mainahatan

Manhattan
Borough of New York City
New York County
Midtown Manhattan as seen from the GE Building.
Location of Manhattan shown in yellow.
nirdeshaank : 40°a43′a42″aN 73°a59′a39″aW / 40.72833°aN 73.99417°aW / 40.72833; -73.99417
Country United States
State New York
County New York County
City New York City
Settled 1624
shaasan
• Borough President Scott Stringer (D)
• District Attorney (New York County) Cyrus Vance, Jr.
kshetr
• kul 33.77
• thal 22.96
• jal 10.81
janasankhya
• kul 16,34,795
• ghanatv 71,201
jaalasthal Official Website of the Manhattan Borough President
New York's Five Boroughs at a Glance
Jurisdiction Population Land Area
Borough of County of 1 April 2010
Census
square
miles
square
km
Manhattan New York 1,585,873 23 59
The Bronx Bronx 1,385,108 42 109
Brooklyn Kings 2,504,700 71 183
Queens Queens 2,230,722 109 283
Staten Island Richmond 468,730 58 151
City of New York
8,175,133 303 786
State of New York
19,378,102 47,214 122,284
Source: United States Census Bureau [1][2][3]
new jersey ke haimiltan park se mainahatan.

mainahatan New York shahar ke nagaron mein se ek hai. hadasan nadi ke munhaane par mukhya roop se mainahatan dweep par sthit, is nagar ki seemaaen New York raajya ke New York praant naamak ek mool praant ki seemaaon ke samaan hain. ismein mainahatan dweep aur kai chhote-chhote sameepavarti dweep: roojvelt dweep, randaals dweep, vaards dweep, gavarnars dweep, librti dweep, Alice dweep[4] ka hissa, tatha you thaant dweep; ke saath-saath maarbal hil naamak bronks ke paas mukhya bhoomi ka ek chhota sa bhaag shaamil hain. New York ke mool shahar ka aarambh mainahatan ke dakshini chhor par tha aur varsh 1898 mein aaspaas ke praanton ke shaamil hone se iska vistaar hua. yeh paanchon nagaron mein se sabse chhota lekin fir bhi sabse adhik nagareekrut nagar hai.

New York praant, sanyukt raajya America ka sabse adhik ghani janasankhya wala praant hai aur saath hi saath duniya ke sabse ghani janasankhya vaale kshetron mein se ek hai, jahaan varsh 2008 mein janasankhya 1,634,795[5] thi jinka nivaas kshetr 22.96 varg meal (59.47 varg kilometer) tha, arthaat yahaan ki janasankhya ka ghanatv 71,201 vyakti prati varg meal (27,485 prati varg kilometer) tha. yeh sanyukt raajya America ke sabse dhani praanton mein se ek hai jahaan varsh 2005 ke sarvekshan ke mutaabik niji aay prati vyakti 100,000 dollar se adhik thi.[6] janasankhya ke aadhaar par mainahatan New York ke paanch nagaron mein se teesara sabse bada nagar hai.

mainahatan sanyukt raajya America aur duniya donon ka ek pramukh vaanijyik, vitteeya aur saanskrutik kendra hai.[7][8][9] sanyukt raajya America ki kai badi radio, TV aur doorasanchaar companiyaan yaheen sthit hai aur iske saath-saath kai samaachaar, patrika, kitaab aur anya media prakaashak bhi yaheen hai. mainahatan mein kai prasiddh sthal, paryatan aakarshan kendra, sangrahaalaya aur vishvavidyaalaya hain. yeh sanyukt raashtra ke mukhyaalayon ka gruh bhi hai. sanyukt raajya America ka sabse bada kendreeya vyaavasaayik jila mainahatan mein hi hai, New York stock exchange aur enaeesadeekyoo (NASDAQ), donon ka kaaryasthal hai aur desh ke sabse adhik nigmit mukhyaalayon ka gruh hai.[10] yeh New York shahar aur New York mahaanagareeya kshetr ka kendra hai aur shahar ki sarkaar ke pad evam kshetr ke bahut bade bhaag ke rojagaar, vyavasaaya, va manoranjan gatividhiyon ka poshak hai. parinaamasvaroop, New York shahar ke anya nagaron, jaise - brookaleen aur kveens, ke nivaasi aksar mainahatan ki yaatra ko "shahar ki yaatra" ke roop mein sandarbhit karte hain.[11]

anukram

vyutpatti

mainahatan naam shabd manna-haata se vyutpann hua hai jo Robert juet naamak henari hadasan ki naav haalv main (arddhachandr) ke ek adhikaari ke varsh 1609 ke rojnaamacha mein likha hua tha.[12] varsh 1610 ka ek maanachitr maureeshas nadi (baad mein hadasan nadi naam diya gaya) ke pashchim aur poorv donon taraf, do jagah mainahatan naam darshaata hai. shabd "mainahatan" ka anuvaad lenep bhaasha ke anusaar "kai pahaadiyon ka dweep" ke roop mein kiya gaya hai.[13]

itihaas

aupaniveshik

Peter minuit
1660 mein loar mainahatan, jab yeh new emstardam ka hissa tha. dweep ke sire ki or ki badi sanrachana fort emstardam hai. uttar is maanachitr mein daayeen taraf hai.

jo kshetr abhi mainahatan hai, vahaan lambe samay se lenep ka nivaas tha. 1524 mein, dongiyon mein kuchh lenep floreinsavaasi giyovaani da verraajno se mile, jo New York bandargaah se gujarane vaale pehle Europeeya anveshak the, haalaanki vah nairoj ke pichhle bandargaah mein pravesh naheen kar paae.[14] henari hadasan ki yaatra tak is kshetr ka maanachitr naheen tha, jo dach East India company ke liye kaam karne vaale ek angrej the.[15] hadasan apni yaatra ke dauraan 1609 mein mainahatan dweep aur vahaan rahane vaale deshi logon ke paas pahunche aur nadi, jiska naam baad mein unheen ke naam par hadasan nadi pad gaya, se oopar ki taraf tab tak badhte rahe jab tak vah vartamaan albaani ke sthal tak naheen pahunch gaye.[16]

new Netherland mein ek sthaayi Europeeya upasthiti ki shuruaat 1624 mein gavarnars dweep par ek dach far vyaapaar samjhaute ki sthaapana ke saath hui. 1625 mein mainahatan dweep par ek gadh aur ek fort emstardam ka nirmaan shuroo hua, jo baad mein new emstardam (niyoo emstardam) kahalaaya.[17][18] mainahatan dweep ko fort emstardam ke sthal ke roop mein chuna gaya, jo nae aagantukon ke sanrakshan ka ek gadh tha; iski sthaapana 1625 mein hui thi jise New York shahar ki janm-tithi ke roop mein maanyata-praapt hai.[19] Peter jainsajoon schaagen ke dastaavej ke anusaar hamaare logon (ons volk) — vahaan spasht roop se Peter minuit ki charcha naheen ki gayi hai — ne 1626 mein 60 gildar moolya ke vyaapaarik maal ke badle mein mool ameriki lenep logon se mainahatan ka adhigrahan kiya, jise aksar 24 dollar ke samatulya maana jaata hai, yadyapi (roti aur anya maalon ki keemat ki tulana karne par) vaastav mein yeh raashi vartamaan mudra[20] mein 1000 dollar (emstardam ke antarraashtreeya saamaajik itihaas sansthaan ki ganana) ke aas-paas thi. is aakalan ka prayog karke vyakti majaak mein kah sakta hai ki 1626 mein biyr ke 2,400 bade jaam khareedne ke liye itna paisa kaafi tha.[21]

1647 mein Peter stuyavesant ko upanivesh ke antim dach mahaanideshak ke roop mein niyukt kiya gaya.[22] new emstardam ko 2 fravari 1653 ko aupachaarik roop se ek shahar ke roop mein shaamil kiya gaya.[23] 1664 mein, british ne new Netherland par vijay praapt ki aur iska naam yaurk aur albaani ke angrej Rajkumar aur bhaavi raaja James dviteeya ke naam par "New York" rakh diya.[24] stuyavesant aur unki parishd ne british ke saath asthaayi sthaanaantaran ke 24 anuchhedon par baatcheet ki jismein british shaasan ke adheen dharm ki svatantrata sahit new Netherland ke nivaasiyon ki svatantrata ki guaranty ki maang ki gayi.[25][26]

ameriki kraanti aur praarambhik sanyukt raajya America

J.kyoo.A. (J.Q.A.) ward ka George Washington ki moorti, us jagah jahaan pratham ameriki raashtrapati ke roop mein Washington ka Abhishek kiya gaya tha.

1765 mein New York shahar mein british shaasan ke sangathit aupaniveshik vipaksh arthaat terah upaniveshon ke staimp act kaaaingres pratinidhiyon ki ek poorv peethika ka aayojan kiya gaya. kaaaingres ne parinaamasvaroop adhikaar aur shikaayat ki ghoshana prastut ki jo "pratinidhitv ke bina koi karaadhaan naheen" ke naam se lokapriya avadhaarana par jor dene ke liye bahu upaniveshon ki ek pratinidhi mandal ka pehla dastaavej tha. aisa bhi pehli baar hi hua tha jab upaniveshon ne ek ekeekrut raajaneetik uddeshya ke liye sahayog diya tha aur kauntineintal kaaaingres ki neenv daali jiska kai saalon baad anusaran kiya gaya.

staimp act ke virodh ke baad ke dinon mein mainahatan mein sans of librti viksit hui. sangathan ne british adhikaariyon ke saath svatantrata stambh par ek deerghakaalik mukaabale mein bhaag liya jiska baari-baari se sans of librti dvaara utthaan hua aur british adhikaariyon dvaara patan hua. jhadpon ka ant tab hua jab kraantikaari New York provinshiyl kaaaingres ne 1775 mein satta sanbhal li.

mainahatan, New York abhiyaan naamak praarambhik ameriki kraantikaari yuddh ki badi ladaaiyon ki ek shrrunkhala ka kendra sthal tha. 16 November 1776 ko vinaashakaari fort Washington ki ladaai ke baad kauntineintal sena ko mainahatan chhodne par majaboor kiya gaya. shahar yuddh ke shesh samay tak uttari America mein british raajanaitik aur sainya sanchaalan kendra ban gaya.[27] baad mein british sainya shaasan ke dauraan New York ke mahaan aag dvaara mainahatan ki kaafi kshati hui. british aadhiptya 25 November 1783 tak kaayam raha, jab George Washington mainahatan mein laute aur jab antim british sena shahar chhod kar chale gaye.[28]

11 January 1785 se 1788 ke ant tak New York shahar New York city hall (tatkaaleen fraunses traivarn) mein kauntineintal kaaaingres ki baithak ke saath, parisangh ke lekh ke tahat paanch raajadhaaniyon mein paanchavein sthaan par tha. New York, Federal hall mein 4 March 1789 se 12 August 1790 tak nav-adhiniymit sanyukt raajya ameriki samvidhaan ke tahat pehli rajdhani thi.[29] sanyukt raajya ameriki sarvochch nyaayalaya ki pehli baar baithak hui, sanyukt raajya ameriki adhikaar vidheyak ka masauda taiyaar kiya gaya aur usaki pushti ki gayi aur uttar-pashchim adhyaadesh ke paarit hone ke saath sangh mein raajyon ko shaamil karne ke pehle charan, sabhi kaarya vaheen sampann hue.

