangathanaatmak vyavahaar/manovijnyaaan, kleenikl (nidaanaatmak) manovijnyaaan, maargadarshan evam paraamarsh, audyogik manovijnyaaan, vikaasaatmak, aaparaadhik, praayogik paraamarsh, pashu manovijnyaaan aadi hai. alag-alag hone ke baavajood ye shaakhaaen paraspar sambaddh hain.

naidaanik manovijnyaaan - nyoorotisijm, saaikonyoorosis, saaikosis jaisi kleenikl samasyaaon evam shijofreniya, histeeriya, obsesiv-kanpalasiv vikaar jaisi samasyaaon ke kaaran kleenikl manovaigyaanik ki aavashyakta din-pratidin badh rahi hai. aise manovajnyaaanik ka pramukh kaarya rogon ka pata lagaana aur nidaanaatmak tatha vibhinn upachaaraatmak takaneekon ka istemaal karna hai.

vikaas manovijnyaaan mein jeevan bhar ghatit honevaale manovaigyaanik sanjnyaaanaatmak tatha saamaajik ghatnaakram shaamil hain. ismein shaishavaavastha, baalyaavastha tatha kishoraavastha ke dauraan vyavahaar ya vayask se vruddhaavastha tak hone vaale parivartan ka adhyayan hota hai. pehle ise baal manovijnyaaan bhi kehte the.

aaparaadhik manovijnyaaan chunauteepoorn kshetr hai, jahaan aparaadhiyon ke vyavahaar vishesh ke sambandh mein kaarya kiya jaata hai. aparaadh shaastr, manovijnyaaan aaparaadhik vigyaan ki shaakha hai, jo aparaadh tatha sambandhit tathyon ki tahakeekaat se judi hai.

pashu manovijnyaaan ek adbhut shaakha hai.

manovijnyaaan ki pramukh shaakhaaeain hain -

manovijnyaaan ka svaroop evam kaaryakshetr ((Nature and Scope of Psychology)

manovijnyaaan ke kaaryakshetr (scope) ko sahi dhang se samajhne ke liye sabse mahattvapoorn shreni vah shreni hai jisse yeh pata chalta hai ki manovijnyaaani kya chaahate hain ? kiye gaye kaarya ke aadhaar par manovijnyaaaniyon ko teen shreniyon mein vibhkt kiya ja sakta hai:

  • pehli shreni mein un manovijnyaaaniyon ko rakha jaata hai jo shikshan kaarya mein vyast hain,
  • doosari shreni mein un manovaijnyaaaniyon ko rakha jaata hai jo manovijnyaaanik samasyaaon par shodh karte hain tatha
  • teesari shreni mein un manovijnyaaaniyon ko rakha jaata hai jo manovijnyaaanik adhyayanon se praapt tathyon ke aadhaar par kaushalon evam takaneek ka upayog vaastavik paristhiti mein karte hain.

is tarah se manovijnyaaaniyon ka teen pramukh kaaryakshetr hai—aashikshan (teaching), shodh (research) tatha upayog (application). in teenon kaaryakshetron se sambandhit mukhya tathyon ka varnan nimnaankit hai—

shaikshik kshetr (Academic areas)

shikshan tatha shodh manovijnyaaan ka ek pramukh kaarya kshetr hai. is drushtikon se is kshetr ke tahat nimnaankit shaakhaaon mein manovijnyaaani apni abhiruchi dikhaate hain—

(1) jeevan-avadhi vikaasaatmak manovijnyaaan (Life-span development Psychology)
(2) maanav prayogaatmak manovijnyaaan (Human experimental Psychology)
(3) pashu prayogaatmak manovijnyaaan (Animal experimental Psychology)
(4) daihik manovijnyaaan (Psychological Psychology)
(5) parinaatmak manovijnyaaan (Quantitative Psychology)
(6) vyaktitv manovijnyaaan (Personality Psychology)
(7) samaaj manovijnyaaan (Social Psychology)
(8) shiksha manovijnyaaan (Educational Psychology)
(9) sanjnyaaatmak manovijnyaaan (Cognitive Psychology)
(10) asaamaanya manovijnyaaan (Abnormal Psychology)

jeevan-avadhi vikaasaatmak manovijnyaaan

baal manovijnyaaan ka praarambhik sambandh maatr baal vikaas ke adhyayan se tha parantu haal ke varshon mein vikaasaatmak manovijnyaaan mein kishoraavastha, vayaskaavastha tatha vruddhaavastha ke adhyayan par bhi bal daala gaya hai. yahi kaaran hai ki ise 'jeevan avadhi vikaasaatmak manovijnyaaan' kaha jaata hai. vikaasaatmak manovijnyaaan mein manovijnyaaan maanav ke lagbhag pratyek kshetr jaise—aabuddhi, pesheeya vikaas, saanvegik vikaas, saamaajik vikaas, khel, bhaasha vikaas ka adhyayan vikaasaatmak drushtikon se karte hain. ismein kuchh vishesh kaarak jaise—aaaanuvaanshikta, paripkvata, paarivaarik paryaavaran, saamaajik-aarthik antar ka vyavahaar ke vikaas par padne vaale prabhaavon ka bhi adhyayan kiya jaata hai. kul manovijnyaaaniyon ka 5% manovaigyaanik vikaasaatmak manovijnyaaan ke kshetr mein kaaryarat hain.

