makar sankraanti

makar sankraanti
मकर संक्रान्ति
prayaag mein makar sankraanti ke avsar par maagh-mele ka ek drushya
aadhikaarik naam khichdi, pongal
anuyaayi hindu,nepaali bhaarateeya, pravaasi bhaarateeya va nepaali
tithi paush maas mein soorya ke makar raashi mein aane par

makar sankraanti hinduon ka pramukh parv hai. makar sankraanti poore Bhaarat aur Nepal mein kisi na kisi roop mein manaaya jaata hai. paush maas mein jab soorya makar raashi par aata hai tabhi is parv ko manaaya jaata hai. yeh tyohaar January maah ke chaudahavein ya pandrahavein din hi padta hai kyonki isi din soorya dhanu raashi ko chhod makar raashi mein pravesh karta hai. makar sankraanti ke din se hi soorya ki uttaraayan gati bhi praarambh hoti hai. isaliye is parv ko kaheen-kaheen uttaraayani bhi kehte hain. Tamil Nadu mein ise pongal naamak utsav ke roop mein manaate hain jabki Karnataka, Kerala tatha Andhra pradesh mein ise keval sankraanti hi kehte hain.

anukram

makar sankraanti ke vividh roop

kark raashi se makar raashi mein soorya ka sankraman

yeh bhaaratavarsh tatha Nepal ke sabhi praanton mein alag-alag naam va bhaaainti-bhaaainti ke reeti-rivaajon dvaara bhakti evam utsaah ke saath dhoomadhaam se manaaya jaata hai.

Nepal mein makar-sankraanti

Nepal ke sabhi praanton mein alag-alag naam va bhaaainti-bhaaainti ke reeti-rivaajon dvaara bhakti evam utsaah ke saath dhoomadhaam se manaaya jaata hai. makar sankraanti ke din kisaan apni achhi fasal ke liye Bhagwan ko dhanyavaad dekar apni anukampa ko sadaiv logon par banaaye rakhane ka aasheervaad maaaingate hain. isliye makar sankraanti ke tyauhaar ko fasalon evam kisaanon ke tyauhaar ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai.[1]

Nepal me makar sankraanti ko maaghe-sankraanti, sooryottaraayan aur thaaroo samudaaya mein maaghi kaha jaata hai. is din Nepal sarkaar saarvajanik chhutti deti hai. thaaroo samudaaya ka yeh sabse pramukh tyaiaahaar hai. Nepal ke baaki samudaaya bhi teerthasthal mein snaan karke daan-dharmaadi karte hain aur til, ghi, sharkara aur kandamool khaakar dhoomadhaam se manaate hain. ve nadiyon ke sangam par laakhon ki sankhya mein nahaane ke liye jaate hain. teerthasthalon mein rooroodhaam (devaghaat) va triveni mela sabse jyaada prasiddh hai.

Bhaarat mein makar sankraanti

sampoorn Bhaarat mein makar sankraanti vibhinn roopon mein manaaya jaata hai. vibhinn praanton mein is tyohaar ko manaane ke jitne adhik roop prachalit hain utane kisi anya parv mein naheen.

Haryana aur Punjab mein ise lohadi ke roop mein ek din poorv 13 January ko hi manaaya jaata hai. is din aaindhera hote hi aag jalaakar agnidev ki pooja karte hue til, gud, chaaval aur bhune hue makke ki aahuti di jaati hai. is saamagri ko tilchauli kaha jaata hai. is avsar par log moongafali, til ki bani hui gajak aur revadiyaaain aapas mein baaaintakar khushiyaaain manaate hain. bahueain ghar-ghar jaakar lokageet gaakar lohadi maaaingati hain. nai bahoo aur navajaat bachche ke liye lohadi ka vishesh mahatva hota hai. iske saath paaramparik makke ki roti aur sarason ke saag ka aanand bhi uthaaya jaata hai