19veen sadi ki vruddhi

New York ek aarthik kendra ke roop mein ubhara, iska pehla kaaran pratham kosh sachiv ke roop mein alekjeindar haimiltan ki neetiyaan aur pranaaliyaan thi aur doosra kaaran 1825 mein eri surang ka udghaatan tha, jisne atalaantik bandargaah ko madhya-pashchimi sanyukt raajya America aur Canada ke vishaal krushigt baajaaron se jod diya.

1854 mein farnaando vood naamak pratham taimani mayor ke chunaav ke samaapt hone par aapravaasi aayarish mein se kaiyon ke samarthan mein taimani hall, jo democratic party ka ek raajaneetik sangathan tha, ke prabhaav mein vruddhi hone lagi. taimani hall kai dashakon tak sthaaneeya raajaneeti par haavi raha. central park, jise 1858 mein janta ke liye khola gaya, ek ameriki shahar ka pehla bhoodrushyagat park aur desh ka pehla saarvajanik park bana.[30][31]

Thomas naist, lokatantr ki hatya karne vaale ek khatarnaak baagh ke roop mein taimani ki bhartsana karte hain; baagh ki chhavi se samajhaane ka prayaas kiya gaya hai.

ameriki gruh yuddh ke dauraan, shahar ka dakshin ke saath vaanijyik gathabandhan kaafi majaboot tha, iski aapravaasi janasankhya (usase pehle jyaadaatar Germany aur Ireland ke) mein vruddhi ho rahi thi, un logon ki anivaarya sainik-bharati ko lekar naaraajagi thi aur asantosh tha jo seva se bachane ke liye 300 dollar ka bhugataan karne ka saamarthya rakhate the, uparokt sabhi kaaranon se Lincoln ki yuddh neetiyon ke khilaaf asantosh paida hua aur July 1863 ke teen-divseeya lambi New York draft dange ka samaapan hua, jo ameriki itihaas mein naagrik avyavastha ki sabse buri ghatnaaon mein se ek tha, jismein lagbhag 119 pratibhaagiyon aur raahageeron ki hatya hui thi.[32]

gruh yuddh ke baad, Europe se aane vaale logon ke aapravaasan ki dar mein teji se vruddhi hui aur New York, sanyukt raajya America mein ek nae aur behtar jeevan ki talaash karne vaale laakhon logon ka pehla padaav ban gaya, jo ek aisi bhoomika thi jise 28 October 1886 ko staichoo of librti ke samarpan dvaara sveekruti mili, jo fraans ke logon ki taraf se ek tohafa tha.[33][34] nai Europeeya aapravaasan ne aage chalakar saamaajik kraanti ko janm diya. darjnon deshon se aae bahut kam paarishramik paane vaale majadooron se khachaakhach bhare vaas gruhon ka shahar hone ke kaaran yeh shahar ab kraanti, shramaadhiptyavaad, dhokhaadhadi aur sangheekaran ka ek gadh ban gaya tha.

1883 mein, brookaleen setu ke udghaatan ne East nadi ke kinaare ek bhoomigat sampark sthaapit kar diya. 1874 mein, vartamaan bronks praant ka pashchimi hissa New York praant mein sthaanaantarit ho gaya aur 1895 mein vartamaan bronks praant ke shesh bhaag ko bhi mila liya gaya.[35] greater New York shahar ka gathan 1898 mein hua, jab paanch nagaron ke keval ek shahar ka gathan karne ke liye chaar praanton ko samaahit kar liya gaya. mainahatan aur bronks, jo haalaanki abhi bhi ek hi praant hai, ko do alag-alag nagaron ke roop mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha. 1 January 1914 ko New York raajya vidhaanamandal ne bronks praant ki srushti ki aur New York praant ko vartamaan sarahadon mein seemaabaddh kar diya gaya.[36]

20veen sadi

shahar ke oopar navanirmit singar bhavan ka tauvar, 1909
1930 mein empaayar state bhavan ke nirmaan ke samay iske sheersh par ek nirmaanakaari majadoor.usase neeche aur uske peechhe krislar bhavan.
mainahatan ka prateekaatmak drushya jismein staichoo of librti, Alice dweep, empaayar state bhavan aur world trade center dikhaaya gaya hai, May 2001.

New York shahar upamaarg ke nirmaan, jiska udghaatan 1904 mein hua tha, ne brookaleen ki atirikt setuon ki tarah New York shahar ko ek-saath baandhane mein madad ki. 1920 ke dashak mein, mainahatan ne American south ke maha pravaas ke hisse ke roop mein afreeki-amerikiyon ke vishaal aagaman aur nishedh yug, aakaash ko chhoone ki hod mein lage nae-nae gaganachumbi imaaratein shaamil thi, ke ek vruhad vruddhi kaal ke hisse ke roop mein haarlem navajaagaran ka anubhav kiya. New York shahar, 1925 mein duniya ka sabse adhik janasankhya wala shahar ban gaya aur London ko janasankhya ki is daud mein peechhe chhod diya, jisne ek sadi tak sabse adhik janasankhya vaale shahar ke roop mein raaj kiya tha.[37]

25 March 1911 ko, greenavich gaanv ke traaiaingal shartavest factory mein lagi aag ne 146 vastr karmiyon ki jaan le li. is aapada ke parinaamasvaroop ant mein shahar ke aag vibhaag ki jaanch ki gayi, sanhita ka nirmaan kiya gaya aur kaaryasthal ke liye viniym taiyaar kiye gaye.[38]

vishv yuddhon ke beech ki avadhi ne sudhaaravaadi mayor fiyorelo la gaardiya ka chunaav aur 80 varshon ki raajaneetik prabhutv ke baad taimani hall ka patan dekha.[39] shahar ki janasaankhyiki ke sthir hone par, shram sangheekaran ne shramik varg ke liye nai suraksha aur samruddhi ko janm diya, la gaardiya ke adheen shahar ki sarkaar aur avasanrachana mein ek naatakeeya parivartan aaya. maha mandi ke baavajood, 1930 ke dashak ke dauraan mainahatan mein duniya ke sabse lambe gaganachumbi imaaraton mein se kuchh ka kaam poora hua, jismein Art deko ke anginat krutiyaan shaamil thi jo aaj bhi shahar ki kshitij ka hissa hai, jismein se empaayar state bhavan, krislar bhavan aur jeei (GE) bhavan sabse ullekhaneeya hain.

dviteeya vishv yuddh se vaapas lautane vaale diggajon ne yuddh ke baad arth vyavastha mein ek bhaari vruddhi laane mein madad ki, jiske falasvaroop vaapas lautane vaale diggajon par kendrit kai bade-bade aavaaseeya vikaas hue jinmein Peter koopar vileja—aastuyavesant taaun shaamil tha jiska shubhaarambh 1947 mein hua tha.[40] 1951 mein, sanyukt raashtra ke kveens sthit pratham mukhyaalayon ka sthaanaantaran mainahatan ke East side mein ho gaya.[41]

kai pramukh ameriki shaharon ki tarah New York ko bhi jaatigt dangon evam janasankhya aur 1960 ke dashak mein audyogik patan ka saamana karna pada. 1970 ke dashak tak shahar ne itihaas ke ek bhitti chitran se aavarit, aparaadh-grast puraavashesh ke roop mein ek pratishtha praapt kar li thi.[42] 1975 mein, shahar ki sarkaar ko sannikt divaaliyaapan ka saamana karna pada aur sahaayata ki maang ko shuroo mein thukara diya gaya tha, jiska saaraansh 30 October 1975 ko New York daily news ke mukhya samaachaar mein "Ford tu city: drop ded" ke roop mein pesh kiya gaya tha.[43] ek sangheeya rin aur rin punargathan ke maadhyam se is niyti se shahar ko bacha liya gaya aur shahar ko New York raajya ki vardhit vitteeya jaanch ko sveekaar karne ke liye baadhya kiya gaya.[44]

1980 ke dashak ne Wall street ke punarjanm ko dekha aur shahar ne duniya bhar mein vitteeya udyog ke kendra mein apni bhoomika ko punarnirmit kiya. 1980 ke dashak ne bhi eds (AIDS) ke sankat ke kendra mein mainahatan ko aur iske uparikeindr mein greenavich gaanv ko dekha. is rog se trust logon ki or se vakaalat karne ke liye gay mens helth kraaisis (jeeemaechasi (GMHC)) aur eds koalishn tu analeesh power (eseeti UP (ACT UP)) ki sthaapana ki gayi.

1990 ke dashak mein shuroo hone vaale aparaadh daron mein teji se kami hui aur hatya ka dar jo 1990 mein 2,245 tak pahunch gaya tha, vah 2008 tak achaanak 537 par utar aaya aur kraik epidemik evam isse jude nashe-sambandhi hinsaaen kaafi had tak niyantran mein aa gayi thi.[45] janasankhya ke bahirvaah ne palti maari, kyonki shahar ek baar fir se achal sampatti ke baajaar ke vikaas ko badhaava dene ke liye kam byaaj dar aur Wall street bonas ke saath shaamil hone ke liye duniya bhar se aane vaale aapravaasiyon ka gantavya ban gaya tha.[46]

1990 ke dashak ke aarambh se madhya tak mudraasfeeti ne kiraaya moolyon mein bahut adhik vruddhi ki hai, jiske parinaamasvaroop shramik aur madhyam varg ke log aksar is bhaar ka vahan karne mein asafal ho jaate hain. jab se shahar adhik surakshit aur adhik vaanchhaneeya hua, tab se is nagar ke vibhinn ilaakon mein anya raajyon ke kai yuva logon ka sthaanaantaran hua hai. mainahatan ne ek kramik badlaav ka anubhav kiya hai jismein ab vah janasankhya shaamil hai jismein ab mukhya roop se 20 aur 30 ki umr ke sushikshit nivaasi shaamil hai. vishesh roop se aise yuva logon ki pramukh janasankhya hai jo vibhinn loar East side ke padosi ilaakon, jaise - so-ho, alfaabet shahar, traai-be-ka aur greenavich gaanv, ke kala ke ichhuk hain.

