makhamal

makhamal ka paridhaan

makhamal (French: Velours, jarman: Samt, angreji: Velvet, Spanish: Terciopelo) halaki bunaai ke royeindaar reshami kapde ko kehte hain. yeh saadhaaran resham (silk) ya plash (plush) ki roeaindaar satah par banaaya jaata hai. yeh satah bunaai karte samay ainthe hue reshami dhaagon ko pruthak-pruthak karne se viksit hoti hai. alag-alag hone par yeh dhaage guchhe ke roop mein reshami, sooti ya kisi bhi bune kapde ke drudh aadhaar par seedhe khade rahate hai. praacheen kaal mein makhamal poshaakon ke liye kaafi lokapriya raha hai. raajakeeya, saamaajik tatha dhaarmik avsaron par makhamal ke paridhaanon ka vishesh roop se upayog hota tha. iske kai upayog bhi hain, jaise parde ke roop mein evam shobha ke liye, sofe ke gadde tatha lihaafon ke khol ke roop mein.

makhamal ki bunaai

makhamal ke nirmaan ki prakriya ka chitr

halaki bunaai ka makhamal karaghe par buna jaata hai. yeh makhamal taane ke dhaagon ki do kataaron tatha baane ke dhaage ki ek kataar se taiyaar hota hai, arthaat taana "aadhaar" (ground) dhaagon ke roop mein aadhaar bunaai (foundation texture) karta hai tatha roeaindaar dhaaga baane ke roop mein royaaain taiyaar karta hai. bunaai ke dauraan ainthe hue royeindaar dhaage ko royaaain banaane ke liye oopar utha dete hain, jabki aadhaar ke dhaage neeche rahate hain. is tarah se bane hue ainthe chhaadak (warp shed) mein ek lamba, patala imaarat ka taar, jiske sampoorn oopari kinaare mein sainkara khaaaincha bana rahata hai, daala jaata hai. is taar ko royeinvaala taar (pile wire) kehte hain. yeh taar jab poorn chaudaai bhar ke royaaain bananevaale doron ke beech mein fainsa diya jaata hai, tab kangha (reed) maarate hain. iske baad fir usi prakaar se royeinvaala dora, jo baana hota hai, nishchit taanon ke baad ukasaakar, ainthakar funda aisa bana liya jaata hai aur un fandon me upuryakt royeinvaale taar ki tarah ka doosra ispaat ka taar ghuseda jaata hai. tab fir kangha chalaakar kapda buna jaata hai. is prakaar teen taar lagaane par chauthi baar pehla wala taar nikaalkar lagaate hain. royaaain banaane ke liye taar nikaalne se pehle vishesh prakaar se bane hue haindildaar chaakoo ko ispaat ke taar ke oopari khaaainche mein ek sire se doosare sire tak chala dete hain, jisse dhaaga kat jaata hai. isse chhote chhote royein taiyaar ho jaate hain.

bijli se chalanevaale karaghon dvaara bhi makhamal buna jaata hai. ismein umethe hue doron ke fandon mein royeinvaala taar nikaalne aur lagaane ka kaarya svaniyantrit hota hai. vibhinn prakaar ke makhamal royeindaar dore ke rang, prakaar (jaise, oon, soot, bakari ityaadi ke lambe baal), aakaar (jaise, kate binkate) ityaadi badalne se banaae ja sakte hain.

chhabideergha