uttar pradesh mein yeh mukhya roop se 'daan ka parv' hai. Allahabad mein ganga, yamuna va sarasvati ke sangam par pratyek varsh ek maah tak maagh mela lagta hai jise maagh mele ke naam se jaana jaata hai. 14 January se hi Allahabad mein har saal maagh mele ki shuruaat hoti hai. 14 December se 14 January tak ka samay khar maas ke naam se jaana jaata hai. ek samay tha jab uttar Bhaarat mein hai. 14 December se 14 January tak poore ek maheene kisi bhi achhe kaam ko anjaam bhi naheen diya jaata tha. masalan shaadi-byaah naheen kiye jaate the parantu ab samay ke saath logabaag badal gaye hain. parantu fir bhi aisa vishvaas hai ki 14 January yaani makar sankraanti se pruthvi par achhe dinon ki shuruaat hoti hai. maagh mele ka pehla snaan makar sankraanti se shuroo hokar shivraatri ke aakhiri snaan tak chalta hai. sankraanti ke din snaan ke baad daan dene ki bhi parampara hai.baageshvar mein bada mela hota hai. vaise ganga-snaan raameshvar, chitrashila va anya sthaanon mein bhi hote hain. is din ganga snaan karke til ke mishthaan aadi ko braahmanon va poojya vyaktiyon ko daan diya jaata hai. is parv par kshetr mein ganga evam raamaganga ghaaton par bade-bade mele lagte hai. samooche uttar pradesh mein is vrat ko khichdi ke naam se jaana jaata hai tatha is din khichdi khaane evam khichdi daan dene ka atyadhik mahatva hota hai.

Bihar mein makar sankraanti ko khichdi naam se jaata hain. is din udd, chaaval, til, chivda, gau, svarn, ooni vastr, kambal aadi daan karne ka apna mahattv hai.[2]

tilgud

Maharashtra mein is din sabhi vivaahit mahilaaeain apni pehli sankraanti par kapaas, tel va namak aadi cheejein anya suhaagin mahilaaon ko daan karti hain. til-gool naamak halave ke baaaintane ki pratha bhi hai. log ek doosare ko til gud dete hain aur dete samay bolte hain -"lil gool dhya aani god god bola" arthaat til gud lo aur meetha-meetha bolo. is din mahilaaeain aapas mein til, gud, roli aur haldi baaaintati hain.

Bengal mein is parv par snaan ke pashchaat til daan karne ki pratha hai. yahaaain gangaasaagar mein prati varsh vishaal mela lagta hai. makar sankraanti ke din hi ganga ji bhageerath ke peechhe-peechhe chalakar Kapil muni ke aashram se hokar saagar mein ja mili theen. maanyata yeh bhi hai ki is din yashoda ne shreekrushn ko praapt karne ke liye vrat kiya tha. is din gangaasaagar mein snaan-daan ke liye laakhon logon ki bheed hoti hai. log kasht uthaakar ganga saagar ki yaatra karte hain. varsh mein keval ek din makar sankraanti ko yahaaain logon ki apaar bheed hoti hai. iseeliye kaha jaata hai-"saare teerath baar baar, ganga saagar ek baar."

Tamil Nadu mein is tyohaar ko pongal ke roop mein chaar din tak manaate hain. pratham din bhogi-pongal, dviteeya din soorya-pongal, truteeya din mattoo-pongal athva kenoo-pongal aur chauthe va antim din kanya-pongal. is prakaar pehle din kooda karakat ikaththa kar jalaaya jaata hai, doosare din lakshmi ji ki pooja ki jaati hai aur teesare din pashu dhan ki pooja ki jaati hai. pongal manaane ke liye snaan karke khule aaaingan mein mitti ke bartan mein kheer banaayi jaati hai, jise pongal kehte hain. iske baad soorya Dave ko naivaidya chadhaaya jaata hai. uske baad kheer ko prasaad ke roop mein sabhi grahan karte hain. is din beti aur jamaai raaja ka vishesh roop se svaagat kiya jaata hai.

asam mein makar sankraanti ko maagh-bihoo athva bhogaali-bihoo ke naam se manaate hain.

Rajasthan mein is parv par suhaagan mahilaaeain apni saas ko vaayana dekar aasheervaad praapt karti hain. saath hi mahilaaeain kisi bhi saubhaagyasoochak vastu ka chaudah ki sankhya mein poojan evam sankalp kar chaudah braahmanon ko daan deti hain. is prakaar makar sankraanti ke maadhyam se bhaarateeya sabhyata evam sanskruti ki jhalak vividh roopon mein dikhti hai.

makar sankraanti ka mahatva

shaastron ke anusaar, dakshinaayan ko devataaon ki raatri arthaat nakaaraatmakata ka prateek tatha uttaraayan ko devataaon ka din arthaat sakaaraatmakata ka prateek maana gaya hai. iseeliye is din jap, tap, daan, snaan, shraaddh, tarpan aadi dhaarmik kriyaakalaapon ka vishesh mahatva hai. aisi dhaarana hai ki is avsar par diya gaya daan sau guna badhkar pun: praapt hota hai. is din shuddh ghi evam kambal ka daan moksh ki praapti karavaata hai. jaisa ki nimn shlok se spashth hota hai-

maaghe maase mahaadev: yo daasyati ghrutakambalam.

s bhuktva sakalaan bhogaan ante mokshan praapyati.

makar sankraanti ke avsar par gangaasnaan evam gangaatat par daan ko atyant shubh maana gaya hai. is parv par teertharaaj prayaag evam gangaasaagar mein snaan ko mahaasnaan ki sanjnyaa di gayi hai. saamaanyat: soorya sabhi raashiyon ko prabhaavit karte hain, kintu kark va makar raashiyon mein soorya ka pravesh dhaarmik drushti se atyant faladaayak hai. yeh pravesh athva sankraman kriya chh:-chh: maah ke antaraal par hoti hai. Bhaarat desh uttari golaardh mein sthit hai. makar sankraanti se pehle soorya dakshini golaardh mein hota hai arthaat Bhaarat se apekshaakrut adhik door hota hai. isi kaaran yahaaain par raatein badi evam din chhote hote hain tatha sardi ka mausam hota hai. kintu makar sankraanti se soorya uttari golaarddh ki or aana shuroo ho jaata hai. ataev is din se raatein chhoti evam din bade hone lagte hain tatha garami ka mausam shuroo ho jaata hai. din bada hone se prakaash adhik hoga tatha raatri chhoti hone se andhakaar kam hoga. at: makar sankraanti par soorya ki raashi mein hue parivartan ko andhakaar se prakaash ki or agrasar hona maana jaata hai. prakaash adhik hone se praaniyon ki chetanata evam kaarya shakti mein vruddhi hogi. aisa jaanakar sampoorn bhaaratavarsh mein logon dvaara vividh roopon mein sooryadev ki upaasana, aaraadhana evam poojan kar, unke prati apni krutajnyaata prakat ki jaati hai. saamaanyat: bhaarateeya panchaang paddhati ki samast tithiyaaain chandrama ki gati ko aadhaar maankar nirdhaarit ki jaati hain, kintu makar sankraanti ko soorya ki gati se nirdhaarit kiya jaata hai. isi kaaran yeh parv prativrsh 14 January ko hi padta hai.

makar sankraanti ka aitihaasik mahatva

aisi maanyata hai ki is din Bhagwan bhaaskar apne putr shani se milne swayam uske ghar jaate hain. chooainki shanidev makar raashi ke svaami hain, at: is din ko makar sankraanti ke naam se jaana jaata hai. mahaabhaarat kaal mein bheeshm pitaamah ne apni deh tyaagane ke liye makar sankraanti ka hi chayan kiya tha. makar sankraanti ke din hi gangaaji bhageerath ke peechhe-peechhe chalakar Kapil muni ke aashram se hoti hui saagar mein jaakar mili theen.

makar sankraanti aur naye paimaane

anya tyohaaron ki tarah log ab is tyauhaar par bhi chhote-chhote mobile-sandesh ek doosare ko bhejate hain.[3] iske alaava sundar va aakarshak badhaai-card bhejkar is paramparaagat parv ko aur adhik prabhaavi banaane ka prayaas kiya ja raha hai.[4]Varanasi mein pehli baar maananeeya narend॒ bhaai Modi ji ke patangon se saara aakaash bhara pada hai.

sandarbh

inhein bhi deinkhein

baahari kadiyaaain