11 sitmbar ke hamle

11 sitmbar 2001 ko vimaanon ka apaharan kiya gaya aur unase world trade center ke do tauvaron ko takkar maari gayi jisse 3,000 se bhi adhik logon ki maut ho gayi. world trade center 7 ke saath-saath ye do tauvar bhi dhvast ho gaye, jismein aag lagne ke kaaran ke kaaran iske dhahane se pehle hi ise khaali kara liya gaya tha. in tauvaron ke punarnirmaan ki yojana ban rahi hai (freedom tauvar aur world trade center punarnirmaan vivaad dekhein)

enavaaisi (NYC) mein teleevijn aur film

filmon aur TV shrrunkhalaaon ke ek sthal ke roop mein apni lokapriyta ke kaaran aadhunik New York shahar se duniya bhar ke kai log parichit hain. ullekhaneeya TV udaaharanon mein kuchh puraskaar praapt karne vaale kaaryakram, jaise - freinds, 30 rock, CSI: NY, seenafeld, enavaaipeedi (NYPD) blue, law end order, vil end gres, spin city, gausip girl aur sex end the city, shaamil hain. ullekhaneeya film udaaharanon mein mirekal on 34th street, ghostabastars, gremlins 2, aaij wide shat, Home Alone 2: Lost in New York, klovarafeeld aur voodi Allen ki filmon mein se kai filmein, jaise - eni hall, banaanaaj aur mainahatan, shaamil hain.

bhoogol

inhein bhi dekhein: Geography and environment of New York City
central park is upagrahi chhavi ke kendra mein drashtavya hai. mainahatan pashchim mein hadasan nadi se, uttar mein haarlem nadi se aur poorv mein East nadi se ghira hua hai.

mainahatan ko nirbaadh roop se daaunataaun, midtaaun aur apataaun mein vibhaajit kiya gaya jiske saath hi saath fifth evenyoo, mainahatan ko iske East side aur vest side mein vibhaajit karta hai. mainahatan dweep pashchim mein hadasan nadi se aur poorv mein East nadi se ghira hai. uttar mein haarlem nadi, mainahatan ko bronks se aur sanyukt raajya America ki mukhya bhoomi se alag karti hai. kai chhote-chhote dweep bhi mainahatan nagar ke hisse hain, jinmein randaals dweep, vaards dweep aur East nadi ka roojvelt dweep, tatha New York bandargaah ke dakshin mein gavarnars dweep aur librti dweep shaamil hain.[47] mainahatan dweep ka kshetrafal 22.7 varg meal (58.8 varg kimi), lambaai 13.4 meal (21.6 kimi) aur chaudaai 2.3 meal (3.7 kimi) hai aur (14th street ke paas) iski chaudaai sabse adhik hai.[48] New York praant ka kul kshetrafal 33.77 varg meal (87.46 varg kimi) hai jismein se 22.96 varg meal (59.47 varg kimi) sthal aur 10.81 varg meal (28.00 varg kimi) jal hai.[49]

aayukt ki mainahatan ki grid yojana ke 1811 mein apne jaane se kuchh saal pehle 1807 ke sanskaran ka ek aadhunik pun:aarekh.central park anupasthit hai.

mainahatan ka ek pados bronks se sata hua hai. maarbal hil kisi samay mainahatan dweep ka hissa tha, lekin haarlem nadi ke nauparivhan mein sudhaar laane ke liye 1895 mein khodi gayi haarlem nadi pot nahar ne ise bronks aur mainahatan ke shesh bhaag ke beech ek dweep ke roop mein mainahatan ke shesh bhaag se alag kar diya.[50] pratham vishv yuddh se pehle bronks se maarbal hil ko alag karne vaale haarlem nadi ke mool nahar ke khand ko bhar diya gaya aur maarbal hil mukhya bhoomi ka hissa ban gaya.[50]

maarbal hil is baat ka ek udaaharan hai ki mainahatan ki bhoomi mein kis tarah maanav hastakshep dvaara kaafi badlaav hua hai. dach aupaniveshik kaal se hi is nagar ke tateeya-kshetron ke kinaare paryaapt bhoomi uddhaar hota raha hai aur sthalaakruti mein praakrutik vividhta mein se adhikaansh ko samaan kar diya gaya hai.[13]

unneesaveen sadi ke shuroo mein, greenavich street ke praakrutik hadasan tatarekha se vest street tak loar mainahatan ka vistaar karne ke liye bhoomi-bharaav ka istemaal kiya gaya.[51] world trade center ke nirmaan ke samay us sthal ki khudaai se 1.2 million ghan yaard (917,000 m³ ya ghan mi) saamagri khod kar nikaali gayi.[52] in varjya saamagriyon ko samudra mein feinkane ya bhoomi-bharaav mein istemaal karne ke bajaay baitari park city ka nirmaan karne ke liye vest street ke kinaare mainahatan tatarekha ka vistaar karne ke liye istemaal kiya gaya.[53] iske parinaamasvaroop nadi mein 700 foot (210 meter) ka vistaar hua, chh: khandon ya 1,484 feet (450 meter) bhoomi ka nirmaan sambhav hua, 92 ekad (3,70,000 mi2) ko shaamil kiya gaya, 1.2 meal (1.9 kimi) lambe nadi-tateeya vistrut maidaan aur 30 ekad (1,20,000 mi2) se bhi adhik udyaanon ki suvidha pradaan ki gayi.[54]

bhoo-garbh vigyaan ki drushti se, mainahatan ke adh:star ki ek prabal visheshata yahi hai ki dweep ke antarnihit aadhaar satah mein midtaaun jile ke paas ki satah ke bahut nikat kaafi chadhaav hai, 29th street aur kainal street ke beech ki nimn bhoomi ki taraf dhaal hai, uske baad faaineinsiyl jile ke neeche ki satah ki taraf fir chadhaav hai; yeh visheshata midtaaun faaineinsiyl jile ke kshetron mein gaganachunbi imaaraton ke samooh aur in do kshetron ke beech ke madhyavarti kshetr par unki anupasthiti ka antarnihit kaaran hai, kyonki unki neenv bhoomigat aadhaar mein adhik surakshit roop se jalamagn ho sakte hain.

mainahatan ne George Washington setu, haulaind surang aur Lincoln surang ke maadhyam se pashchim mein new jersey ke saath aur New York shahar ke anya chaar nagaron mein teen uttar-poorv mein bronks aur poorv evam dakshin mein brookaleen aur laaaing dweep par kveens ke saath vaahanon se hone vaale sampark ko sudrudh kiya hai. New York shahar ke paanchave nagar ke saath iska ekamaatr seedha sampark New York bandargaah ka stetan aailaind feri hai, jo ni:shulk hai. ghaat ka terminal iske dakshini sire par baitari park ke paas sthit hai. veraajno-nairoj setu ka istemaal karke brookaleen ke raaste stetan dweep ki yaatra sambhav hai.

1811 ki aayukt yojana ke tahat baarah kramaankit raaston ke nirmaan ki yojana bani, jo hadasan nadi ke tat ke lagbhag samaanaantar uttar aur dakshin ko or jaati hain, jinmein se pratyek ki chaudaai 100 fut (30 mi) hai aur first evenyoo poorv ki taraf aur tvelfth evenyoo pashchim ki or jaati hai. first evenyoo ke poorv ki taraf kai aantaraayik raaste hain, jinmein chaar atirikt akshar vaale raaste shaamil hain jo evenyoo A se poorv ki taraf us kshetr ke evenyoo di tak jaati hain jise ab alfaabet shahar ke naam se jaana jaata hai jo mainahatan ke East gaanv mein sthit hai. mainahatan ki kramaankit sadke poorv-pashchim ki taraf jaati hai aur 60 fut (18 mi) chaudi hain aur iske saath hi saath pratyek jodi sadkon ke beech lagbhag 200 feet (61 mi) ka antar hai. lagbhag 260 feet (79 mi) tak jodi gayi pratyek sanyukt sadak aur block ke saath, pratyek meal par lagbhag theek-theek 20 block hain. mainahatan ka vishisht block 250 baai 600 feet hai. pandrah krausataaun sadkon ko 100 feet (30 mi) chaudi sadkon ke roop mein naamit kiya gaya jinmein 34th, 42nd, 57th aur 125th streets shaamil thi, jo nagar ke sabse mahatvapoorn parivhan aur khareedaari sthalon mein se kuchh pramukh sthal the.[55] braudave, grid ke kai apavaadon mein se sabse ullekhaneeya hai, jo loar mainahatan ke bauling green se shuroo hokar mainahatan ke uttari sire par sthit bronks ke uttar tak vistrut hai. midtaaun mainahatan ke adhikaansh kshetron mein, braudave, grid ke ek tirchhi seedh mein vistrut hai aur union square, heraald square (siksth evenyoo aur 34th street), times square (seveinth evenyoo aur 42th street) aur kolanbas circle (aitth evenyoo/sentral park vest aur 59th street) par pramukh naami chauraahon ka nirmaan kiya hai.

mainahatan ke adhikaansh kshetron ke sakht grid yojana ka ek parinaam aur grid ki lagbhag 28.9 degree ka tirchhaapan ek aisi ghatna hai jise kabhi-kabhi mainahatanaheinj (stonaheinj ke saath tulana karke) ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai.[56] May ke ant mein aur July ke shuroo mein alag-alag avsaron par, sooryaast ko sadak ki grid rekhaaon ke saath ek rekha mein laaya jaata hai jiske parinaasvaroop soorya sadak ke star se pashchimi kshitij par ya uske paas dikhaai dene lagta hai.[56][57] isi tarah ki ek ghatna January aur December mein sooryodaya ke saath hota hai.

vanyajeev sanrakshan society, jo shahar mein chidiyaagharon aur jal-jeevashaalaaon ko sanchaalit karta hai, vartamaan mein mainnaahatta pariyojana ke upakram mein laga hua hai, jo 1609 mein henari hadasan ke pratham prasthaan ke samay mainahatan ke paaristhitiki aur bhoogol ke drushtigt roop se punarnirmaan karne aur aaj ham dweep ke baare mein kya jaante hain, iski tulana karne ka ek computer anukaran tha.[13]

sameepavarti praant

  • bargen praant, new jarsee—aapashchim/uttar-pashchim
  • hadasan praant, new jarsee—aapashchim/dakshin-pashchim
  • bronks praant, New York (the bronks)—auttar-poorv
  • kveens praant, New York (kveens)—apoorv/dakshin-poorv
  • kings praant, New York (brookaleen)—adakshin/dakshin-poorv
  • richmand praant, New York (stetan dweep)—adakshin-pashchim

raashtreeya sanrakshit kshetr

  • afreeki kabristaan raashtreeya smaarak
  • kaisal Clinton raashtreeya smaarak
  • sangheeya hall raashtreeya smaarak
  • saamaanya anudaan raashtreeya smaarak
  • gavarnars dweep raashtreeya smaarak
  • haimiltan greinj raashtreeya smaarak
  • loar East side vaasagruh raashtreeya aitihaasik sthal
  • staichoo of librti raashtreeya smaarak (bhaag)
  • thiyodor roojvelt janmasthaan raashtreeya aitihaasik sthal

padosi kshetr

mainahatan ke kai padosi kshetron ka naamakaran kisi vishesh parampara ke anusaar naheen hua hain. kuchh ka varnan bhaugolik drushti se (upper East side), ya jaateeyata ki drushti se (chaainaataaun) kiya jaata hai. anya aadivrnik shabd hain, jaise - traai-be-ka ("TRIangle BElow CAnal Street" arthaat "nahar ki sadak ke neeche ka tribhuj" ka aadivrnik roop) ya so-ho (""SOuth of HOuston" arthaat haaustin ka dakshini kshetr), ya bilkul haal ka vishisht kshetr no-l-ita ("NOrth of Little ITaly" arthaat laghu Italy ka uttari kshetr).[58][59] haarlem (Harlem) dach aupaniveshik kaal ka ek naam hai, jiska naamakaran nedaralainds ke haarlem (Haarlem) naamak ek shahar ke naam par hua hai.[60] alfaabet shahar mein evenyoo A, bi, si aur di shaamil hai jiska sandarbh iske naam se hi mil jaata hai.

mainahatan setu se raat mein loar mainahatan, efdeeaar (FDR) drive aur brookaleen setu

kuchh padosi kshetr, jaise - so-ho, vaanijyik kshetr hain aur sampann khareedaari ke liye jaane jaate hain. anya kshetr, jaise- greenavich gaanv, loar East side, alfaabet shahar aur East gaanv, lambe samay se "bohemiyn" up-sanskruti se jude hain.[61] Chelsea ek aisa padosi kshetr hai jahaan samalaingik purushon ki janasankhya kaafi adhik hai aur haal hi mein New York ke kala udyog aur raatri-jeevan ka kendra rah chuka hai.[62] Washington haaits, dominikn ripblik se aane vaale aapravaasiyon ka ek dolanasheel pados hai. mainahatan ke chaainaataaun mein cheeni mool ke logon ki ek saghan janasankhya hai.[63][64] upper vest side ko upper East side ke puraatan dhan aur roodhivaadi moolyon ke vipreet aksar adhik buddhi aur rachanaatmak kshetr ke roop mein parilkshyit kiya jaata hai. upper East side, sanyukt raajya America ke sabse dhani padosi kshetron mein se ek hai.[65][66][67]

mainahatan mein, apataaun ka arth hai - uttar (adhik nishchit roop se uttar-uttarapoorv, jo dweep ki disha hai aur apne sadak ki grid vyavastha par aadhaarit hai) aur daaunataaun ka arth hai - dakshin (dakshin-dakshinpashchim).[68] yeh prayog jyaadaatar ameriki shaharon ke arthon se alag hai, jahaan daaunataaun kendreeya vyaavasaayik jile ko sandarbhit karta hai. mainahatan ke do keindreeya vyaavasaayik jile - dweep ke dakshini sire par sthit faaineinsiyl jila aur midtaaun mainahatan, hain. shabd apataaun bhi 59th street ke oopar mainahatan ke uttari bhaag ko sandarbhit karta hai[69] aur daaunataaun 14th street ke neeche dakshini bhaag ko sandarbhit karta hai[70] aur midtaaun mein inke beech ka kshetr shaamil hai, haalaanki paribhaashaaen sthiti ke aadhaar par apekshaakrut asthir ho sakti hain.

fifth evenyoo mainahatan dweep ko lagbhag do bhaagon mein vibhaajit karta hai aur poorv/pashchim naamon (jaise, East 27th street, vest 42th street) ke liye seemaankan rekha ke roop mein kaarya karta hai; sadkon ke pate fifth evenyoo se shuroo hote hain aur adhikaansh sthaanon mein prati block 100 ki dar se fifth evenyoo se aage vistrut hain.[70] mainahatan mein vevarli place ke dakshin mein fifth evenyoo samaapt hota hai aur braudave, poorv/pashchim seemaankan rekha ban jaata hai. haalaanki grid, haaustin street (uchchaaran, how-stin) ke theek uttar mein pratham street se shuroo hota hai, lekin fir bhi grid 14th street ke uttar tak poori tarah se rookata naheen hai, jahaan lagbhag sabhi poorv-pashchim sadkon ki pehchaan unki sankhya ke aadhaar par ki jaati hai, jo 220th street, dweep ka uchchatam kramaankit sadak, ke dakshin se uttar ki taraf vistrut hain.[48]

jalavaayu

midtaaun mainahatan mein varsha

haalaanki mainahatan 41°aau ke aas-paas avasthit hai, lekin fir bhi yahaan nam uposhnakatibandheeya jalavaayu (koppen vargeekaran seeefe) pai jaati hai.[71] shahar ki tateeya sthiti sardiyon ke dauraan taapamaan ko antardesheeya kshetron ki tulana mein apekshaakrut garm rakhati hai aur barf ki maatra ko saamaanya banaae rakhane mein madad karti hai jiska vaarshik ausat 25 se 35 inch (63.5 se 88.9 semi) hai.[71] New York shahar mausami thithuran ke dauraan ausatan 220 dinon tak tushaar-mukt rahata hai.[71] New York shahar mein vasant aur patajhad ka mausam saumya hota hai, jabki garmiyon ka mausam bahut garm aur aardr hota hai aur is mausam ke dauraan 18 se 25 dinon tak darj ki gayi taapamaan ki maatra ausatan 90°aafa (32°aasein) ya usase adhik hai.[71] shahar ki deerghakaalik jalavaayu svarup, atalaantik malteedikedal osileshan (atalaantik bahu-dashakeeya dolan) se prabhaavit hai, jo atalaantik ka ek 70-varsheeya ushmotpaadak aur sheetalan chakr hai jo kshetr mein aandhiyon aur tateeya toofaanon ki aavrutti aur teevrata ko prabhaavit karta hai.[72]

9 July 1936 ko adhik se adhik taapakram 106°aafa (41°aasein) aur 9 fravari 1934 ko kam se kam -15°aafa (-26°aasein) darj kiya gaya hai. abhi haal hi mein July 2005 ko taapakram 100°aafa aur August 2006 mein 103°aafa tak pahunch gaya hai aur bilkul haal hi mein January 2004 tak shoonya se oopar keval 1 par aakar thahar gaya hai.

garmiyon mein shaam ka taapamaan, shahari taap dweep prabhaav dvaara kaafi badh jaata hai jo din ke dauraan taap ko avashoshit kar leta hai aur raat ko paraavartit kar deta hai jisse havaaon ke dheema hone par taapamaan adhik se adhik 7 °afa (4 °asein) tak pahunch jaata hai.[73]

saaaincha:New York City weatherbox

sarkaar

mainahatan nagarapaalika bhavan
Scott stringar, 2006

1898 mein New York shahar ke samekan ke baad se mainahatan ko New York shahar ke chaartar dvaara niyantrit kiya jaata hai, jisne 1989 mein iske sanshodhan ke baad se ek majaboot mayor-parishd tantr ki vyavastha ki hai.[74] New York shahar ki keindreekrut sarkaar mainahatan mein saarvajanik shiksha, sudhaarak sansthaanon, pustakaalayon, saarvajanik suraksha, manoranjan ki suvidhaaon, svachhata, jal aapoorti aur kalyaan sevaaon ke liye uttaradaayi hai.

nagar raashtrapati ke kaaryaalaya ko sthaaneeya praadhikaari ke saath keindreekaran ka santulan sthaapit karne ke liye 1898 ke samekan mein nirmit kiya gaya tha. pratyek nagar raashtrapati ki ek shaktishaali prashaasanik bhoomika hoti thi jo New York shahar ke board of esteemet par matadaan ke falasvaroop praapt hoti thi, jo shahar ke bajat aur bhoomi upayog ke prastaavon ka nirmaan karne aur unhein anumodit karne ke liye uttaradaayi hoti thi. 1989 mein sanyukt raajya America ke sarvochch nyaayalaya ne board of esteemet ko asamvaidhaanik ghoshit kar diya kyonki sabse jyaada janasankhya vaale brookaleen nagar mein sabse kam janasankhya vaale stetan dweep nagar ki tulana mein board par koi adhik prabhaavi pratinidhitv naheen tha, is prakaar yeh uchch nyaayaalaya ke varsh 1964 ke "ek vyakti, ek vote" ke nirnaya ke aadhaar par chaudahavein sanshodhan ke samaan sanrakshan khand ka ek ullanghan tha.[75]

1990 ke baad se, mukhyat: shaktiheen nagar raashtrapati ne mayor se sambandhit agencyon, shahar parishd, New York raajya sarkaar aur nigmon mein nagar ke ek vakeel ke roop mein kaam kiya hai. mainahatan ke nagar raashtrapati Scott stringar hai jo 2005 mein ek democrat ke roop mein chune gaye the.[76]

si veins, jo ki ek democrat hai, varsh 2010 se New York praant ke jila attorney ke pad par aaseen hai.[77] mainahatan ke shahar parishd mein das sadasya hai, jo paanch nagaron mein teesara sabse bada dal hai. ismein baarah prashaasanik jile bhi hain, jinmein se pratyek ki seva ke liye ek sthaaneeya saamudaayik board ki vyavastha ki gayi hai. saamudaayik board ve pratinidhi nikaaya hain jo shikaayaton ko ekatrit karte hain aur sthaaneeya nivaasiyon ke liye adhivktaaon ke roop mein seva pradaan karte hain. sanyukt raashtra ke mejabaan ke roop mein, yeh nagar duniya ke sabse bade antarraashtreeya vaanijyadooteeya dal ka kendra hai jismein 105 vaanijya-dootaavaas, vaanijya-dootaavaason ke general aur maanad vaanijya-dootaavaas shaamil hain.[78] yeh New York city hall ka ghar bhi hai, jo New York shahar ke mayor aur New York shahar parishd ke New York shahar mein sarkaari aavaas ka sthaan hai. mayor ke karmachaariyon aur terah nagarapaalika agencyon ka sthaan sameepavarti mainahatan nagarapaalika bhavan hai jo varsh 1916 mein taiyaar hua jo duniya ke sabse bade sarkaari bhavanon mein se ek hai.[79]

raajaneeti

inhein bhi dekhein: Community Boards of Manhattan

New York praant jila attorney, nagar raashtrapati

raashtrapati ke chunaav ke parinaam
[80]
varsh Republican democrat
2008 13.5% 89,906 85.7% 572,126
2004 16.7% 107,405 82.1% 526,765
2000 14.2% 79,921 79.8% 449,300
1996 13.8% 67,839 80.0% 394,131
1992 15.9% 84,501 78.2% 416,142
1988 22.9% 115,927 76.1% 385,675
1984 27.4% 144,281 72.1% 379,521
1980 26.2% 115,911 62.4% 275,742
1976 25.5% 117,702 73.2% 337,438
1972 33.4% 178,515 66.2% 354,326
1968 25.6% 135,458 70.0% 370,806
1964 19.2% 120,125 80.5% 503,848
1960 34.2% 217,271 65.3% 414,902
1956 44.26% 300,004 55.74% 377,856
1952 39.30% 300,284 58.47% 446,727
1948 33.18% 241,752 52.20% 380,310

adhikaansh saarvajanik kaaryaalayon par democratic party ka adhikaar hai. nagar mein panjeekrut ripbliknon ki sankhya bahut kam hai jo nirvaachak-mandal ke keval lagbhag 12% ka hi gathan karte hain. panjeekrut ripbliknon ki sankhya keval upper East side aur faaineinsiyl jile ke pados mein hi nirvaachak-mandal ke 20% se adhik hai. ek party mein panjeekrut logon mein se 66.1% par demokreton ka adhikaar hai. matadaataaon mein se 21.9% matadaata asambaddh (nirdaleeya) hote the.[81]

mainahatan ko chaar kaaaingresi jilon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai, jinmein se sabhi jilon ka pratinidhitv demokreton dvaara kiya jaata hai.

  • Charles bi. rangel upper mainahatan ke 15vein jile ka pratinidhitv karte hain, jismein haarlem, Spanish haarlem, Washington haaits, inavood aur upper vest side ke bhaag shaamil hain.
  • jerold naidlar 8vein jile ka pratinidhitv karte hain, jo vest side mein sthit hai jismein upper vest side ka adhikaansh bhaag, hels kichn, Chelsea, greenavich gaanv, chaainaataaun, traai-be-ka aur baitari park city, ke saath-saath dakshin-pashchim brookaleen ke kuchh bhaag shaamil hain.
  • kairolin bi. mailoni 14vein jile ka pratinidhitv karte hain jise tathaakathit taur par "silk sangrahan" jila bhi kehte hain jo teddi roojvelt aur John lindase ka raajaneetik aadhaar tha. ismein upper East side ka adhikaansh bhaag, yaurkavile, graamarsi park, roojvelt dweep aur loar East side aur East gaanv ke adhikaansh bhaag, ke saath-saath pashchimi kveens ke bhaag bhi shaamil hain.
  • brookaleen/kveens-sthit 12vein jile ke naaidiya velaajkvej, alfaabet shahar ke evenyoo si aur di sahit loar East side ke puerto rikn ke kuchhek adhikaansh bhaagon ka pratinidhitv karte hain.

kisi bhi Republican ne 1924 ke baad se mainahatan mein raashtrapati pad ka chunaav naheen jeeta hai jab kailvin koolij ne democrat John dablyoo. Davis ke khilaaf 41.20%–39.55% se New York praant se adhik vote praapt karke jeet haasil ki thi. vaaren ji. haarding hi sabse haal ke Republican raashtrapati pad ke ummeedavaar the jinhein 1920 vote ke 59.22% ke saath mainahatan ke vote ka bahumat praapt hua tha.[82] 2004 ke raashtrapati ke chunaav mein democrat John keri ne mainahatan ke vote ka 82.1% aur Republican George dablyoo. bush ne 16.7% vote praapt kiya.[83] yeh nagar, sanyukt raajya America ke raashtrapati ke chunaav abhiyaanon ke liye dhan-upaarjan ka sabse mahatvapoorn srot hai; 2004 mein, yeh raajaneetik yogadaanon ke liye raashtra ke sheersh saat jip kodon mein se chh: kodon ka ghar tha.[84] upper East side ke sheersh jip code 10021 ne 2004 ke chunaav ke dauraan keri aur bush sahit raashtrapati pad ke sabhi ummeedavaaron ke liye sanyukt raajya America ke raashtrapati ke chunaav ke liye sabse adhik dhan ki vyavastha ki.[85]

sangheeya pratinidhitv

James A faarle daakaghar

sanyukt raajya America daak seva mainahatan ke daakagharon ka parichaalan karta hai. midtaaun mainahatan ka James A. faarle daakaghar, New York shahar ka mukhya daakaghar hai.[86]

yeh 31st street aur 33rd street ke beech 421 aitth evenyoo par sthit hai.

daakaghar ne mel yaataayaat kam hone ke kaaran 9 May 2009 se 24 ghante ki nirantar seva pradaan karna band kar diya.[87]

aparaadh

19veen sadi ke madhya ke shuroo mein, apni maatrubhoomi ki gareebi se bachane ki chaah rakhane vaale aapravaasiyon ke liye sanyukt raajya America ek chumbak ban gaya. New York mein pahunchane ke baad, kai navaangatukon ne braudave aur bovari ke beech ke kshetr aur New York city hall ke uttar-poorv mein sthit five pauints pados ki bastiyon ki gandagi mein apna padaav daal diya. 1820 ke dashak tak yeh kshetr kai jue ke addon aur "haauses of il ripyoot" (badnaam makaan) ka kendra tha aur ise khatarnaak jagah ke roop mein jaana jaata tha jahaan jaane se log kataraate the. 1842 mein, Charles dikeins ne kshetr ka daura kiya aur vahaan ki rahan-sahan ki bhayaanak durdasha dekhkar chakit rah gaye.[88] yeh kshetr itna kukhyaat tha ki isne Abraham Lincoln ka bhi dhyaan kheench liya, jinhonne 1860 mein apne koopar union edres se pehle is kshetr ka daura kiya.[89] mukhya roop se aayarish five pauints gang desh ke pratham pramukh sangathit aparaadh sansthaaon mein se ek tha.

1885 ke ek rekhaachitr mein five pauints se hote hue basti ki yaatra
ek enavaaipeedi (NYPD) naav New York bandargaah par gasht lagaata hai

1900 ke dashak ke shuroo mein itaalavi aapravaasan mein vruddhi hone par kai log jaateeya giroh mein shaamil ho gaye jinmein al kaipon bhi shaamil the jinhonne five pauints gang ke saath aparaadh jagat mein kadam rakha.[90] maafiya (jinhein kosa nostra ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai) sabse pehle 19veen sadi ke madhya mein sisili mein viksit hua aur sisiliyn aur dakshin itaalavi utpravaas ki laharon ke baad 19veen sadi ke antim daur mein sanyukt raajya America ke East kost mein fail gaye. laki lusiyaano ne anya aaparaadhik sangathanon ke saath gathabandhan karke mainahatan mein la kosa nostra ki sthaapana ki, jinmein yahoodi giroh bhi shaamil the jiske saragana ka naam meyer laanski tha jo us samay ke pramukh yahoodi saragana the.[91][91] 1920 se 1933 tak nishedh ne sharaab ke kaale baajaar ko falane-foolane ka avsar pradaan kiya, jisse maafiya ne kaafi laabh uthaaya.[91]

New York shahar ke aparaadh mein 1960 aur 1970 ke dashak ke dauraan teji se vruddhi hui, jo police dvaara darj kiye gaye aparaadhon ka lagbhag paanch guna ho gaya tha, 1960 mein jo aparaadh dar 21.09 prati hajaar tha vahi 1981 mein 102.66 ho gaya. shahar ki nar-hatya mein hone waali vruddhi doosare dashak tak jaari rahi, enavaaipeedi (NYPD) dvaara darj ki gayi hatya jo 1960 mein 390 thi vah badhkar 1970 mein 1,117, 1980 mein 1,812 aur 1990 mein 2,262 ho gayi thi jiska mukhya kaaran kraik epidemik tha. lagbhag 1990 ke shuroo mein, New York shahar ne hatya, balaatkaar, dakaiti, atinikrusht hamle, hinsak aparaadh, seindhamaari, chori, motor vaahan chori aur sampatti aparaadh, jo ek aisi pravrutti thi jo aaj bhi jaari hai, ke maamalon mein giraavat dekhi.[92]

enavaaipeedi (NYPD) kraaun Victoria police gaadi

2005 ke aankadon ke aadhaar par sanyukt raajya America ke das sabse bade shaharon mein se New York shahar ka aparaadh dar sabse kam hai.[93] 32 shaharon ke 500,000 se bhi adhik logon par kiye gaye 13vein vaarshik maurgan kvitno sarvekshan mein is poore shahar ko raashtreeya star par chautha sthaan praapt hua.[94] 36,400 adhikaariyon wala New York police vibhaag, agale chaar sabse bade ameriki vibhaagon ke sanyukt aakaar se bhi bada hai. enavaaipeedi (NYPD) ka aatankvaad-virodhi prabhaag, jismein 1,000 adhikaari tainaat hain, efbeeaai (FBI) ke prabhaag se bhi bada hai.[93] enavaaipeedi (NYPD) ka kaump-stait tantr, jo aparaadh par nazar rakhane, usaki soochana dene aur nigraani karne ka kaam karta hai, ko New York shahar mein aparaadh ko kam karne ka shreya diya gaya hai jisne sanyukt raajya America mein kaheen bhi hone vaale aparaadh ki kami ke aankade ko kaafi peechhe chhod diya hai.[95]

1990 ke baad se, mainahatan mein aparaadh mein kaump-stait ki profaail dvaara nazar rakhi gayi sabhi shreniyon mein giraavat I hai. jis nagar ne 1990 mein 503 hatyaaen dekhi, usi ne 2008 mein lagbhag 88% ki giraavat ke saath keval 62 hatyaaen dekhi. is avadhi ke dauraan dakaiti aur chori mein 80% se bhi adhik giraavat I hai aur vaahan chori mein 93% se bhi adhik kami I hai. kul milaakar is tantr dvaara nazar rakhe gaye saat pramukh aparaadh shreniyon mein 1990 se 75% se adhik giraavat I hai aur May 2009 se is varsh ki is taareekh ke aankade nirantar giraavat darshaate hain.[96]

janasaankhyikeeya

Manhattan Compared
2000 Census
'
mainahatan
[97]
New York shahar
[98]
New York raajya
[99]
kul janasankhya 1,537,195 8,008,278 18,976,457
janasankhya ka ghanatv
prati varg meal
66,940 26,403 402
ausat ghareloo aay (1999) $47,030$ $38,293$ $43,393$
prati vyakti aay $42,922$ $22,402$ $23,389$
snaatak ki degree ya uchchatar 49.4% 27.4% 27.4%
videsh mein janme 29.4% 35.9% 20.4%
gore 54.4% 44.7% 67.9%
kaale 17.4% 26.6% 15.9%
Asiaee 9.4% 9.8% 5.5%
hispainik
(kisi bhi jaati ke)
27.2% 27.0% 15.1%

2008 ki ameriki janaganana bureau ke anumaan ke mutaabik, 1 July 2008 ko mainahatan mein rahane vaale logon ki sankhya 1,634,795 thi.[100] 2000 ki janaganana ke mutaabik, New York praant ki janasankhya ka ghanatv 66,940.1/varg meal (25,849.9/varg kimi) tha jo sanyukt raajya America ke kisi bhi praant ki tulana mein sabse adhik jan-ghanatv tha.[101] agar 2008 ki janaganana ke anumaan sahi ho, to ab janasankhya ka ghanatv prati varg meal 71,201 vyakti adhik hai. 1910 mein, New York mein Europeeya aapravaasan mein atyadhik vruddhi hone par mainahatan ka jan-ghanatv 101,548/varg meal (39,222.9/varg kimi) ke shikhar tak pahunch gaya. 34,756.7/varg meal (13,421.8/varg kimi) ki ek ausat ghanatv par 798,144 aavaaseeya ikaaiyaan thi.[49] mainahatan ke nivaasiyon mein se keval 20.3% log maalik ke kabje vaale aavaason mein rahate the, jo desh ke sabhi praanton mein doosra sabse nimn dar tha, pehla sthaan bronks ka tha.[102]

New York shahar ke shahar yojana vibhaag ka anumaan hai ki mainahatan ki janasankhya mein 2000 se 2003 ke beech 18.8% ki vruddhi hogi, arthaat 289,000 log badh jaaenge, jo stetan dweep ke baad doosare sthaan par hoga jabki usi avadhi mein shahar ke baaki kshetron mein 12.7% ki vruddhi hone ka anumaan hai. 2030 tak vidyaalaya jaane vaale umr ke bachchon ki sankhya mein 4.4% vruddhi hone ki aasha hai jo poore shahar mein ek chhoti si giraavat ke vipreet hai. bujurgon ki janasankhya mein poore shahar ki 44.2% vruddhi ki tulana mein is nagar mein 57.9% ki vruddhi hone ki bhavishyavaani ki gayi hai jisse nagar mein 65 aur usase adhik umr ke 108,000 logon ki badhottri hogi.[103]

