mangol

changej Khan
ek paaramparik mangol ghar, jise yart kehte hain

mangol madhya Asia aur poorvi Asia mein rahane waali ek jaati hai, jiska vishv itihaas par gahra prabhaav raha hai. bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein is jaati ko mugl ke naam se jaana jaata tha, jis se mugl raajavansh ka naam bhi pada. aadhunik yug mein mangol log mangoliya, cheen aur roos mein vaas karte hain. vishv bhar mein lagbhag 1 karod mangol log hain. shuru-shuru mein yeh jaati argun nadi ke poorv ke ilaakon mein raha karti thi, baad mein vah vaahya khingan parvat shrunkhala aur altaai parvat shrunkhala ke beech sthit mangoliya pathaar ke aar-paar fail gayi. mangol jaati ke log khaanaabadoshon ka jeevan vyateet karte the aur shikaar, teerandaaji va ghudsavaari mein bahut kushal the. 12veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein iske mukhiya temoocheen ne tamaam mangol kabeelon ko ek kiya.[1]

mangolon ka ekeekaran

1206 mein mangol jaati ke vibhinn kabeelon ke saradaaron ne temoochin ko apni jaati ka sabse bada mukhiya chuna aur use sammaan mein "changej Khan"(1162-1227) kehna shuroo kiya, 1215 mein us ne kin raajya ki "madhyavarti rajdhani"chuङaatoo par kabja kar liya aur hvaaङaaho nadi ke uttar ke vishaal ulaakein ko hathiya liya. 1227 mein changej Khan ne pashchimi shya shaasan ko khatm kar diya. pashchimi shya ke saath ladaai ke dauraan changej Khan ki beemaari ki vajah se lyoofaan parvat par mrutyu ho gayi. us ke baad us ka beta okataae gaddi par baitha, jis ne suङ se milkar kin par hamla kiya aur 1234 ke shuroo mein kin ke shaasan ko khatm kar diya. kin raajya par kabja karne ke baad mangol faujon ne apni poori shakti se suङ par hamla kiya.

1260 mein kubalaai ne apne ko mahaan Khan ghoshit kiya aur haan parampara ka anusaran karte hue 1271 mein apne shaasan ko "mangol" ke sthaan par yvaan raajavansh (1271-1368) ka naam de diya. kubalaai Khan itihaas mein yvaan raajavansh ke pratham samraat shichoo ke naam se prasiddh hai.

1276 mein yvaan sena ne suङ raajavansh ki rajdhani linaan par hamla karke kabja kar liya aur suङ samraat va us ki vidhva maan ko bandi banaakar uttar le aaya gaya. dakshin suङ raajya ke pradhaan mantri vann thyenashyaaङ tatha uchch afsaron chaaङ shichye aur loo shyoofoo ne pehle chaao shya aur fir chaao piङ ko raajagaddi par bithaaya, tatha yvaan senaaon ka pratirodh jaari rakha. lekin mangolon ki jabaradast taakat ke saamane unhein ant mein haar khaani padi.

yvaan raajavansh dvaara cheen ke ekeekaran se thaaङ raajavansh ke antim kaal se chali I foot samaapt ho gayi. is ne ek bahujaateeya ekeekrut desh ke roop mein cheen ke vikaas ko badhaava diya. yvaan raajavansh ki shaasan vyavastha ke antargat kendreeya sarkaar ke teen mukhya ang the--- kendreeya mantraalya, jo saare desh ke prashaasan ke liye jimmedaar tha, privi konsil, jo saare desh ke fauji maamalon ka sanchaalan karti thi aur parinireekshan mantraalaya, jo sarkaari afsaron ke aacharan va kaam ki nigraani karta tha. kendra ke neeche "shiङ shaङ"(praant) the.

cheen mein sthaaneeya prashaasanik ikaaiyon ke roop mein praanton ki sthaapana yvaan kaal se shuroo hui aur yeh vyavastha aaj tak chali aa rahi hai. yvaan raajavansh ke jamaane se hi Tibet aupachaarik roop se kendreeya sarkaar ke adheen cheen ki ek prashaasanik ikaai ban gaya. faङaahoo dweep par ek nireekshak kaaryaalaya bhi kaayam kiya gaya, jo faङaahoo dveepasamooh aur thaaevaan dweep ke prashaasanik maamalon ka sanchaalan karta tha. aaj ka shinchyaaङ pradesh aur heiluङ nadi ke dakshin va uttar ke ilaake yvaan raajya ke ang the. yvaan raajavansh ne dakshini cheen saagar dveepamaala mein bhi apna shaasan kaayam kiya. yvaan raajavansh ke shaasanakaal mein vibhinn jaatiyon ke beech sampark vruddhi se desh ke aarthik va saanskrutik vikaas ko tatha maatrubhoomi ke ekeekaran ko badhaava mila.

yvaan raajavansh ki rajdhani taatoo (vartamaan peichiङ) tatkaaleen cheen ke aarthik va saanskrutik aadaan pradaan ka kendra tha. venis ke yaatri Marco polo ne, jo kabhi yvaan raajadarabaar ka ek afsar bhi rah chuka tha, apne yaatra vruttaant mein likha hai:"yvaan raajavansh ki rajdhani taatoo ke nivaasi khushahaal the","baajaar tarah tarah ke maal se bhare rahate the. keval resham hi ek hajaar gaadiyon mein bharakar roj vahaan pahunchaaya jaata tha"."videshon se aaya hua vibhinn prakaar ka keemati maal bhi baajaar mein khoob milta tha. duniya mein shaayad hi koi doosra shahar aisa ho jo taatoo ka mukaabala kar sake."

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh