mangal grah

mangal Astronomical symbol of Mars
The planet Mars
vaastavik aankado par aadhaarit mangal ki computer-janit tasveer
upanaam
visheshan sthaleeya grah
yug J2000
upasaur 24,92,09,300 ki॰mee॰
(1.665861 kha॰ai॰)
apasaur 20,66,69,000 ki॰mee॰
(1.381497 kha॰ai॰)
ardh mukhya aksh 22,79,39,100 ki॰mee॰
(1.523679 kha॰ai॰)
vikendrata 0.093315
parikraman kaal 686.971 din
1.8808 jooleeyan varsh
668.5991 mangal saur diwas[3]
sanyuti kaal 779.96 din
2.135 jooleeyan varsh
ausat parikraman gati 24.077 ki॰mee॰/se॰
maadhya konaantar 19.3564°
jhukaav 1.850° kraantivruttase
5.65° sooryaki bhoomadhyarekha se
1.67° avikaari satah se[4]
aaroh paat ka anulamb 49.562°
Argument of perihelion 286.537°
upagrah 2
bhautik visheshataaeain
vishuvateeya trijya 3,396.2 ± 0.1 ki॰mee॰[5]
0.533 pruthviyaan
dhruveeya trijya 3,376.2 ± 0.1 ki॰mee॰
0.531 pruthviyaan
sapaatata 0.00589 ± 0.00015
tal-kshetrafal 14,47,98,500 ki॰mee॰2
0.284 pruthviyaan
aayatan 1.6318×aa1011 ;ki॰mee॰3
0.151 pruthviyaan
dravyamaan 6.4185×aa1023 ki.gra.
0.107 pruthviyaan
maadhya ghanatv 3.9335 ± 0.0004 gram/se.mi.3
vishuvateeya satah gurutvaakarshan 3.711 meter/sekand2
0.376 gram
palaayan veg 5.027 ki॰mee॰/sekand
naakshatr ghoornan
kaal
1.025957 din
24.6229 ghante
vishuvateeya ghoornan veg 868.22 ki॰mee॰/ghanta
(241.17 mi./sekand)
aksheeya naman 25.19°
uttari dhruv daayaan adhirohan 317.68143°
21 ghanta 10 meenata44 sekand
uttari dhruvavanaman 52.886 50°
albedo 0.25 (Bond)
0.170 (geom.)
satah ka taapamaan
kailvin
celcius
nyoon maadhya adhi
186 ke. 210 ke. 293 ke.
−87°ase. −63°ase. 20°aase.
spasht parimaan +1.6 se -3.3
koneeya vyaas 3.5" — 25.1"
vaayu-mandal
satah par daab 0.636 (0.4–0.87)kilo paaskal
sanghatan
(mol bhinn)
95.32% kaarban daaioksaaid
2.7% naaitrojan
1.6% organ
0.13% okseejan
0.08% kaarban monooksaaid
210 peepeeem jal vaashp
100 peepeeem naaitrik oksaaid
15 peepeeem aanavik haaidrojan
2.5 peepeeem niyaun
850 peepeebi bhaari jal
300 peepeebi kreptonn
130 peepeebi formeldehaaid
80 peepeebi jenaan
30 peepeebi ojon
18 peepeebi haaidrojan paraaksaaid
10 peepeebi methane

mangal sauramandal mein soorya se chautha grah hai. pruthvi se iski aabha raktim dikhti hai, jis vajah se ise "laal grah" ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. sauramandal ke grah do tarah ke hote hain - "sthaleeya grah" jinmein jameen hoti hai aur "gaiseeya grah" jinmein adhiktar gas hi gas hai. pruthvi ki tarah, mangal bhi ek sthaleeya dharaatal wala grah hai. iska vaataavaran virl hai. iski satah dekhne par chandrama ke gart aur pruthvi ke jvaalaamukhiyon, ghaatiyon, registaan aur dhruveeya barfeeli chotiyon ki yaad dilaati hai. hamaare sauramandal ka sabse adhik ooaincha parvat, olampas mons mangal par hi sthit hai. saath hi vishaalatam kainyan vailes maireeneris bhi yaheen par sthit hai. apni bhaugolik visheshataaon ke alaava, mangal ka ghoornan kaal aur mausami chakr pruthvi ke samaan hain.

1965 mein merinr 4 ke dvaara ki pehli mangal udaan se pehle tak yeh maana jaata tha ki grah ki satah par taral avastha me jal ho sakta hai. yeh halke aur gahre rang ke dhabbon ki aavartik soochanaaon par aadhaarit tha vishesh taur par, dhruveeya akshaanshon, jo lambe hone par samudra aur mahaadveepon ki tarah dikhte hain, kaale striations ki vyaakhya kuchh prekshakon dvaara paani ki sinchaai naharon ke roop mein ki gayi hai. in seedhi rekhaaon ki maujoodagi baad mein siddh naheen ho paayi aur ye maana gaya ki ye rekhaayein maatr prakaasheeya bhram ke alaava kuchh aur naheen hain. fir bhi, saur mandal ke sabhi grahon mein hamaari pruthvi ke alaava, mangal grah par jeevan aur paani hone ki sambhaavana sabse adhik hai.

vartamaan mein mangal grah ki parikrama teen kaaryasheel antariksh yaan maars odisi, maars express aur tohi maars orbitr hai, yeh saur mandal mein pruthvi ko chhodkar kisi bhi anya grah se adhik hai. mangal par do anveshan rovars (spirit aur opruchyuniti), laindar feeniks, ke saath hi kai nishkriya rovars aur laindar hain jo ya to asafal ho gaye hain ya unka abhiyaan poora ho gaya hai. inke ya inke poorvavarti abhiyaano dvaara jutaaye gaye bhoovaijnyaaanik saboot is or ingit karte hain ki kabhi mangal grah par bade paimaane par paani ki upasthiti thi saath hi inhone ye sanket bhi diye hain ki haal ke varshon mein chhote garm paani ke favvaare yahaaain foote hain. naasa ke maars global sarveyar ki khojon dvaara is baat ke pramaan mile hain ki dakshini dhruveeya barfeeli chotiyaaain ghat rahi hain.

mangal ke do chandrama, fobos aur dimoj hain, jo chhote aur aniyamit aakaar ke hain. aisa prateet hota hai ki yeh 5261 yooreka ke samaan, kshudragrah hai jo mangal ke gurutv ke kaaran yahaaain fans gaye hain. mangal ko pruthvi se nangi aaainkhon se dekha ja sakta hai. iska aabhaasi parimaan -2.9, tak pahuainch sakta hai aur yah chamak sirf shukr, chandrama aur soorya ke dvaara hi paar ki ja sakti hai, yadyapi adhikaansh samay bruhaspati, mangal ki tulana mein nangi aaainkhon ko adhik ujjaval dikhaai deta hai.

anukram

bhautik visheshataaen

pruthvi ki mangal se tulana
mangal-chalachitr (00:40)

mangal, pruthvi ke vyaas ka lagbhag aadha hai. yeh pruthvi se kam ghana hai, iske paas pruthvi ka 15 % aayatan aur 11 % dravyamaan hai. iska satahi kshetrafal, pruthvi ki kul shushk bhoomi se keval thoda sa kam hai.[6] haalaanki mangal, budh se bada aur adhik bhaari hai par budh ki saghanata jyaada hai. falasvaroop donon grahon ka satahi gurutveeya khinchaav lagbhag ek samaan hai. mangal grah ki satah ka laal- naarangi rang lauh aaksaaid (ferik aaksaaid) ke kaaran hai, jise saamaanyat: haimetaait ya jang ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[7] yeh bataraskauch bhi dikh sakta hai,[8] tatha anya aam satah rang, bhoora, sunahara aur hare shaamil karte hai jo ki khanijon par aadhaarit hota hai.[8]

bhoovijnyaaan

mangal ek sthaleeya grah hai jo silikaun aur okseejan yukt khanij, dhaatu aur anya tatvon ko shaamil karta hai jo aam taur par upari chattaan banaate hai. mangal grah ki satah mukhyat: tholeitik besaalt ki bani hai,[9] haalaanki yeh hisse praaroopik besaalt se adhik silika-sampann hain aur pruthvi par maujood endesiteek chattaanon ya silika glaas ke samaan ho sakte hai. nimn elbido ke kshetr plejiokles sfateeya ka saandran darshaate hai, uttari nimn elbido kshetron ke saath paratadaar siliket aur uchch silikaun glaas, saamaanya ki tulana mein adhik saandran pradarshit karte hai. dakshini uchchabhoomi ke hisse pata lagaane yogya maatra mein uchch- kailshiym paayaroksin shaamil karte hai. hemetaait aur oleevin ki sthaaneeyakrut saandrata bhi paayi gayi hai.[10] adhiktar satah lauh oksaaid dhool ke baareek kanon dvaara gaharaai tak dhanki hui hai.[11][12]

pruthvi ki tarah, yeh grah bhi bhinnata (planetary differentiation) se gujara hai, parinaamasvaroop saghanata mein, dhaatu kor kshetr, kam ghane padaarthon dvaara lada rahata hai.[13]grah ke bheetar ke maujooda model, lagbhag 1794 ± 65 ki॰mee॰ trijya mein ek kor kshetr darshaatein hai, jo mukhya roop se lauh aur 16-17 % salfar yukt nikal se bana hai.[14] yeh lauh salfaaid kor aanshik roop se taral padaarth hai aur iske halke tatvon ka saandran pruthvi ke kor par maujood tatvon se duguna hai. kor ek siliket meintal se ghira hua hai jisne grah par kai vivrtanik aur jvaalaamukheeya aakrutiyon ko racha hai, lekin ab nishkriya ho gaya lagta hai. silikaun aur okseejan ke alaava, mangal ki parpati mein bahutaayat mein paae jaane vaale tatv loha, maigneshiym, elyuminiym, kailsiym aur poteshiym hai. 125 ki॰mee॰ ki adhiktam motaai ke saath, grah ki parpati ki ausat motaai lagbhag 50 ki॰mee॰ hai.[15] donon grahon ke aakaar ke saapeksh, pruthvi parpati ka ausat 40 ki॰mee॰ hai, jo mangal parpati ki motaai ka keval ek tihaai hai.

yadyapi mangal grah par vartamaan dhaanchaagat vaishvik chunbakeeya kshetr ke koi saboot naheen hai,[16] avlokan darshaate hai ki grah ke bhoopatal ke kuchh hisse chumbakit kiye gaye hai aur iske dvidhruv kshetr ka yeh kramik dhruveekaran ulataav ateet mein paaya gaya hai. chumbakeeya adhyayan se praapt chunbakeeyakrut atisanvedanasheel khanijon ke gun, kaafi had tak pruthvi ke samudra tal par paae jaane waali kramik pattiyon ke samaan hai. ek siddhaant, 1999 mein prakaashit hua aur October 2005 mein fir se jaancha gaya (maars global sarveyar ki madad ke saath), vah yeh hai ki yeh pattiyaan chaar arab varshon pehle ke mangal grah par plate vivrtaniki pradarshit karti hai, isse pehle graheeya chumbakeeya tantr ne kaarya karna band kar diya aur is grah ka chumbakeeya kshetr murajha gaya.[17]

saur pranaali nirmaan ke dauraan, mangal ki rachana ek prasanbhaavya prakriya ke parinaamasvaroop hui thi. saur pranaali mein apni sthiti ki vajah se mangal ki kai vishisht raasaayanik visheshataaen hai. apekshaakrut nimn kvathanaank binduon ke saath ke tatv, jaise kloreen, faasforas aur salfar, mangal grah par pruthvi ki tulana mein adhik aam hain; yeh tatv sanbhaavyataya naveekrut taaron ki urjaayukt saur vaayu dvaara soorya ke najadeeki kshetron se hata diye gaye the.[18]

grahon ke gathan ke baad, sabhi tathaakathit ' 'aadi bheeshan bamabaari' ' (LHB) ke adheen rahe the. mangal ki lagbhag 60% satah us yug se aaghaaton ka ek rikaard darshaata hai,[19][20][21] jabki shesh satah ka jyaadaatar hissa shaayad un ghatnaaon ki vajah se bani atyaaghaat ghaatiyon dvaara neeche kar diya gaya hai. mangal ke uttari golaarddh mein ek bhaari sanghaat ghaati ka pramaan hai, jo 10,600 ki॰mee॰ guna 8,500 ki॰mee॰ mein faili, ya kareeban chandrama ki dakshin dhruva—aaaitaken ghaati se chaar guna badi, ab tak ki khoji gayi sabse badi sanghaat ghaati hai.[22][23] yeh siddhaant sujhaav deta hai ki lagbhag chaar arab varsh pehle mangal grah plooto aakaar ke pind dvaara maara gaya tha. yeh ghatna, mangal ka ardhagolaardh virodhaabhaas, ka kaaran maani jaati hai, jisne sapaat borelis ghaati rachi jo ki grah ka 40% hissa samaavisht karti hai.[24][25]

mangal grah ke bhoovaijnyaaanik itihaas ko kai avadhiyon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai, lekin nimnalikhit teen praathamik avadhiyaan hain:[26][27]

mangal grah ki yeh chattaan maars science leboretari ke liye apna neela-bhoora aantarik dhaancha ujaagar karta huaaI[28]
  • noechiyn kaal (noechis tera par se naamit), aaj se 4.5 arab varsh poorv se lekar 3.5 arab varsh poorv tak ki ek avadhi hai, iske daramyaan mangal grah ke sabse puraane maujooda satahon ka gathan hua tha. noechiyn aayu ki satahein kai bade sanghaat kretaron dvaara diye jakhmon se daagadaar hai. tharsis ubhaar, ek jvaalaamukheeya uchchabhoomi hai, jo taral paani dvaara vyaapak baadh ke saath, is kaal ke dauraan bani gayi samajhi jaati hai.
  • hesperiyn kaal (hesperiya plainam par se naamit), 3.5 arab varsh poorv se lekar 2.9—a3.3 arab varsh poorv tak ki avadhi hai, yeh kaal vyaapak laava maidaanon ke gathan dvaara chihnit hai.
  • amejoniyn kaal (amejonis plenisiya par se naamit), 2.9—aa3.3 arab varsh poorv se vartamaan tak ki avadhi hai, amejoniyn kshetron ke kuchh ulka sanghaat kretar hai, lekin anyatha kaafi vividh hai. olampas mons isi avadhi ke dauraan bana tha.

kuchh bhoovaijnyaaanik gatividhi abhi bhi mangal par jaari hai, athaabaaska vailes pattar-sadrushya laava pravaahon ke liye lagbhag 2 arab varsh poorv tak ka basera hai.[29] 19 fravari 2008 ki mangal tohi parikrama yaan ki tasveerein 700 meter oonchi chattaan se ek himskhalan ka pramaan darshaati hai.[30]

mruda

Annotated image of Tharsis Tholus dark streak, as seen by Hirise. It is located in the middle left of this picture. Tharsis Tholus is just off to the right.

feeniks laindar ke vaapasi aankade mangal ki mitti ko thoda kshaareeya hona darsha rahi hai tatha maigneeshiym, sodiym, poteshiym aur kloraaid jaise tatvon ko sammilit karti hai. yeh poshak tatv pruthvi par hariyaali mein paae jaate hain evam paudhon ke vikaas ke liye aavashyak hain.[31] laindar dvaara pradarshit prayogon ne darshaaya hai ki mangal ki mitti ki ek 8.3 ki kshaareeya pH hai tatha lavan parakloret ke ansh sammilit kar sakte hai.[32][33]

dhaariyaaain mangal grah bhar mein aam hain evam maandon, ghaatiyon aur kretaron ki khadi dhalaanon par anekon nai aksar dikhaai deti hain. yeh dhaariyaaain pehle syaah hoti hai aur umr ke saath halki hoti jaati hai. kabhi kabhi dhaariyaaain ek chhote se kshetr mein shuroo hoti hain jo fir saikadon meetaron tak baahar failati jaati hai. ve pattharon ke kinaaron aur apne raaste mein anya baadhaaon ka anusaran karte bhi dekhi gayi hai. saamaanya roop se sveekaar kiye siddhaant in baaton ko shaamil karte hai ki ve mitti ki satahon mein gahari antarnihit rahi hai jo ujjval dhool ke bhooskhalanon ke baad prakat hui.[34] kai spashteekaran saamane rakh diye gaye, jinmein se kuchh paani ya jeevon ki vruddhi bhi shaamil karte hai.[35][36]

jalavijnyaaan

oporchyuniti rovar dvaara li gayi ek sookshmadarshi tasveer, taral jal ki poorv maujoodagi ke sanket yukt ek dhoosar haimetaait pathari dikha raha hai

nimn vaayumandaleeya daab ke kaaran mangal ki satah par taral jal maujood naheen hai,nimn uchchataanshon par alp kaal ke aalaava.[37][38] do dhruveeya barfeeli chotiyaan mote taur par jal se bani hui najar aati hain. dakshin dhruveeya barfeeli choti mein jaleeya barf ki maatra, agar pighl jaaye, to itni paryaapt hai ki samoochi graheeya satah ko 11 meter gahre tak dhaink dega.[39]

jaleeya barf ki vishaal maatra mangal ke mote kraayosfeyar ke neeche fansi hui hona maani gayi hain. maars express aur mangal tohi parikrama yaan se preshit radaar aankade donon dhruvon (July 2005)[40][41]aur madhya akshaanshon (November 2008) par jaleeya barf ki badi maatra darshaate hai.[42] 31 July 2008 ko feeniks laindar ne mangal ki uthali mitti mein jaleeya barf ki seedhi jaanch ki.[43]

mangal ki drushya bhoorachanaaeain drudhta se bataati hai ki is grah ki satah par kam se kam kisi samay taral jal vidyamaan raha hai.

dhruveeya topiyaan

1999 mein mangal ki uttari barf topi I
2000 mein mangal ki dakshin dhruveeya topi I

mangal ki do sthaayi dhruveeya barf topiyaan hai. dhruv ki sardiyon ke dauraan, yeh lagaataar andhere mein rahati hai, satah ko jama deti hai aur CO2 barf (shushk barf) ki paraton mein se vaayumandal ke 25-30 % ke nikshepan ka kaaran hoti hai.[44] jab dhruv fir se soorya prakaash se ujaagar hote hai, jami hui CO2 ka urdhvapaatan hota hai, jabaradast havaaon ka nirmaan hota hai jo dhruvon ko 400 ki॰mee॰/ghante ki raftaar se jhaad deti hai. ye mausami kaarravaaiyaan badi maatra mein dhool aur jal vaashp ka parivhan karti hai, jo pruthvi ki tarah tushaar aur bade baadalon ko janm deti hai. 2004 mein oporchyuniti dvaara jal-barf ke baadalon ka chhaayaankan kiya gaya tha. [45]

donon dhruvon par dhruveeya topiyaan mukhyat: jal-barf ki bani hai. jami hui kaarban daaioksaaid keval uttari sardiyon mein uttar topi par lagbhag ek meter ki ek apekshaakrut moti parat ke roop mein ikatthi hoti hai, jabki dakshin topi lagbhag aath meter ki moti shushk barf se sthaayi roop se dhanki hoti hai.[46] mangal ki uttari garmiyon ke dauraan uttari dhruveeya topi ka vyaas 1.000 ki॰mee॰ ke kareeb hota hai,[47] aur lagbhag 16 lakh ghan ki॰mee॰ ki barf shaamil karti hai, jo agar topi par samaan roop se fail jaae to 2 ki॰mee॰ ki moti hogi[48] (yeh greenalaind barf chaadar ki 28.5 lakh ghan ki॰mee॰ ki maatra ke tulya hai), dakshini dhruveeya topi ka vyaas 350 ki॰mee॰ aur motaai 3 ki॰mee॰ hai.[49] dakshin dhruveeya topi aur sameepavarti starit nikshepon mein barf ki kul maatra ka anumaan 16 lakh ghan ki॰mee॰ ka lagaaya gaya hai.[50] donon dhruveeya topiyaan sarpil garte pradarshit karti hain, jise haal ke barf bhedan radaar sharad (mangal ka uthala radaar dhvani yantr (SHARAD)) ke vishleshan ne dikhaaya hai, yeh adhogaami havaaon ka ek parinaam hain aur koriolis prabhaav (Coriolis Effect) ke kaaran sarpil hain.[51][52]

dakshini barf topi ke paas ke kuchh ilaakon ke mausami tushaaraachhaadan ka parinaam, jameen ke oopar shushk barf ki 1 meter moti paaradarshi parat ke nirmaan ke roop mein hota hai. basant ke aagaman ke saath, dhoop upasatah ko tapt ke deti hai aur vaashpeekrut CO2 parat ke neeche se dabaav banaati hai, oopar uthati hai aur antat: isko tod deti hai. yeh prakriya kaali besaalti ret ya dhool ke saath mishrit CO2 ke geejar-sadrushya vishfot ka netrutv karti hai. yeh prakriya tej hoti hai, kuchh dinon, saptaahon ya maheenon ke liye antariksh mein ghatit hote dekhi gayi hai, balki bhoovijnyaaan mein asaamaanya parivartan ki ek dar hai—avishesh roop se mangal ke liye. geejar ke sthaan par parat ke neeche ki gas teji se daudti hai jo barf ke andar trijyeeya vaahikaaon ki ek makadi jaisi aakruti ko taraashati hai.[53][54][55][56]naasa ne khoj dvaara mein paaya ki mangal grah par paani paaya jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

bhoogol

mangal ke sthalaakrutik nakshe par haavi, jvaalaamukhi pathaar (laal) aur aaghaat ghaatiyaan (neeli)

haalaanki johaan henarich maidalar aur vilhem biyr ko chandrama ke maanachitran ke liye behtar dhang se yaad kiya jaata hai, jo ki pehle "havaai photographer" the. mangal ki adhiktar satahi aakrutiyaan sthaayi thi, unhonne iski neenv rakhana shuroo kiya aur grah ki ghoornan avadhi ka aur baareeki se nirdhaaran kiya. 1840 mein, maidalar ne das varshon ke sanyukt avalokanon ke baad mangal ka pehla naksha kheencha. maidalar aur biyr ne vibhinn sthalaakrutiyon ko naam dene ki bajaay unhein saralata se aksharon ke saath nirdisht kiya; is prakaar meridiyn khaadi (sins meridiyn) thi aakruti "a".[57]

aaj, mangal ki aakrutiyon ke naam vividh sroton par se rakhe gaye hai. elbido aakrutiyaan shaastreeya pauraanik kathaaon par se naamit hai. 60 ki॰mee॰ (37 mil) se bade kretar, divangat vaigyaaniko ya lekhakon ya anya jinhonne mangal ke adhyayan ke liye yogadaan diya hai, par se naamit hai. 60 ki॰mee॰ se chhote kretaron ke naam vishv ke un shaharon aur gaaainvon par se hai jinki aabaadi ek lakh se kam hai. badi ghaatiyon ke naam vibhinn bhaashaaon mein sitaaron ke naam par se aur isi tarah chhoti ghaatiyon ke naam nadiyon par se hai.[58]

badi elbido aakrutiyon ko anek puraane naamon par hi rahane diya gaya hai, lekin praay: aakrutiyon ki prakruti ki nai jaankaari ke hisaab se inhein hataakar inka naveekaran kar diya jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye, niks olaampika ("olampas ki barf") ho gaya olampas mons (mount olampas).[59] mangal ki satah ko bhinn elbido ke saath do prakaar ke kshetron mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai (jis roop mein ise pruthvi se dekha gaya). raktim lauh aaksaaid se samruddh baaloo aur dhool se aachhaadit maidaanon ko arebiya tera (arab ki bhoomi) ya amejonis plenesiya (amejn ka maidaan) naam diya gaya. in maidaanon ko kabhi mangal ke 'mahaadveepon' ke jaisa samjha jaata tha. shyaam aakrutiyon ko samudra hona samjha jaata tha, isliye unke naam mayor ereethreyam, mayor sirenam aur aurora sins hai. pruthvi par se dekhi gayi sabse badi shyaam aakruti saayartis major plainam hai.[60] sthaayi uttari dhruveeya barf topi plainam boreyam ke naam par hai, jabki dakshini topi ko plainam ostraale kaha jaata hai.

mangal ka vishuvavrutt iske ghoornan dvaara paribhaashit hai, lekin iski pramukh madhyaahn rekha ko ek manamaane bindu ke chunaav dvaara nirdhaarit kiya gaya tha, theek usi tarah jaise pruthvi ka greenavich; maidalar aur biyr ne 1830 mein mangal ke apne pehle nakshe ke liye ek rekha ka chayan kiya tha. 1972 mein antariksh yaan merinr 9 ki pahuainch ne mangal ke vyaapak chitran pradaan kiye, uske baad sins meridiyn ("madhya khaadi" ya "meridiyn khaadi") mein sthit ek chhote se kretar (ab aairi-shoonya kaha jaata hai) ko mool chunaav ke saath mel ke liye 0.0° deshaantar ki paribhaasha ke liye chuna gaya tha.[61]

chooainki mangal par mahaasaagar naheen hai, isliye koi 'samudra star' bhi naheen hai aur ek shoonya-unnataansh satah ko sandarbh ke star ke roop mein bhi chayanit kiya jaana tha; ise mangal ka eroid (areoid) bhi kaha jaata hai,[62] theek sthaleeya jiyoid (Geoid) ke anuroop. shoonya uchchataansh ko us unchaai dvaara paribhaashit kiya gaya hai jahaan par 610.5 paaskal (6.105 mileebaar) ka vaayumandaleeya dabaav hai.[63]yeh dabaav jal ke trigun bindu se mel khaata hai aur pruthvi par samudra star ke satahi dabaav (0.006 ATM) ka lagbhag 0.6% hai.[64] abhyaas mein, aaj is satah ko seedhe upagrah gurutvaakarshan maapon se paribhaashit kiya gaya hai.


mangal anveshan rovar oporchyuniti se li gayi ek lagbhag shuddh-rang chhavi, kep verde se Victoria kretar ka drushya dikhaate hue, yeh teen hafton se jyaada ki avadhi mein khinchi gayi thi, 16 October se 6 November 2006.

chatushkonon ka naksha

mangal grah ki tasveeron ke nimn nakshe sanyukt raajya bhoogarbh sarvekshan dvaara paribhaashit 30 chatushkonon mein vibhaajit hai.[65][66] yeh chatushkon "mangal grah chart" ke liye upasarg "MC" ke saath kramaankit hain.[67] chatushkon par klik karein aur aap isi lekh ke prushthon par le jaae jaaenge. uttar disha sheersh par hai,0°aN 180°aW / 0°aN 180°aW / 0; -180 bhoomadhya rekha ke ekdam baanye hai. nakshon ki tasveerein maars global sarveyar dvaara li gayi thi.



aaghaat sthalaakruti

mangal grah ki dvibhaajan sthalaakruti asaadhaaran hai: uttari maidaan laava pravaahon dvaara chapate hai, iske vipreet dakshini uchchabhoomi, gaddhon aur praacheen aaghaaton dvaara daagadaar hai. 2008 ke anusandhaan ne 1980 ki abhidhaarana mein prastaavit ek siddhaant ki, chaar arab varsh pehle, chandrama ke aakaar ke ek-dahaai se do-tihaai ki ek cheej ne mangal grah ke uttari golaarddh ko de maara tha, ke sambandh mein saakshya prastut kiya. yadi maanya hai, isne mangal ke uttari golaarddh ko banaaya hoga, yeh sthal ek aghaat se bana 10,600 ki॰mee॰ lamba aur 8,500 ki॰mee॰ chauda gaddha hai, jo mote taur par Europe, Asia aur aasrteliya ke sanyukt kshetrafal jitna hai, aashcharyajanak roop se dakshin dhruv-aitaken ghaati aaghaat gadhdhe ke roop mein sauramandal mein sabse badi hai.[22][23]

mangal anek sankhya ke aaghaat gaddho ke jakhmon se ata pada hai, 5 ki॰mee॰ ya isse adhik vyaas ke kul 43,000 gaddhe paae gaye hai.[68] nishchit hi iname se sabse bada hai helaas aaghaat ghaati, ek feeki dhaval aakruti jo pruthvi se najar aati hai.[69] mangal ke apekshaakrut chhote dravyamaan ke kaaran is grah ke saath kisi vastu ke takaraane ki sambhaavana pruthvi ki tulana mein aadhi hai. mangal ki sthiti kshudragrah patte ke kareeb hai, iseeliye us strot se malabe dvaara prahaar hone ki sambhaavana ki vruddhi hui hai. mangal par isi tarah ke prahaar hone ki sambhaavana un laghu-avadhi dhoomaketuon ke dvaara aur adhik hai, jo ki bruhaspati ki kaksha ke bheetar maujood hai.[70] in sabke baavajood, mangal par ab tak chandrama ki tulana mein kam gaddhe hain kyonki mangal ka vaayumandal chhoti ulkaaon ke prahaar khilaaf grah ko sanrakshan pradaan karta hai. kuchh gaddho ki aakaariki aisi hai ki vah ulka prahaar ho jaane ke baad jameen mein nami hone ka sujhaav deti hai.[71]

vivrtanik sthal

sheersh se olampas mons ke shikhar ka drushya, sauramandal mein gyaat sarvochch parvat.

olampas mons (olampas parvat), ek 27 ki॰mee॰ ka dhaal jvaalaamukhi hai jo sauramandal mein sabse bada gyaat parvat hai.[72] yeh vishaal uchchabhoomi kshetr tharsis (Tharsis) mein ek vilupt jvaalaamukhi hai, jo anya kai bade javaalaamukheeyon ko shaamil karta hai. olampas mons, 8.8 ki॰mee॰ ooainche mount evarest se teen guna se bhi jyaada uncha hai.[73]

ek badi ghaati, vails merineris ki lambaai 4,000 ki॰mee॰ aur gaharaai 7 ki॰mee॰ tak hai. vails merineris ki lanbaai Europe ki lanbaai ke baraabar hai tatha yeh aarapaar mangal ki paridhi ke paanchavein bhaag jitna faila hua hai. tulana ke liye, pruthvi par grand ghaati maatr 446 ki॰mee॰ lambi aur kareeban 2 ki॰mee॰ gahari hai. vails merineris, tharsis kshetr ke fulaav ki vajah se bana tha jo vaalles merineris ke kshetr mein parpati ke patan ka kaaran hai. ek aur badi ghaati ma'adim vailis (hibroo mein mangal grah ke liye ma'adim shabd hai) hai. yeh 700 kimi lambi aur fir se kuchh sthaanon mein 20 kimi ki chaudaai aur 2 kimi ki gaharaai ke saath grand ghaati se bahut badi hai. iski sambhaavana hai ki ma'adim vailis poorv mein taral paani se jalamagn thi.[74]

gufaaen

mangal ki gufa ke pravesh dwaar ki theemis chhavi ke sambhaavit anaupachaarik naam hai: (A) dena, (B) kloe, (C) vendi, (D) eni, (E) aibi (baaen) aur nikki aur (F) jeinne.

naasa ke maars odisi yaan ne apne taapeeya utsarjan chhaviankan pranaali ( THEMIS) se praapt chhaviyon ki sahaayata se arsiya mauns jvaalaamukhi ke kinaare par gufa ke saat sambhaavit pravesh dvaaron ka pata lagaaya hai.[75] in gufaaon ke naam unke khojakarta ke priyjanon par rakhe gaye hai, saamoohik taur par inhein ' 'saat bahanon' ' ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[76] gufa ke muhaane ki chaudaai 100 meter se 252 meter tak maapi gayi hai aur iski gaharaai 73 meter se 96 meter tak hona maani gayi hai. chooainki adhikaaainsh gufaaon ki farsh tak roshani pahuainch naheen paati hai, yeh sambhaavana hai ki ve in kam anumaan ki tulana se vistaar mein kaheen jyaada gahari aur satah ke neeche chaudi ho. ' ' dena' ' ekamaatr apavaad hai, iska tal drushyamaan hai aur gaharaai 130 meter maapi gayi thi. in kandaraaon ke bheetari bhaag, sookshm ulkaapaat, paraabaigani vikirn, saur jvaalaaon aur uchch oorja kanon se sanrakshit rahe ho sakte hai jo grah ki satah par bamabaari karte hai.[77]

vaayumandal

nimn-kaksha chhavi mein mangal ka kamjor vaataavaran kshitij par dikhaai pad raha hai

mangal ne apna megnetosfeyar 4 arab varsh pehle kho diya hai,[78] iseeliye saur vaayu mangal ke aayanamandal ke saath seedhe sampark karti hai, jisse upari parat se paramaanuon ke bikhrakar door hone se vaayumandaleeya saghanata kam ho rahi hai. maars global sarveyar aur maars express donon ne is aayaanit vaayumandaleeya kanon ka pata lagaaya hai jo antariksh mein mangal ke peechhe fail rahe hai.[78][79] pruthvi ki tulana mein, mangal grah ka vaataavaran kaafi virl hai. satahi star par 600 Pa (0.60 kPa) ke ausat dabaav ke saath, satah par vaayumandaleeya daab ka vistaar, olampas mons par 30 Pa (0.030 kPa) nimn se hellaas plenisiya mein 1,155 Pa (1 .155 kPa) ke oopar tak hai.[80] apne sabse motaai par mangal ka satahi dabaav, pruthvi ki satah se 35 ki॰mee॰ oopar paae jaane vaale dabaav ke baraabar hai.[81] yeh pruthvi ke satahi dabaav se 1% kam hai (101.3 kPa). vaayumandal ka skel haait lagbhag 10.8 ki॰mee॰ hai,[82] jo ki pruthvi par se (6 ki॰amee॰) uncha hai kyonki mangal ka satahi gurutv pruthvi ke satahi gurutv se keval 38% hai, is prabhaav ki bharpaai mangal ke vaataavaran ke 50% se adhik ausat aanavik bhaar aur kam taapamaan dvaara ki jaati hai.

mangal ka vaayumandal 95% kaarban daaioksaaid, 3% naaitrojan, 1.6% aargan se bana hain aur okseejan aur paani ke nishaan shaamil hain.[6] vaataavaran kaafi dhool yukt hai, jo mangal ke aasmaan ko ek gahra peela rang deta hai jaisa satah se dekha gaya.[83]

methane ka naksha

mangal ke vaataavaran mein methane ka pata 30 peepeebi ki mol bhinnata ke saath lagaaya gaya hai;[84][85] yeh vistaarit pankhon mein pai jaati hai aur rooparekha bataati hai ki methane asatat kshetron se jaari ki gayi thi. uttari madhya greeshm mein, pradhaan pankh 19,000 meetrik tan methane shaamil karti hai, 0.6 kilogram prati second ki ek shaktishaali strot ke saath.[86][87] rooparekha sujhaav deti hai ki vahaan do sthaaneeya strot kshetr ho sakte hai, pehla 30° uttar,260° pashchim ke najadeeki kendra aur doosra 0°, 310° pashchim ke najadeek.[86] yeh anumaan hai ki mangal 270 tan / varsh methane utpaadit karta hai.[86][88]

garbhit methane ke vinaash ka jeevanakaal lambe se lamba 4 pruthvi varsh aur chhote se chhota 0.6 pruthvi varsh ho sakta hai.[86][89] jvaalaamukhi gatividhi, dhoomaketu sanghaaton aur methane paida karne vaale sookshmajeevi jeevan roopon ki upasthiti, sambhav sroton ke beech hain. methane ek gair-jaivik prakriya dvaara bhi paida ho saki hai jise sarpeintaaineejesan kaha jaata hai, jo paani, kaarban daaiaaksaaid aur us olivin khanij ko shaamil karta hai, jise mangal par aam hona maana jaata hai.[90]

jalavaayu

mangal grah habal antariksh dooradarshi se 28 October 2005, drushya dhool toofaan ke saath

sauramandal ke sabhi grahon mein, samaan ghoornan aksheeya jhukaav ke kaaran mangal aur pruthvi par ritueain jyaadaatar ek jaisi hai. mangal ke rituon ki lambaaiyaan pruthvi ki apeksha lagbhag doguni hai, soorya se apekshaakrut adhik se adhik door hone se mangal ke varsh, lagbhag do pruthvi-varsh lambaai jitne aage hai. mangal satah ka taapamaan bhi vividhtaapoorn hai, dhruveeya sardiyon ke dauraan taapamaan lagbhag −87° se. (−125° fe.) neeche se lekar garmiyon mein −5° se. (23° fe.) ooainche tak rahata hai.[37] vyaapak taapamaan vistaar, nimn vaayumandaleeya daab, nimn taapeeya jadtv aur patale vaayumandal, jo jyaada saur taap sangrahit naheen kar sakta, ke kaaran hai. yeh grah pruthvi ki tulana mein soorya se 1.52 guna adhik door bhi hai, parinaamasvaroop maatr 43% soorya prakaash ki maatra hi pahuainch paati hai.[91]

yadi mangal ki ek pruthvi-sadrushya kaksha thi, to usaki ritueain bhi pruthvi-sadrushya rahi hogi kyonki donon grahon ka aksheeya jhukaav lagbhag samaan hai. tulanaatmak roop se mangal ki badi kaksheeya vikendrata ek mahatvapoorn prabhaav rakhati hai. mangal upasaur ke najadeek hota hai tab dakshini golaarddh mein garmi aur uttar mein sardi hoti hai aur apasaur ke najadeek hota hai tab dakshini golaarddh mein sardi aur uttar mein garmi hoti hai. parinaamasvaroop, dakshini golaarddh mein mausam adhik charam aur uttari golaarddh mein mausam maamooli hota hai anyatha maamala kuchh alag hi hota. dakshin mein greeshm taapamaan 30° se. (86° fe.) tak pahuainch sakta hai jo uttar mein samatulya greeshm taapamaan se jyaada tapt hota hai.[92]

mangal par hamaare sauramandal ka sabse bada dhool toofaan hai. yeh vividhta liye ho sakta hai, chhote hisse par se lekar itna vishaal toofaan ki samooche grah ko dhaink de. vein tab pravrutt paae jaate hai jab soorya ke sameep hote hai aur vaishvik taapamaan ke liye vruddhi darsha gaye hai.[93]

parikrama evam ghoornan

mangal ki soorya se ausat doori lagbhag 23 karod ki॰mee॰ (1.5 kha॰ai॰) aur kaksheeya avadhi 687 (pruthvi) diwas laal nishaan ke roop mein, pruthvi ki kaksha (neeli) ke saath darshaai gayi hai.

mangal ki soorya se ausat doori lagbhag 23 karod ki॰mee॰ (1.5 kha॰ai॰) aur kaksheeya avadhi 687 (pruthvi) diwas hai. mangal par saur diwas ek pruthvi diwas se maatr thoda sa lamba hai : 24 ghante, 39 minute aur 35.244 sekand. ek mangal varsh 1.8809 pruthvi varsh ke baraabar ya 1 varsh, 320 din aur 18.2 ghante hai.[6]

mangal ka aksheeya jhukaav 25.19 degree hai, jo ki pruthvi ke aksheeya jhukaav ke baraabar hai.[6] parinaamasvaroop, mangal ki ritueain pruthvi ke jaisi hai, haalaanki mangal par ye ritueain pruthvi par se doguni lambi hai. varttamaan mein mangal ke uttari dhruv ki sthiti deneb taare ke kareeb hai.[94] mangal apne apasaur se March 2010 mein gujara[95] aur apne upasaur se March 2011 mein.[96] agala apasaur February 2012 mein[96] aur agala upasaur January 2013 mein hoga.[96]

mangal grah ki 0.09 ki ek apekshaakrut spasht kaksheeya vikendrata hai, saur pranaali ke saat anya grahon mein keval budh, adhik se adhik vikendrata darshaata hai. yeh gyaat hai ki poorv mein mangal ki kaksha varttamaan ki apeksha adhik vruttaakaar thi. 13.5 lakh pruthvi varsh pehle ke ek bindu par mangal ki vikendrata lagbhag 0.002 thi, jo aaj ki pruthvi se bahut kam hai.[97] mangal ki vikendrata ka chakr, pruthvi ke 1,00,000 varsheeya chakr ki tulana mein 96,000 pruthvi varsh hai.[98] mangal ke vikendrata ka chakr 22 lakh pruthvi varsh ke saath bahut lamba bhi hai aur yeh vikendrata graaf mein 96,000 varsheeya chakr ko dhaink deta hai. antim 35,000 varshon ke liye mangal ki kaksha, doosare grahon ke gurutvaakarshan prabhaav ke kaaran thodi si aur adhik vikendrata paati rahi hai. pruthvi aur mangal grah ke beech ki niktatam doori, maamooli ghataav ke saath agale 25,000 varshon ke liye jaari rahegi.[99]

chhaviyaan mangal ki kaksha ki tulana seres,kshudragrah patte mein ek vaaman grah, ke saath karti hui. baain chhavi ko uttari kraantivrutt dhruv se jabki daain ko aarohi paat se dikhaaya gaya hai. kaksha ka kraantivrutt ke dakshin ka khand gahre rang mein ankit hai. perihelia (q) aur aphelia (Q) niktatam gaman ki dinaank ke saath vargeekrut hain. mangal ki kaksha laal jabki seres ki peeli hai.

chandrama

mangal ke do apekshaakrut chhote praakrutik chandrama hai, fobos aur dimoj, jiski kaksha grah ke kareeb hai. kshudragrah par kabja ek jyaada samarthit siddhaant hai lekin iski utpatti anishchit bani hui hai.[100] donon upagrah asaaf haal dvaara 1877 mein khoje gaye the aur unke naam paatr fobos (aatank / dar) aur dimoj (aatank / bhaya) par rakhe gaye jo, greek pauraanik kathaaon mein ladaai mein, unke pita yuddh ke devata erees ke saath the. erees rom ke logon ke liye mangal grah ke roop mein jaana jaata tha.[101][102]

mangal grah ki satah se, fobos aur dimoj ki gatiyaan hamaare apne chaaaind ki apeksha kaafi alag dikhaai deti hain. fobos pashchim mein udaya hota hai, poorv mein ast hota hai aur maatr 11 ghante baad fir se udit hota hai. dimoj ki bilkul thodi si baahar samakaalik kaksha hai, arthaat usaki kaksheeya avadhi usaki ghoornan avadhi se mel khaati hai, aashaanuroop yeh poorv mein udit hota hai lekin bahut dheere dheere. dimoj ki 30 ghante ki kaksha ke baavajood, yeh pashchim mein ast hone ke liye 2.7 din leta hai kyonki yeh mangal grah ki ghoornan disha mein saath saath ghoomate hue dheere se doobata hai, udaya ke liye fir se isi tarah lamba samay leta hai.[103]

chooainki fobos ki kaksha tulyakaalik oonchaai se neeche hai, mangal grah se jvaareeya bal usaki kaksha ko dheere-dheere chhoti kar raha hain (vartamaan dar : lagbhag 1.8 meter prati sadeen). lagbhag 5 karod varsh mein yeh ya to mangal ki satah mein durghatanaagrast ho jaaega ya grah ke chaaron or chhalle ke roop mein tootakar bikhr jaaega.[103]

donon chandramaaon ki utpatti ki achhi tarah se samajh naheen hai, nimn elbido aur kaarbanayukt kondraait sanrachana ke kaaran ise kshudragrah ke samaan maana ja raha hai, jo hathiyaane ke siddhaant ka samarthan karta hai. fobos ki asthir kaksha ek apekshaakrut haal hi mein hathiyaane ki pravrutti ki or ingit prateet hoti hai. lekin donon ki kakshaaen vruttaakaar hai, bhoomadhya rekha ke bahut nikat hai, jo jabaran chheen liye gaye nikaayon ke liye bahut hi asaamaanya hai aur aavashyak adhigrahan gatisheelata bhi jatil kar rahi hain.

jeevan ke liye khoj

vaaiking 2 avataran sthal, May 1979
vaaiking 1 avataran sthal, February 1978

haal ki graheeya vaasayogyata ki hamaari samajh un grahon ke paksh mein hai jinke paas apni satah par taral paani hai. graheeya vaasayogyata, duniya ko viksit karne aur jeevan ko banaae rakhane ke liye grah ki ek kshamata hai. praay: iski mukhya maang hai ki grah ki kaksha vaasayogya kshetr ke bheetar sthit ho, jiske liye soorya vartamaan me is daayare ko shukr se thode se pare se lekar lagbhag mangal ke ardhya-mukhya aksh tak vistaarit karta hai.[104] soorya se niktata ke dauraan mangal is kshetr ke andar dubaki lagaata hai, parantu grah ka patala (nimn-daab) vaayumandal, in vistaarit avadhiyon se bade kshetron par vidyamaan taral paani ki raksha karta hai. taral paani ke poorv pravaah vaasayogyata ke liye grah ki kshamata ko darshaata hai. haal ke kuchh pramaan ne sanket diya hai ki niyamit sthaleeya jeevan ko aadhaar hetoo mangal ki satah par kinchit paani bahut jyaada lavaneeya aue amleeya raha ho sakta hai.[105]

chumbakeeya kshetr ki kami aur mangal ka atyant patala vaayumandal ek chunauti hai: is grah ke paas, apni satah ke aarapaar maamooli taap sancharan, saur vaayu ke hamle ke khilaaf kamjor avarodhak aur paani ko taral roop mein banaae rakhane ke liye aparyaapt vaayu mandaleeya daab hai. mangal bhi kareeb kareeb, ya shaayad poori tarah se, bhoovaijnyaaanik roop se mrut hai; jvaalaamukhi gatividhi ke ant ne upari taur par grah ke bheetar aur satah ke beech mein rasaayanon aur khanijon ke punarchakran (reesaaikling) ko band kar diya hai.[106]

pramaan sujhaav dete hai ki yeh grah jaisa ki aaj hai ki tulana mein ek samay kaafi adhik rahane yogya tha, parantu chaahe jo ho vahaan kabhi rahe jeevon ki maujoodagi anajaan bani hui hai. madhya 1970 ke vaaiking yaan ne apne sambandhit avataran sthalon par mangal ki mitti mein sookshmajeevon ka pata lagaane ke liye jaan-booj kar pareekshan kiye aur parinaam sakaaraatmak raha, jisme paani aur poshak tatvon par se anaavarit CO2 ke utpaadan ki ek asthaayi vruddhi bhi shaamil hai. jeevan ka yeh chinh baad mein kuchh vaigyaaniko ke dvaara vivaadit raha tha, jiska parinaam nirantar bahas ke roop mein hua, naasa ke vaigyaanik gilbart levin ne jor dete hue kaha ki vaaiking ne jeevan paaya ho sakta hai. aadhunik gyaan ke prakaash mein, jeevan ke charamapasandi roopon ke vaaiking aankado ke ek pun: vishleshan ne sujhaav diya hai ki jeevan ke in roopon ka pata lagaane ke liye vaaiking ke pareekshan paryaapt parishkrut naheen the. is pareekshan ne ek jeevan roop (kalpit) ko bhi maar daala hai.[107] feeniks maars laindar dvaara kiye gaye pareekshanon se pata chala hai ki mitti ki ek bahut kshaareeya pH hai aur yeh maigneeshiym, sodiym, poteshiym aur kloraaid shaamil karta hai.[108] mitti ke poshak tatv jeevan ko aadhaar dene ke liye samarth ho sakte hai lekin jeevan ko abhi bhi gahan paraabaingani prakaash se parirkshit karna hoga.[109]

Johnson space center prayogashaala mein, ulka ALH84001 mein kuchh aakarshak aakaar paae gaye hai, jo mangal grah se utpann hue maane gaye hai. kuchh vaigyaaniko ka prastaav hai ki mangal par vidyamaan yeh jyaamiteeya aakrutiyaan ashmibhoot rogaanuon ki ho sakti hai, isse pehle ek ulka takkar ne is ulkaapind ko antariksh mein vishfotit kar diya tha aur ise ek 1.5 karod-varsheeya yaatra par pruthvi ke liye bhej diya.[110]

haal hi mein maars orbitron dvaara methane aur formeldehaaid ki chhoti maatra ka pata lagaaya gaya aur donon ne jeevan ke liye sanket ke hone ka daava kiya hai, unke anusaar ye raasaayanik yaugik mangal ke maahaul mein jaldi se toot jaaenge.[111][112] yeh door se sambhav hai ki in yaugikon ke sthaan ki bharpaai jvaalaamukhi ya bhoogarbheeya maadhyam se ho sakti hai arthaat jaise ki sarpeintaaineejesan .[90]

anveshan abhiyaan

endevar kretar ka pashchimi kinaara

mangal grah ko pruthvi se dekha ja sakta hai, par naveenatam vistrut jaankaari to apni-apni kakshaaon mein uske irdagird mandara rahe chaar sakriya yaanon se aati hai: maars odisi, maars express, mangal tohi parikrama yaan aur oporchyuniti rovar. log haaiveesh kaaryakram ke saath mangal ke satah ki 25 se.mi. piksel ki tasveeron ke liye anurodh kar sakte hai jo mangal ki kaksha mein ek 50 se.mi. vyaas ki doorabeen ka upayog karta hai.

mangal ke liye poorv mein darjanon antariksh yaan, jismein orbitr, laindar aur rovar shaamil hai, grah ke satah, jalavaayu aur bhoovijnyaaan ke adhyayan ke liye soviyt sangh, sanyukt raajya America, Europe aur Japan dvaara bheje gaye hai. 2008 mein, pruthvi ki satah se mangal ki dharati tak ka saamagri parivhan moolya lagbhag 3,09,000 ameriki dollar prati kilogram hai.[113]

vartamaan abhiyaan

naasa ke maars odisi yaan ne 2001 mein mangal ki kaksha mein pravesh kiya.[114] odisi ke gaama re spektromeetar ne mangal ke upari meter mein mahatvapoorn maatra ki haaidrojan ka pata lagaaya. aisa lagta hai ki yeh haaidrojan, jal barf ke vishaal bhandaar mein nihit hai.[115]

Europeeya antariksh abhikran (isa) ka abhiyaan, maars express, 2003 mein mangal par pahuncha. isne beegal 2 laindar ko dhoya, jo avataran ke dauraan vifal raha aur February 2004 mein ise laapata ghoshit kiya gaya.[116] 2004 ki shuruaat mein plenetari fooriyr spektromeetar team ne ghoshana ki ki is yaan ne mangal ke vaayumandal mein methane ka pata lagaaya tha. isa ne June 2006 mein aurora ke khoj ki ghoshana ki.[117]

January 2004 mein, naasa ke judva mangal anveshan rovar, spirit (emaiaar-A) aur oporchyuniti (emaiaar-bi) mangal ki dharati par utare. donon ko apne sabhi lakshyon se adhik mila. anekon ati mahatvapoorn vaigyaanik vaapaseeyon ke beech yeh ek nirnaayak saboot rahe hai ki donon avataran sthalon par poorv mein kuchh samay ke liye taral paani maujood tha. mangal ke dhool bavandar aur havaai toofaanon ne kai avsaron par donon rovaron ke saur painalon ko saaf kiya hai aur is prakaar unke jeevan kaal mein vruddhi hui hai.[118] spirit rovar (emaiaar-A) 2010 tak sakriya raha tha, jab tak ki isne aankade bhejana band naheen kar diya.

10 March 2006 ko naasa ka mangal tohi parikrama yaan (MRO), ek do-varsheeya vigyaan sarvekshan chalaane ke liye kaksha mein pahuncha. is yaan ne aagaami laindar abhiyaan ke liye upayukt avataran sthalon ko khojane ke liye mangal ke ilaakon aur mausam ka maanachitran shuroo kiya. 3 March 2008 ko vaigyaaniko ne bataaya, MRO ne grah ke uttari dhruv ke paas ek sakriya himskhalan shrrunkhala ki pehli chhavi bigaad di.[119]

kyureeaasiti naamak, mangal vigyaan prayogashaala ko 26 November 2011 ko prakshepit kiya aur August 2012 mein mangal tak pahunchane ki ummeed hai. 90 meter/ghante ke visthaapan dar ke saath, yeh maars eksaploreshan rovars se bada aur adhik unnat hai. iska parikshan, rasaayan namoona jaanchane wala ek lejar shaamil karta hai, jo ki 13 meter ki doori par se chattaanon ki rooparekha nikaal leta hai.[120]

bhootapoorv abhiyaan

mangal abhiyaan ke prayaas
dashak
1960 vaan —a—a—a—a—a—a—a—a—a—a—a—a— 13
1970 vaan —a—a—a—a—a—a—a—a—a—a— 11
1980 vaan —a— 2
1990 vaan —a—a—a—a—a—a—a— 8
2000 vaan —a—a—a—a—a—a—a— 8
2010 vaan —a— 2
soviyt daak ticket par maars 3 laindar .

mangal grah ki pehli safal udaan 14-15 July 1965 ko naasa dvaara bheji gayi merinr 4 thi. 14 November 1971 ko merinr 9, pehla antariksh yaan bana jisne kisi anya grah ki parikrama ke liye mangal ke chaaron or ki kaksha mein pravesh kiya.[121] do soviyt yaan, 27 November 1971 ko maars 2 aur 3 December ko maars 3, satah par safalataapoorvak kadam rakhane waali pehli vastuen thi, parantu utarane ke chand sekandon ke bheetar hi donon ka sanchaar band ho gaya. 1975 mein naasa ne vaaiking kaaryakram ki shurooaat ki, jismein do kaksheeya yaan shaamil the, pratyek mein ek ek laindar the aur donon laindar 1976 mein safalataapoorvak neeche utare the. vaaiking 1 chh: varsh ke liye aur vaaiking 2 teen varsh ke liye parichaalak bane rahe. vaaiking laindaron ne mangal ke jeevant paridrushya prasaarit kiye,[122] aur is yaan ne satah ko itni achhi tarah se pratichitrit kiya hai ki yeh chhaviyaaain prayog mein bani rahati hai.

mangal aur uske chandramaaon ke adhyayan ke liye 1988 mein soviyt yaan fobas 1 aur 2 mangal ko bheje gaye. fobas 1 ne mangal ke raaste par hi sampark kho diya. jabki fobas 2 ne safalataapoorvak mangal aur fobas ki tasveerein khinchi, vifal hone ke theek pehle ise fobas ki dharati par do laindar chhodne ke liye taiyaar kiya gaya tha.[123]

mangal ki or ravaana sabhi antariksh yaanon ke lagbhag do-tihaai, abhiyaan poora hone ya yahaaain tak ki apne abhiyaan ke shuruaat ke pehle hi kisi na kisi tareeke se vifal ho gaye. abhiyaan vifalta ke liye aamtaur par takaneeki samasyaaon ko jimmedaar maana jaata hai aur yojanaakaar praudyogiki aur abhiyaan lakshyon ka santulan karte hai.[124] 1995 ke baad se viflataaon mein shaamil hai : maars 96 (1996), maars klaaimet orbitr (1999), maars polaar laindar (1999), deep space 2 (1999), nojomi (2003) aur fobos-grant (2011).

maars obsarvar yaan ki 1992 ki vifalta ke baad, 1997 mein naasa ke maars global sarveyar ne mangal grah ki kaksha haasil ki. yeh abhiyaan ek poorn safalta thi, 2001 ke shuroo mein isne apna praathamik maanachitran mission samaapt kar diya. apne teesare vistaarit kaaryakram ke dauraan November 2006 mein is yaan ke saath sampark toot gaya, isne antariksh mein theek 10 parichaalan varsh kharch kiye.

naasa ka maars paathafaaindar, ek robotik anveshan vaahan sojaurnar le gaya, 1997 ki garmiyon mein yeh mangal par eres vaalis mein utara aur anek chhaviyaaain vaapas laaya.[125]

mangal par spirit laindar,2004
foniks laindar se najaara,2008

naasa ka feeniks maars laindar mangal ke uttar dhruveeya kshetr par 25 May 2008 ko pahuncha.[126]mangal ki mitti mein khudaai ke liye iski robotik bhuja ka istemaal kiya gaya tha aur 20 June ko jal barf ki upasthiti ki pushti ki gayi.[127][128][128] sampark tootane ke pashchaat 10 November 2008 ko is abhiyaan ka nishkarsh nikaala gaya.[129]

daan antariksh yaan ne apne path par vesta aur fir seres ki chhaanabeen ke liye, gurutvaakarshan ki sahaayata se February 2009 mein mangal ke liye udaan bhari.[130]

bhavishya ke abhiyaan

bhaarateeya antariksh anusandhaan sangathan (isaro) ke adhyaksh ji. maadhavan Nair ne kaha hai ki Bhaarat 2013 tak mangal ke liye ek abhiyaan shuroo karega. isaro ne mangal par antariksh yaan bhejane ke liye taiyaari shuroo kar di hai.[131] is yaan ko laal grah ke vaataavaran ke adhyayan ke liye mangal ki kaksha mein dhruveeya upagrah prakshepan yaan (peeesaelavi) ki sahaayata se bheja jaaega. mangal parikrama yaan grah ke chaaron or 500 x 80,000 ki॰mee॰ ki kaksha mein rakha jaaega aur kareeban 25 kilo ke vaigyaanik pelod ko le jaane ka ek praavadhaan hoga.[132]

san 2008 mein naasa ne mangal ke vaayumandal ke baare mein soochana pradaan karne ke liye 2013 ke ek robotik abhiyaan maaven ki ghoshana ki.[133]isa ne 2018 mein mangal ke liye apne pehle rovar prakshepan ki yojana banaai, yeh eksomaars rovar mitti ke andar kaarbanik anuon ki talaash mein 2 meter ki khudaai karne mein saksham hoga.[134]

finish-roosi metanet, ek mission avadhaarana hai jo mangal grah par kai chhote vaahanon ka ek vyaapak avlokan network sthaapit karne ke liye grah ki vaayumandaleeya sanrachana, bhautiki aur mausam vigyaan ki jaanch karega.[135] metanet prakshepan hetoo, peeth par savaari ke liye ek roosi fobos-grant mission ka vichaar kiya gaya, lekin ise naheen chuna gaya.[136] yeh mangal ke ek bhavishya ke net-mission ke liye shaamil kiya ja sakta hai.[137] maars-grant ek anya roosi abhiyaan avadhaarana hai, yeh ek mangal namoona vaapasi abhiyaan hai.[137]

inasaait (aupachaarik naam GEMS), mangal ki bheetari banaavat ke adhyayan aur aantarik saur pranaali ke chattaani grahon ko aakaar dene ki prakriyaaon ko samajhne ke liye, mangal par ek bhoobhautikeeya laindar sthaapana hetoo, naasa ke diskavari kaaryakram antargat prastaavit ek maars laindar mission hai.[138]

maanav mission lakshya

isa ko 2030 aur 2035 ke beech mangal grah par maanav ke kadam padne ki ummeed hai.[139] eksomaars yaan ke prakshepan aur naasa-isa ke sanyukt mangal namoona vaapasi abhiyaan ke saath, yeh kramik bade yaanon dvaara pehle hi ho jaaega.[140]

sanyukt raajya America dvaara maanavayukt anveshan ki pehchaan ek antariksh anveshan svapn mein deerghakaalik lakshya ke roop mein ki gayi thi jiski ghoshana tatkaaleen ameriki raashtrapati George dablyoo bush dvaara 2004 mein ki gayi thi.[141] oriyn antariksh yaan yojana ka upayog 2020 tak ek maanav abhiyaan dal bhejane ke liye kiya jaaega jismein mangal abhiyaan ke liye hamaare chaaaind ka istemaal ek kadam rakhane ke patthar ke roop mein hoga. 28 September 2007 ko naasa ke prashaasak Michael di. grifin ne kaha ki naasa ka lakshya 2037 tak mangal par maanav ko rakhana hai.[142]

fobos dvaara soorya paaragaman (transit), jaisa ki maars rovar oporchyuniti dvaara 10 March 2004 ko dekha gaya.

maars direct, mangal society ke sansthaapak Robert jubrin dvaara prastaavit ek kam-laagat ka maanav mission hai, jisme kaksheeya nirmaan, milan sthal aur chandra indhan dipo ko chhodne ke liye space X, faalkan X ya eres V jaise hevi lift setarn V raaketon ka istemaal hoga. ek sanshodhit prastaav, agar kabhi hua to, jise ' maars too stay' kaha jaata hai, yeh turant vaapasi naheen karne vaale pehle aapravaasi khojakarta shaamil karta hai (dekhein: mangal ka upaniveshan).[143]

mangal par khagolavijnyaaan

vibhinn yaanon, laindaron aur rovaron ki maujoodagi ke saath, mangal ke aasmaan se khagolavijnyaaan ka adhyayan ab sambhav hai. mangal ka chandrama fobos, jaisa ki pruthvi se najar aata hai, poorn chandra ke koneeya vyaas ka lagbhag ek tihaai dikhaai deta hai, jabki deemos isse aur adhik kam taaron jaisa chhota dikhaai deta hai aur pruthvi se yeh shukr se keval thoda sa jyaada ujjaval dikhaai deta hai.[144]

pruthvi par achhi tarah se jaane jaani waali anekon ghatnaaen, jaise ki ulkaapaat aur aurora ityaadi, mangal par dekhi gayi hai.[117] ek pruthvi paaragaman jaisa ki mangal se najar aayega, 10 November 2084 ko ghatit hoga.[145] mangal ki or se budh paaragaman aur shukr paaragaman bhi hota hai, fobos aur dimoj chandrama ke chhote koneeya vyaas itne paryaapt hai ki uske dvaara soorya ka aanshik grahan ek shreshth paaragaman maana gaya hai (dekhe:mangal se dimoj paaragaman).[146][147]

pradarshan

mangal ki spasht pratigaami gati ka eneemeshan, jaisa ki 2003 mein pruthvi se dekha gaya.

chooainki mangal ki kaksha utkeindrit hai, soorya se vimukhata par iska aabhaasi parimaan -3.0 se -1.4 tak ke paraas ka ho sakta hai. jab yeh grah soorya ke saath sameepata mein hota hai iski nyoonatam chamak +1.6 parimaan ki hoti hai.[148] mangal aamtaur par ek vishisht peela, naarangi ya laal rang prakat karta hai, mangal ka vaastavik rang baadaami ke kareeb hai aur dikhaai dene waali laalima grah ke vaayumandal mein sirf ek dhool hai; aisa naasa ke spirit rovar se, neele-dhoosar chattaanon ke saath hare-bhoore, matamaile bhoodrushyon aur halke laal ret ke bhookhandon, ki li gayi tasveeron ko dekhte hue maana jaata hai.[149] jab yeh pruthvi se sabse dooratam hota hai, to yeh pehle se saat gune se jyaada jitna door ho jaata hai aur itna hi jab sabse najadeek hota hai. jab nyoonatam anukool avasthiti par hota hai, yeh ek samay par soorya ki chamak mein maheenon ke liye gaayab ho sakta hai. isi tarah adhiktam anukool samayon par—a15 ya 17-varsheeya antaraal par aur hamesha July ke ant aur sitmbar ke ant ke madhya—aamangal ek doorabeen se hi vistrut satahi samruddhi pradarshit karta hai. vishesh roop se dhyaan dene yogya hai, dhruveeya barf topiyaan, yahaaain tak ki nimn aavardhan par bhi.[150]

jaise hi mangal vimukhata par pahunchata hai iski pratigaami gati ki ek avadhi praarambh hoti hai, iska arth hai, prushthabhoomi sitaaron ke saapeksh ek pashchagaami gati mein yeh peechhe ki or khiskata hua najar aaega. is pratigaami gati ki avadhi lagbhag 72 dinon tak ke liye rahati hai aur mangal is avadhi ke madhya mein apni chamak ke shikhar tak pahuainch jaata hai.[151]

niktatam pahuainch

saapeksh

bhookendreeya deshaantar par mangal aur soorya ke binduon ke beech ka 180° ka antar, vimukhata ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, jo pruthvi se niktatam pahuainch ke samay se najadeek hai. niktatam pahuainch se pare vimukhata ka samay adhik se adhik 8.5 din mil sakta hai. deerghavrutteeya kakshaaon ke kaaran niktatam pahuainch se doori, lagbhag 5.4 karod ki॰mee॰ aur lagbhag 10.3 karod ki॰mee॰ ke beech vividh ho sakti hai, jo koneeya aakaar mein tulanaatmak antar ke kaaran banti hai.[152] antim mangal vimukhata lagbhag 10 karod kilometer ki doori par 3 March 2012 ko hui.[153]mangal ki kramik vimukhata ke beech ka ausat samay, 780 din, usaka sanyuti kaal hai lekin kramik vimukhataaon ke dinaankon ke beech ke dinon ki sankhya 764 se 812 tak ke vistaar ki ho sakti hai.[154]

jaise hi mangal vimukhata par pahuchata hai iski pratigaami gati ki ek avadhi shuroo ho jaati hai, jo use prushthabhoomi sitaaron ke saapeksh ek pashchagaami gati mein peechhe ki or khiskata hua dikhaai deta hai. is pratigaami gati ki samayaavadhi lagbhag 72 ghante hai.

nirpeksh, vartamaan samay ke aaspaas

mangal vimukhata 2003-2018, kendrit pruthvi ke saath kraantivrutt ke oopar se dekha gaya.

mangal ne najadeeki 60,000 varshon mein, pruthvi se apni niktatam pahuainch aur adhiktam spasht ujjavalata, kramash: 55,758 ki॰mee॰ (0.372719 kha॰ai॰), -2.88 parimaan, 27 August 2003 ko 9:51:13 baje (UT) banaai hai. yeh tab paayi jab mangal viyuti se ek din aur apne upasaur se teen din door tha, jo mangal ko vishesharoop se pruthvi se aasaani se dekhne laayak banaata hai. pichhli baar yeh itna paas anumaanat: 12 September 57,617 E.poo. ko aaya tha aur agali baar 2287 mein hoga.[155] yeh record pahuainch haal ki anya najadeeki pahuainchon se keval thodi bahut kareeb thi. udaaharan ke liye, 22 August 1924 ko nyoonatam doori 0.37285 kha॰ai॰ thi aur 24 August,2208 ko nyoonatam doori 0.37279 kha॰ai॰ hogi.[98]

aitihaasik avlokan

mangal ke avalokanon ka itihaas mangal ki vimukhata ke dvaara chihnit hai, tab yeh grah pruthvi se sabse kareeb hota hai aur isliye bahut hi aasaani se dikhaai deta hai, yeh sthiti pratyek do varshon mein paayi jaati hai. isse bhi adhik ullekhaneeya mangal ki bhoo-sameepak vimukhata, pratyek 15 ya 17 varshon mein pai jaati hai, jo pratishthit ho gayi kyonki tab mangal soorya-sameepak se kareeb hota hai, jo use pruthvi se aur bhi kareeb banaata hai.

praacheen aur madhyayugeen avlokan

raatri aakaash mein ek ghumakkad nikaaya ke roop mein mangal ki maujoodagi praacheen misr ke khagolavidon dvaara darj ki gayi thi. vein 1534 ipoo se hi grah ki pratigaami gati se parichit the.[156] nav bebeelon saamraajya ke samay se bebeelon khagolavid grahon ki sthitiyon ka niyamit dastaavej banaate rahe tatha unke vyavahaar ka vyavasthit avlokan karte the. mangal ke liye vein jaante the ki is grah ne pratyek 79 varshon mein 37 sanyuti kaal ya raashi chakr ke 42 paripth banaaen. unhonne grahon ki sthiti ke poorvaanumaanon ke liye maamooli sudhaar karne hetoo ganit ke tareekon ka bhi aavishkaar kiya.[157][158]

chauthi shataabdi ipoo mein arastoo ne gaur kiya ki ek grahan ke dauraan mangal grah chandrama ke peechhe vismrut ho gaya hai. jo grah ke door us paar hone ka sanket tha.[159] taulemi, sikndariya mein rahane vaale ek yoonaani,[160] ne mangal ki kaksheeya gati ki samasya ka samaadhaan karne ka prayaas kiya. taulemi ke model aur khagol vigyaan par unke saamoohik kaarya bahu-khand sangrah almaagest mein prastut kiye gaye the. jo agale chaudah shataabdiyon tak ke liye pashchimi khagol vigyaan par ek praamaanik granth bana raha.[161] praacheen cheen ka saahitya pushti karta hai ki cheeni khagolavidon ne ipoo chauthi shataabdi se hi mangal ko jaan liya tha.[162] paanchaveen shataabdi mein bhaarateeya khagoleeya granth soorya siddhaant ne mangal ke vyaas ka anumaan lagaaya tha.[163]

satrahaveen sadi ke daramyaan taaiko braahe ne mangal ke dainik lanban ki ganana ki jise yohaanes keplar ne grah ki saapeksh doori ke praarambhik aakalan ke liye prayukt kiya.[164]jab doorabeen upalabdh bana, mangal ke dainik lanban ko soorya-pruthvi ki doori nirdhaaran ke ek prayaas mein ek baar fir se maapa gaya. yeh pehli baar 1672 mein giovaanni domeniko kaisini dvaara pradarshit kiya gaya tha. isse pehle ke lanban maap upakaranon ki gunavatta ke dvaara avaruddh ho gaye the.[165] shukr dvaara mangal ke jis ek maatr grahan ko avalokit kiya gaya vah 13 October 1590 ka tha, ise Michael maaestalin dvaara heedalabarg mein dekha gaya tha.[166] 1610 mein gaileeliyo gaileeli dvaara mangal ko dekha gaya jo doorabeen ke maadhyam se ise dekhne vaale sarvapratham vyakti the.[167] pratham vyakti jinhonne mangal ka ek naksha banaaya jo kisi bhi bhoobhaag ki visheshataaon ko pradarshit karta tha, vah the dach khagolashaastri krishchiyaan haayagens.[168]

bhaarateeya darshan

mangal Dave, chaar shastr,- ek trishool, ek gada, ek padm ya kamal aur ek shool haathon mein thaame hue, bhed par savaari ke saath.

bhaarateeya jyotish mein, mangal (devanaagari: mangala, Maṅagala), ek laal grah arthaat mangal grah ke liye naam hai. sanskrut mein mangal ko angaaraka ('jo laal rang ka ho')[169]ya bhaum ('bhoomi putr') bhi kaha jaata hai. vah yuddh ke devata hai aur avivaahit hai. unhein pruthvi ya bhoomi ka putr maana jaata hai. vah mesh aur vrushchik raashiyon ke svaami aur manogat vigyaan (ruchaka mahaapurush yog) ke guru hai.

vah laal ya lau rang se chitraankit hai, vein haatho mein chaar shastr, ek trishool, ek gada, ek padm ya kamal aur ek shool thaame hue hai. unka vaahan ek bhed hai. vein 'mangala-varam' (mangalvaar) ke adhishthaata hai.[170]

vaishvik sanskruti mein

Mars symbol.svg

mangal ka naam yuddh ke roman devata par hai. vibhinn sanskrutiyon mein, mangal vaastav mein mardaanagi aur yuvaaon ka pratinidhitv karta hai. iske prateek, ek teer ek chakr ke saath oopari daaeain se baahar ki or ishaara karte hue, ka upayog purush ling ke liye bhi ek chinh ke roop mein hua.

mangal ko vigyaan katha sanchaar maadhyam mein chitrit kiya gaya hai aur ek vishay hai buddhimaan "mangal vaasi", jo grah par kautoohalapoorn " channelon "aur " cheharon" ke liye jimmedaar hai. ek anya vishay hai, mangal, pruthvi ki bhavishya ki ek basti hoga, ya ek maanav abhiyaan ke liye lakshya hoga.

mangal anveshan yaan mein anek viflataaon ka nateeja ek vyangapoorn muthabhed-sanskruti mein hua, in viflataaon ka dosh pruthvi-mangal ke "baramooda tribhuj", ek "mangal abhishaap", ya ek "mahaan gaangeya pishaach" par lagaaya jaata hai jo mangal antariksh yaan ko nigl jaata hai.[124]

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

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the va b
saur mandal
सूर्य बुध शुक्र चन्द्रमा पृथ्वी Phobos and Deimos मंगल सीरिस) क्षुद्रग्रह बृहस्पति बृहस्पति के उपग्रह शनि शनि के उपग्रह अरुण अरुण के उपग्रह वरुण के उपग्रह नेप्चून Charon, Nix, and Hydra प्लूटो ग्रह काइपर घेरा Dysnomia एरिस बिखरा चक्र और्ट बादलSolar System XXVII.png
soorya · budh · shukr · pruthvi · mangal · seerees · bruhaspati · shani · Arun · varun · yam · haumeya · maakemaake · eris
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chhoti vastueain: ulka · kshudragrah (kshudragrah gheraa‎) · kinnar · varun-paar vastueain (kaaipar gheraa‎/bikhra chakr) · dhoomaketu (aurt baadal)