maanav prayogaatmak manovijnyaaan

maanav prayogaatmak manovijnyaaan ka ek aisa kshetr hai jahaaain maanav ke un sabhi vyavahaaron ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai jis par prayog karna sambhav hai. saiddhaantik roop se aise to maanav vyavahaar ke kisi bhi pahaloo par prayog kiya ja sakta hai parantu manovijnyaaani usi pahaloo par prayog karne ki koshish karte hain jise pruthak kiya ja sake tatha jiske adhyayan ki prakriya saral ho. is tarah se drushti, shravan, chintan, seekhana aadi jaise vyavahaaron ka prayogaatmak adhyayan kaafi adhik kiya gaya hai. maanav prayogaatmak manovijnyaaan mein un manovaijnyaaanikon ne bhi kaafi abhiruchi dikhlaaya hai jinhein prayogaatmak manovijnyaaan ka sansthaapak kaha jaata hai. inmein William vunt, tichenar tatha Watson aadi ke naam adhik mashahoor hain.

pashu prayogaatmak manovijnyaaan

manovijnyaaan ka yeh kshetr maanav prayogaatmak vigyaan (Human experimental Psychology) ke samaan hai. sirf antar itna hi hai ki yahaaain prayog pashuon jaise—aachoohon, billiyon, kutton, bandaron, vanamaanushon aadi par kiya jaata hai. pashu prayogaatmak manovijnyaaan mein adhiktar shodh seekhane ki prakriya tatha vyavahaar ke jaivik pahaluon ke adhyayan mein kiya gaya hai. pashu prayogaatmak manovijnyaaan ke kshetr mein skeenar, gathari, paivalav, taulamain aadi ka naam pramukh roop se liya jaata hai. sachchaai yeh hai ki seekhane ke aadhunik sidghaant tatha maanav vyavahaar ke jaivik pahaloo ke baare mein ham aaj jo kuchh bhi jaante hain, usaka aadhaar pashu prayogaatmak manovijnyaaan hi hai. is manovijnyaaan mein pashuon ke vyavahaaron ko samajhne ki koshish ki jaati hai. kuchh logon ka mat hai ki yadi manovijnyaaan ka mukhya sambandh maanav vyavahaar ke adhyayan se hai to pashuon ke vyavahaaron ka adhyayan karna koi adhik tarkasangat baat naheen dikhta. parantu manovijnyaaaniyon ke paas kuchh aisi baadhyataaeain hain jinke kaaran ve pashuon ke vyavahaar mein abhiruchi dikhlaate hain. jaise pashu vyavahaar ka adhyayan kam kharcheela hota hai. fir kuchh aise prayog hain jo manushyon par naitik drushtikon se karna sambhav naheen hai tatha pashuon ka jeevan avadhi (life span) ka laghu hona pramukh aise kaaran hain. maanav evam pashu prayogaatmak manovijnyaaan ke kshetr mein kuchh manovijnyaaaniyon ki sankhya ka kareeb 14% manovijnyaaani kaaryarat hai.

daihik manovijnyaaan

daihik manovijnyaaan mein manovijnyaaaniyon ka kaaryakshetr praani ke vyavahaaron ke daihik nirdhaarakon (Physical determinants) tatha unke prabhaavon ka adhyayan karna hai. is tarah ke daihik manovijnyaaan ki ek aisi shaakha hai jo jaivik vigyaan (biological science) se kaafi juda hua hai. ise manojeevavijnyaaan (Psychobiology) bhi kaha jaata hai. aajkal mastishkeeya kaarya (brain functioning) tatha vyavahaar ke sambandhon ke adhyayan mein manovaijnyaaanikon ki ruchi adhik ho gayi hai. isse ek nayi antaravishyak vishishtata (interdisplinary specialty) ka janm hua hai jise 'nyoorovijnyaaan' (neuroscience) kaha jaata hai. isi tarah ke daihik manovijnyaaan haaramons (hormones) ka vyavahaar par padne vaale prabhaavon ke adhyayan mein bhi abhiruchi rakhate hain. aajkal vibhinn tarah ke aushadh (drug) tatha unka vyavahaar par padne vaale prabhaavon ka bhi adhyayan daihik manovijnyaaan mein kiya ja raha hai. isse bhi ek nayi vishishtata (new specialty) ka janm hua hai jise manofarmaakolauji (Psychopharmacology) kaha jaata hai tatha jismein vibhinn aushadhon ke vyavahaaraatmak prabhaav (behavioural effects) se lekar tantreeya tatha chayaapachaya (metabolic) prakriyaaon mein hone vaale aanavik shodh (molecular research) tak ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai.

sandarbh

  1. "How does the APA define "psychology"?". Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  2. Schacter, D. L.; Gilbert, D. T. and Wegner, D. M. (2010). Psychology. 2nd Edition. Worth Publishers. ISBN 1429269677

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