2005-2007 ameriki samudaaya sarvekshan ke anusaar, mainahatan ki janasankhya mein 56.8% gore (akele 48.4% gair-hispainik), 16.7% kaale ya afreeki ameriki (akele 13.8% gair-hispainik kaale ya afreeki ameriki), 0.8% ameriki indiyn aur mool alaaska nivaasi, 11.3% Asiaee, 0.1% mool havaai nivaasi aur anya paisifik dweep nivaasi, kuchh anya jaati ke 16.9% aur do ya do se adhik jaati ke 2.4% log the. kul janasankhya mein se 25.1% kisi bhi jaati ke hispainik ya laitino the.[104]

janasankhya ke 56.2% logon ke paas snaatak ki upaadhi ya usase oonchi upaadhi thi. 28.4% log videshon mein janme the aur 3.6% log puerto riko, ameriki dweep kshetron, ya ameriki maata-pita ke yahaan videsh mein janme the. 38.8% log ghar par angreji ke alaava anya bhaasha mein baat karte the.[105]

san 2000 mein mainahatan mein rahane vaale logon mein se 56.4% gore, 17.39% kaale, 14.14% anya jaati ke, 9.40% Asiaee, 0.5% mool ameriki aur 0.07% paisifik dweep nivaasi the. 4.14% do ya do se adhik jaati ke the. 27.18% kisi bhi jaati ke hispainik the. 24.93% logon dvaara ghar par speni, 4.12% cheeni aur 2.19% French bhaasha mein baat karne ki khabar thi.[106]

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1790 33,131
1800 60,489 82.6%
1810 96,373 59.3%
1820 1,23,706 28.4%
1830 2,02,589 63.8%
1840 3,12,710 54.4%
1850 5,15,547 64.9%
1860 8,13,669 57.8%
1870 9,42,292 15.8%
1880 11,64,674 23.6%
1890 14,41,216 23.7%
1900 18,50,093 28.4%
1910 23,31,542 26%
1920 22,84,103 −2%
1930 18,67,312 −18.2%
1940 18,89,924 1.2%
1950 19,60,101 3.7%
1960 16,98,281 −13.4%
1970 15,39,233 −9.4%
1980 14,28,285 −7.2%
1990 14,87,536 4.1%
2000 15,37,195 3.3%
Est. 2008 16,34,795 6.3%

738,644 gruhasthiyaan thi. 25.2% ek saath rahane vaale shaadeeshuda dampati the, 12.6% bina pati waali gruhasth mahilaaain thi aur 59.1% gair-parivaaron ke log the. 17.1% mein unke saath rahane vaale 18 se kam aayu ke bachche the. sabhi gruhasthiyon mein se 48% gruhasthiyaan vyaktiyon se nirmit the aur 10.9% mein 65 ya usase adhik umr ke akele rahane vaale bujurg shaamil the. gruhasthi ka ausat aakaar do aur parivaar ka ausat aakaar 2.99 tha.

mainahatan ki janasankhya mein 18 se kam aayu vaale 16.8%, 18 se 24 ke 10.2%, 25 se 44 ke 38.3%, 45 se 64 ke 22.6% aur 65 ya usase adhik aayu vaale 12.2% logon ki vruddhi hui thi. ausat umr 36 saal thi. pratyek 100 mahilaaon ke liye, 90.3 purush the. 18 aur usase adhik aayu waali pratyek 100 mahilaaon ke liye, 87.9 purush the.

mainahatan, sanyukt raajya America ke das lakh se adhik janasankhya vaale sabse adhik aay vaale sthaanon mein se ek hai. kar varsh 2004 ki aaiaaraes (IRS) data ke aadhaar par, New York praant (mainahatan) ki prati pratifl ausat sangheeya aayakar deyata desh mein sabse adhik thi. ausat kar deyata $25,875 thi jo samaayojit sakal aay ka 20.0% ka pratinidhitv kar raha tha.[107] 2002 tak mainahatan ki prati vyakti aay desh ke kisi bhi praant se sabse adhik thi.[108]

upper East side par mainahatan jip code 10021, 100,000 se adhik logon ka kendra hai aur yahaan ki prati vyakti aay 90,000 dollar se adhik hai.[109] yeh sanyukt raajya America mein atyadhik dhan ke sabse bade bhandaaron mein se ek hai. mainahatan ke adhikaansh pados utane dhani naheen hain. praant mein ek gruhasthi ki ausat aay 47,030 dollar thi aur ek parivaar ki ausat aay 50,229 dollar thi. purushon ki ausat aay, mahilaaon ki ausat aay $45,712 ke virooddh $51,856 thi. praant ka prati vyakti aay 42,922 dollar tha. kul parivaaron mein se lagbhag 17.6% parivaar aur kul janasankhya mein se lagbhag 20% janasankhya gareebi rekha se neeche thi jismein se 31.8% 18 se kam aayu ke aur 18.9% 65 ya usase adhik aayu ke the.[110]

loar mainahatan (haaustin street ka mainahatan dakshin) mein aarthik vibhinnata hai. jabki faaineinsiyl jile mein 1950 ke dashak ke baad kuchh gair vaanijyik kiraayedaar the, lekin kshetr ne apne aavaaseeya janasankhya mein ek bhaari uchhaal dekha hai, jahaan rahane vaale nivaasiyon ki sankhya 2005 tak 30,000 se adhik hone ka anumaan hai, jo 11 sitmbar 2001 ke hamlon se pehle 15,000 se 20,000 tak ki ek chhalaang hai.[111]

mainahatan mein dhaarmik vibhinnata hai. sabse bada dhaarmik adheenasth sangathan roman Catholic church hai, jiske anuyaayiyon ki sankhya 564,505 (janasankhya ke 36% se adhik) hai aur 110 sabhaaon ka bandobast karte hain. yahoodiyon mein doosra sabse bada dhaarmik samooh shaamil hai jinki sankhya 314,500 (20.5%) aur sabhaaon ki sankhya 102 hai. unke baad protesteint ka sthaan hai jinke 139,732 anuyaayi (9.1%) hai aur antim dhaarmik samooh musalmaanon ka hai jinki sankhya 37,078 (2.4%) hai.[112]

nagar mein bachchon ki taadaad bhi teji se badh rahi hai. san 2000 ke baad se, mainahatan mein rahane vaale paanch varsh se kam aayu ke bachchon ki sankhya mein 32% se adhik ki vruddhi hui.[113]

inhein bhi dekhein: Demographics of New York City

sthal-chinh aur vaastukala

gaganachunbi imaarat, jisne mainahatan ke kshitij ko vishisht aakaar pradaan kiya hai, 19veen sadi ke ant ke baad se New York shahar ki pehchaan ke saath bahut kareeb se juda hua hai. 1890-1973 tak, duniya ka sabse ooncha bhavan mainahatan mein tha, jahaan sheershak dhaaran karne vaale nau alag-alag imaarate thi.[114] park ro par New York world bhavan 1955 tak sheershak grahan karne wala pehla imaarat tha jo 309 feet (91 mi) ooncha tha jab brookaleen setu ke liye ek nae raimp ka nirmaan karne ke liye ise dhvast kiya gaya tha.[115] sameepavarti park ro bhavan ne 1899 mein sheershak praapt kiya jismein 29 manjeelein thi aur jiski oonchaai 391 fut (119 mi) thi.[116] 41-manjilon wala singar bhavan, jiska nirmaan 1908 mein vishisht vyakti-vishyak silaai machine nirmaata ke mukhyaalaya ke roop mein hua tha, 1967 tak 612 fut (187 mi) ooncha tha jab yeh dhvast hone waali ab tak ki sabse oonchi imaarat bani.[117] metropolitan life inshyoreins company tauvar, jo maidisn evenyoo ke aadhaar par sthit 700 feet (213 mi) oonchi imaarat thi, ne 1909 mein sheershak haasil kar liya jo venis ke seint maarks kampaneel ki yaad dilaane wala tauvar tha.[118] voolavarth bhavan aur iski vishisht gauthik vaastukala, ne 1913 mein sheershak haasil kiya jo 792 feet (241 mi) oonchi thi.[119]

krislar bhavan.1930-1931 mein sabse ooncha bhavan

rauring tvanteej ne aakaash mein ek daud dekhi jiske tahat teen alag-alag imaaratein ek varsh ki avadhi mein duniya ke sabse oonche imaarat ka sheershak haasil karne ke peechhe pade the. 1929 ke Wall street crash se pehle ke dinon mein stock baajaar ke aakaash chhoone ke samay do vikaasakon ne is taaj ke liye khuleaam pratiyogita ki.[120] bank of mainahatan ke mukhyaalaya ke roop mein gyaarah maheenon ki ek aashcharyajanak avadhi mein May 1930 mein bankar taiyaar hue 927 feet (282 mi) oonche 40 Wall street ne is sheershak ko surakshit kar lene ka sanket diya.[121] leksingatan evenyoo aur 42nd street par auto kaaryakaari vaultar krislar aur unke vaastukaar William vaan Allen ne 1929 mein iska nirmaan kaarya poora hone ke samay krislar bhavan ko 1,046 feet (319 mi) tak pahunchaane aur ise duniya ka sabse ooncha imaarat banaane ke liye gupt roop se sanrachana ke tredamaark 185 fut (56 mi)-oonche shikhar mein parint karne ki yojana viksit ki.[122] in donon bhavanon ko bahut jald hi May 1931 mein bankar taiyaar hui bhavan ke sheersh par 1,250 foot (381 mi) ki aakaash chhoone waali oonchi Art deko naamak tauvar yukt 102 manjilon waali empaayar state bhavan dvaara maat mili. baad mein 203 fut (62 mi) oonchi shikhar ke jud jaane se is bhavan ki kul oonchaai 1,453 feet (443 mi) ho gayi.[123][124]

empaayar state bhavan 1931 se 1972 tak duniya ka sabse ooncha bhavan tha aur aaj bhi shahar ka sabse ooncha bhavan hai

world trade center ka poorv tvin tauvars, jo kabhi shahar ka ek pratishthit prateek tha, loar mainahatan mein sthit tha. 1,368 aur 1,362 foot (417 mi evam 415 mi) oonchi 110 manjila imaaratein 1972 se tab tak duniya ki sabse oonchi imaaratein bani rahi, jab tak 1974 mein Willis tauvar (pehle siyrs tauvar ke naam se jaana jaata tha jo Chicago mein sthit hai) ke nirmaan ne unhein maat naheen di.[125] 20veen sadi ke ant tak world trade center ke tvin tauvars, 11 sitmbar 2001 ke aatankvaadi hamlon mein nasht hone tak duniya ke sabse prasiddh aur sammaanit imaaraton mein gine jaate the. kai imaaraton mein se world trade center prashansa ki vastu thi jinmein French taaitarop vaukar Phillip petit bhi shaamil tha jisne keval ek kebal ke sahaare khud ka santulan banaae rakha tha aur jo 7 August 1974 ko tvin tauvars ke beech latakaaya gaya tha. world trade center ke tvin tauvars ki jagah van world trade center ka nirmaan kaarya abhi chal raha hai aur iske 2014 mein bankar taiyaar ho jaane ki ummeed hai.[126]

1961 mein, peinsilveniya relarod ne puraane pen station ko dhvast karne ki yojanaaon par se parda uthaaya aur iski jagah ek nae maidisn square garden aur kaaryaalaya bhavan parisar ka nirmaan kiya. sangathit virodh ka lakshya 1910 mein nirmit maik-kim, meed, end hvaait ki design waali sanrachana ko banaae rakhana tha jise vyaapak taur par beyauks-Arts shaili ki ek sarvotkrusht rachana aur New York shahar ki vaastukala ke ratnon mein se ek maana jaata hai.[127] in prayaason ke baavajood, dhaanche ke vidhvans ka kaam October 1963 mein shuroo ho gaya. pen station ki kshati—ajise itihaasakaar luis mamaford ne "gair-jimmedaar saarvajanik barbarata ka ek krutya" kahaa—ane New York shahar bhoomi-chinh sanrakshan aayog ki sthaapana karke 1965 mein ek sthaaneeya kaanoon ka pratyaksh adhiniyman kiya jo "shahar ke aitihaasik, saundaryaatmak aur saanskrutik viraasat" ko banaae rakhane ke liye jimmedaar hai.[128] desh bhar mein lagbhag das lakh sanrachanaaon, jismein New York shahar ki lagbhag 1,000 sanrachanaaen shaamil thi, ke avarodhan ka shreya pen station ke ant se bhadki aitihaasik parirkshan aandolan ko diya jaata hai.[129]

poorv world trade center ke tvin tauvar, jo 1972 se 2001 tak New York ke sabse oonche bhavan the.

times square mein braudave ke aaspaas theatre jila, New York vishvavidyaalaya, Columbia vishvavidyaalaya, flaitirn bhavan, Wall street ke aaspaas faaineinsiyl jila, Lincoln pradarshan kala kendra, little Italy, haarlem, ameriki praakrutik itihaas sangrahaalaya, chaainaataaun aur sentral park sabhi isi ghani janasankhya vaale dweep par sthit hai.

shahar, oorja-kshamya harit kaaryaalaya bhavanon, jaise - angrej saimuel fauks ke svaamitv wala haarst tauvar aur punarnirmit 7 world trade center, mein agrani hai.[130]

central park, uttar mein vest 110th street, pashchim mein aitth evenyoo, dakshin mein vest 59th street aur poorv mein fifth evenyoo se ghira hua hai. park ki seemaaon se sate in sadkon ko aam taur par kramash: sentral park North, sentral park vest aur sentral park south ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai (poorvi seema se sata fifth evenyoo apna naam barakraar rakhe hue hai). is park ko fredarik law olmsted aur kailvart vauks dvaara design kiya gaya tha. 843 ekad (3.4 varg kimi) kshetrafal vaale is park mein vistrut sachal raaste, do him-saran (aais-sketing) maarg, ek vanyajeev abhayaaranya aur vibhinn khel gatividhiyon ke liye istemaal kiya jaane wala ghaas se bhare kshetr aur saath mein bachchon ke liye khel ke maidaan upalabdh hain. yeh park pravaasi pakshiyon ka ek priya nakhalistaan hai aur is tarah yeh pakshiyon ko dekhne ke ichhuk logon ka bhi lokapriya sthaan hai. park ke chaaron taraf 6 meal (10 kimi) lamba raasta khaas taur par saptaahaanton mein aur motor vaahanon ka aavaagaman pratibandhit ho jaane par 7 baje ke baad shaam ko jauging karne vaalon, cycle chalaane vaalon aur inalaain sketaron ka lokapriya sthaan hai.[131]

jabki park ka adhikaansh hissa praakrutik lagta hai, lekin yeh lagbhag poori tarah se bhoodrushyon se bhara pada hai aur ismein kai krutrim jheelein bhi hain. 1850 ke dashak mein sentral park ka nirmaan tatkaaleen yug ke sabse vishaal saarvajanik kaarya pariyojanaaon mein se ek tha. olmsted aur vauks ki ichha ke anusaar is angreji-shaili ke graamya bhoodrushya ki rachana karne ke liye lagbhag 20,000 majadooron ne iski sthalaakruti taiyaar ki. majadooron ne kareeb 30,00,000 ghan gaj (23,00,000 mi3) mitti hataaya aur 270,000 se adhik ped-paudhe lagaae.[132]

is nagar ka 17.8%, jiska kul kshetrafal 2,686 ekad (10.9 varg kimi) hai, is park-bhoomi ko samarpit hai. paarkon ko samarpit mainahatan ka lagbhag 70% sthaan sentral park ke baahar sthit hai jismein 204 khel ke maidaan, 251 vrukshadaar sadkein, 371 baasketabaul court aur kai anya suvidhaaen shaamil hain.[133]

duaan street par sthit afreeki kabristaan raashtreeya smaarak ke parirkshan mein ek sthal hai jismein 17veen aur 18veen sadi ke dauraan dafn kiye gaye 400 se bhi adhik afreekiyon ki laashein dafn hain. in laashon ka pata 1991 mein fole square sthit sangheeya kaaryaalaya bhavan ke nirmaan ke dauraan chala tha.

shahar-drushya

Skyline of Midtown Manhattan, as seen from the observation deck of the GE Building
Skyline of Upper Manhattan and Midtown Manhattan as seen from Jersey City
Panorama of the Manhattan skyline as seen looking eastward from Hoboken, New Jersey.

arthavyavastha

mainahatan desh ki sabse moolyavaan achal sampatti mein se kuchh ka ghar hai aur sanyukt raajya America mein sabse mahange kshetron mein se ek ke roop mein pratishthit hai.[134]

siksth evenyoo ke paas ke kaaryaalaya

mainahatan, New York shahar ka aarthik engine hai, jahaan poore New York mahaanagareeya kshetr se lagbhag 23 lakh karmi kaam karne aate hain jo New York shahar ki kul naukariyon ka lagbhag do-tihaai hissa hai.[135] mainahatan ki janasankhya din mein 287 lakh tak pahunch jaati hai jismein se 134 lakh dainik yaatri hai. mainahatan mein aane vaale 146 lakh karmiyon ke roop mein dainik yaatriyon ki yeh baadh, desh ki anya kisi bhi praant ya shahar ki tulana mein sabse adhik thi aur yeh is drushti se doosra sthaan paane vaale di.si. ke Washington mein aane vaale 480,000 dainik yaatriyon ke teen guna se adhik tha.[136][137]

iska sabse mahatvapoorn aarthik kshetr, vitt udyog hai, jisse jude 280,000 karmi nagar mein bhugataan kiye jaane vaale kul majadoori ke aadhe se bhi adhik kamaate the. pratibhooti udyog, jo Wall street ke apne kendra dvaara suprasiddh hai, shahar ke vitteeya kshetr ke sabse bade bhaag ka nirmaan karta hai, jahaan vitteeya seva rojagaar mein se 50% se adhik rojagaar ki suvidha upalabdh hai. 2008 ke vitteeya sankat se pehle America ke paanch sabse bade pratibhooti-vyaapaarik sansthaanon ke mukhyaalaya mainahatan mein sthit the.[138][139]

2006 mein mainahatan ke vitteeya udyog se jude logon ki aay ka ausat prati saptaah lagbhag 8,300 dollar (bonas sahit) tha jabki sabhi udyogon se jude logon ki aay ka ausat lagbhag 2,500 dollar tha. yeh ausat desh ke 325 sabse bade praanton mein se sabse adhik tha aur 8% ki dar se hone waali vetan vruddhi das sabse bade praanton mein sabse adhik tha. yahaan ka bhugataan poore desh ke saaptaahik bhugataan 784 dollar se 85% adhik tha aur baahari nagaron mein kaam karne vaalon ki aay raashi se lagbhag doguna tha. svaasthya dekhbhaal kshetr, nagar ki naukariyon ka lagbhag 11% aur kul kshatipoorti ka 4% ka pratinidhitv karta hai jisse jude karmi prati saptaah lagbhag 900 dollar ghar le jaate hain.[140]

New York shahar desh ke kisi bhi shahar ke sabse adhik kaurporet mukhyaalayon ka kendra hai jismein se adhikaansh mukhyaalaya mainahatan mein sthit hai.[141] midtaaun mainahatan sanyukt raajya America ka sabse bada kendreeya vyaavasaayik jila hai.[142] loar mainahatan desh ka teesara sabse bada kendreeya vyaavasaayik jila (Chicago's loop ke baad) hai aur New York stock exchange, American stock exchange (ameks), New York vyaapaar board, New York markeintaail exchange (naaimeks) aur enaeesadeekyoo (NASDAQ) ka kendra hai.[143]

vishv ke sheersh aath vaishvik vigyaapan agency netavarkon mein se saat ka mukhyaalaya mainahatan mein hain.[144] 1920 ke dashak mein vigyaapan ke kshetr mein dhamaakedaar vruddhi hone ke baad maidisn evenyoo ki pehchaan vigyaapan udyog ke roop mein hone ke baad "maidisn evenyoo" ko lakshanaalankaar ki drushti se aksar sampoorn vigyaapan kshetr ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai.

mainahatan ka kaaryabal, atyadhik roop se safedaposh vyavasaayon par keindrit hai aur vinirmaan (39,800 karmachaari) aur nirmaan (31,600), nagar ke rojagaar ka ek chhota sa ansh hai.[135][145]

aitihaasik drushti se is kaurporet upasthiti ki kai svatantr khudara vikretaaon dvaara saraahana ki gayi hai, haalaanki desh mein dukaanon ki shrrunkhala mein haal hi mein hui vruddhi ke kaaran kai logon ko mainahatan ki dheere-dheere badh rahi ekaroopata par afsos bhi hua hai.[146]

sanskruti

inhein bhi dekhein: Culture of New York City evam Music of New York City
times square shahar ke theatre jile ka kendra hai

mainahatan kai mahatvapoorn ameriki saanskrutik gatividhiyon ka drushya bana hua hai. 1912 mein, lagbhag 20,000 karmachaariyon, jinmein se ek chauthaai mahilaaain theen, ne 25 March 1911 mein traaiaingal shartavest factory ki aag mein jalakar mare 146 laagon ki yaad mein Washington square park ki taraf kooch kiya. unamein se kai mahilaaon ne traaiaingal shartavest company dvaara nirmit vastron ki tarah ki fited takd-frant blaaujon ko pahana, jo vastron ki ek shaili thi jo kaamkaaji mahilaaon ki vardi aur mahila svatantrata ka ek prateek ban gaya tha aur shram aur mataadhikaar aandolanon ke gathabandhan ka pradarshan kiya.[147] 1920 ke dashak mein haarlem punarjaagaran ne sanyukt raajya America mein afreeki ameriki saahityik siddhaant ki sthaapana ki. 1950 aur 1960 ke dashak mein mainahatan ka jeevant drashtavya kala drushya, ameriki paup kala aandolan ka ek kendra tha, jisne jaispar jauns aur Roy licheinsteen jaise diggajon ko janm diya. shaayad koi bhi anya kalaakaar 1970 ke dashak ke antim daur ke daaunataaun paup kala aandolan se is tarah se naheen juda hai jis tarah Andy vaarahol jude the, jinhonne sereindipiti 3 aur studio 54 ki tarah ke clubon par samaajavaadi vyavastha ki.

Frank lauyad right ke soloman aar. gugenhem myoojiym ka baahari hissa.

Chelsea ka daaunataaun pados, kala ka ek lokapriya sthaan hai jo vyaapak taur par apne gailariyon aur saanskrutik kaaryakramon ke liye vikhyaat hai jahaan 200 se adhik Art gailariyaan hai jo ubharate aur sthaapit donon tarah ke kalaakaaron ki aadhunik kala ka kendra hai.[148][149]

braudave theatre ko aksar sanyukt raajya America mein theatre ka sarvochch vyaavasaayik roop maana jaata hai. naatakon aur sangeet kaaryakramon ka manchan kam se kam 500 seaton vaale 39 bade-bade vyaavasaayik thiyetaron mein se ek mein kiya jaata hai jismein se lagbhag sabhi times square mein aur uske aaspaas sthit hain.[150] of-braudave theatre 100 se 500 seaton vaale sthaanon mein prastutiyon ka pradarshan karte hain.[151] times square se ek meal se thodi doori par Lincoln center hai jo duniya ke sabse pratishthit opera haauson mein se ek, metropolitan opera ka kendra hai.[152]

mainahatan bhi duniya ke sabse vyaapak kala sangrah, samakaaleen aur aitihaasik donon, mein se kuchh ka kendra hai jismein metropolitan myoojiym of Art, myoojiym of modern Art (emaoemae (MoMA)), hvitni myoojiym of American Art aur Frank lauyad right dvaara design ki gayi gugenhem myoojiym shaamil hai.

metropolitan myoojiym of Art ka baahari hissa.

mainahatan, gair-nivaasiyon dvaara New York shahar se sabse kareeb se juda hue nagar hai; yahaan tak ki New York shahar ke baahari nagaron ke kuchh nivaasi mainahatan ki yaatra ko "going tu the city" (arthaat shahar ki yaatra) ke roop mein varnan kareinge.[153]

kai ameriki muhaavaron mein is nagar ka ek alag sthaan hai. vaakyaansh "A New York minute" ka arth bahut kam samay, kabhi-kabhi atishyoktipoorn roop mein, jaise - "aapko jitna sambhav lage shaayad usase adhik tej" hai. yeh mainahatan mein jeevan ki tej gati ko sandarbhit karta hai.[154] shabd "melting paut" ko sabse pehle lokapriytaapoorvak Israel jaigavil ke naatak the melting paut mein loar East side ki ghani janasankhya vaale aapravaasi padosi kshetron ka varnan karne ke liye prayog mein laaya gaya tha, jo 1908 mein New York shahar mein jaigavil dvaara sthaapit William sheksapeeyar ke romiyo end jooliyt ka ek roopaantaran tha.[155] prateekaatmak flaitirn bhavan ko vaakyaansh "23 skidoo" ya sunn ka srot maana jaata hai, jisse police unalogon par chillaate the jo tribhujaakaar bhavan dvaara nirmit havaaon se udne waali mahilaaon ke kapadon ki jhalak dekhne ki koshish karte the.[156] "big epal" 1920 ke dashak ki puraani yaadein taaja kar deta hai, jab ek samvaadadaata ne New York shahar ke resatraik ke sandarbh mein new orliyans bandargaah par kaam karne vaalon ke munh se is shabd ko suna aur apne resing column ka naam "araaund the big epal" rakh diya. jaij sangeetakaaron ne is shahar ko duniya ki jaij rajdhani ke roop mein sandarbhit karne ke liye is shabd ko apnaaya aur New York kanveinshan evam vijitrs bureau dvaara 1970 ke dashak mein chalaae gaye ek vigyaapan abhiyaan ne is shabd ko lokapriyta pradaan karne mein madad ki.[157]

khel

maidisn square garden reinjars, niks aur librti ka ghar hai.

aaj, mainahatan enaechael (NHL) ke New York reinjars, dablyooenabeee (WNBA) ke New York librti aur enabeee (NBA) ke New York niks ka ghar hai jinmein se sabhi apne-apne ghareloo khelon ko maidisn square garden mein khelte hain jo nagar ka ekamaatr peshevar khel ka maidaan hai. New York jets ne apne ghareloo kshetr ke liye ek vest side stadium ka prastaav rakha lekin ant mein is prastaav ko June 2005 mein naamanjoor kar diya gaya jisse unhein new jersey ke East radaraford ke jaayants stadium se hi santosh karna pada.

aaj, mainahatan New York shahar ka ekamaatr aisa nagar hai jahaan peshevar besabaul frainchaaij naheen hai. the bronks ke paas yaankeej aur kveens ke paas major league besabaul ka mets hai. maainar league besabaul ka brookaleen saaiklons, brookaleen mein khelta hai, jabki stetan dweep ka yaankeej, stetan dweep mein khelta hai. fir bhi New York shahar mein khelne vaale chaar mein se teen pramukh league teemon ne mainahatan mein khel ka pradarshan kiya. New York jaayants ne 1883 mein apni sthaapana se lekar 1957 ke satr ke baad brookaleen daujars ke saath pashchim ka netrutv karne taka—a1889 ko chhodkar jab unhonne apni team ko jersey city aur stetan aailaind mein vibhaajit kar diya tha aur jab unhonne 1911 mein hiltaup park mein khela tha—155th street aur aitth evenyoo mein polo graaunds ke vibhinn upalakshya mein apne khel ka pradarshan kiya tha.[158] New York ke yaankeej ne hiltaup park, jahaan unhonne 1903 mein apne nirmaan se lekar 1912 tak khela tha, ke naam par hiltaupars ke roop mein apne frainchaaij ki shuruaat ki. is team ne 1913 ke satr se polo graaunds ki taraf rukh kiya, jahaan unhein aadhikaarik taur par New York yaankeej naam diya gaya aur 1923 mein haarlem nadi ke kinaare yaanki stadium ki mein sthaanaantarit hone tak ve vaheen rahe.[159] New York mets ne 1962 aur 1963 mein polo graaunds mein apne khel ka pradarshan kiya jo 1964 mein shiya stadium ke bankar taiyaar hone se pehle ka unka pehla do satr tha.[160] mets ke chale jaane ke baad April 1964 mein polo graaunds ko dhvast kar diya gaya aur usaki jagah saarvajanik aavaas ne le li.[161][162]

naishanal inaviteshan tournament naamak pratham raashtreeya mahaavidyaalaya star ke baasketabaul championship ka aayojan 1938 mein New York mein kiya gaya aur yeh abhi bhi shahar mein kaayam hai.[163] New York niks ne naishanal baasketabaul association ke mool teemon mein se ek ke roop mein 1946 mein khelna shuroo kiya aur maidisn square garden ko apna sthaayi thikaana banaane se pehle unhonne 69th rejimeint aarmari mein apne pehle ghareloo khel khele.[164] dablyooenabeee (WNBA) ke New York librti ne league ke mool aath teemon mein se ek ke roop mein 1997 mein apne nirmaan ke baad se niks ke saath garden ka saajha kiya hai.[165] haarlem ka rakar park, khel ke maidaan ka ek praangan hai jo khel ki apni street baul shaili ke liye prasiddh hai, jahaan garmiyon ke league mein enabeee (NBA) ke kai ethaleeton ne apne khel ka pradarshan kiya hai.[166]

haalaanki New York shahar ke donon football team aaj ke samay mein hadasan nadi ke kinaare new jersey ke East radaraford ke jaayants stadium mein khelte hain, lekin donon teemon ne polo graaunds se hi khelna shuroo kiya tha. New York jaayants ne 1925 mein naishanal football league mein pravesh karne ke samay se lekar 1956 mein yaanki stadium mein pahunchane tak apne isi naam ke saath besabaul bhi khela.[167] New York jets, jinhein mool roop se taaitans ke naam se jaana jaata hai, ne 1960 mein polo graaunds se shuruaat ki aur 1964 mein kveens mein mets se judne se pehle chaar satron tak ve vaheen rahe.[168]

raashtreeya hockey league ke New York reinjars ne 1926-1927 ke satr mein apni sthaapana ke baad se maidisn square garden ke vibhinn sthaanon mein apne khel ka pradarshan kiya hai. reinjars ko New York amerikns ne peechhe chhod diya, jinhonne pichhle satr se garden mein khelna shuroo kiya tha aur 1941–1942 enaechael (NHL) satr ke baad team ke samaapt hone tak ve vaheen rahe, is satr mein unhonne brookaleen amerikns ke roop mein garden mein apne khel ka pradarshan kiya tha.[169]

North American saukar league ke New York kausmos ne 1974 mein apni sthaapana ke baad do satron tak Downing stadium mein apne ghareloo khel khele. 1975 mein, team ne 45 lakh dollar ke ek anubandh par pele, jinhein FIFA (FIFA) dvaara aadhikaarik taur par duniya ka sabse mahaan football khilaadi ke roop mein darj kiya gaya tha, ko anubandhit kar liya jinhein dekhne ke liye 22,500 darshakon ki ek bheed jama ho gayi, unke netrutv mein team ne 2-0 se jeet haasil ki.[170] lekin Downing stadium ke khel ke maidaan ka pitch aur vahaan ki suvidhaaen bhayaanak sthiti mein the aur choonki team ki lokapriyta mein bhi vruddhi ho gayi thi, isliye ve bhi yaanki stadium ki taraf ravaana ho gaye aur fir vahaan se jaayants stadium ke liye ravaana hue. 45 lakh dollar ki laagat aur 4,754 seaton ki suvidha vaale aaikaahn stadium ki nirmaan ka raasta saaf karne ke liye is stadium ko 2002 mein dhvast kar diya gaya. is nae stadium mein olympic ke star ka 400 meter lamba ek daud maarg hai aur pele evam kausmos ki viraasat ke hisse ke roop mein ismein FIFA (FIFA) dvaara anumodit ek fladalit football stadium hai jahaan lagbhag 48 yuva teemon ke liye maichon ka aayojan hota hai. ye yuva team mainahatan ke ek saukar club ke sadasya hain.[171][172]

media

mainahatan mein New York shahar ke pramukh dainik samaachaar patra sevaarat hai, jinmein the New York times, New York daily news aur New York post shaamil hain, jinmein se sabhi ka mukhyaalaya isi nagar mein hain. desh ka sabse bada vitteeya samaachaar-patra, the Wall street journal, bhi yaheen sthit hai. anya dainik samaachaar-patron mein eem (AM) New York aur the vilejar shaamil hain. haarlem mein sthit the New York emstardam news, sanyukt raajya America ke pramukh afreeki ameriki saaptaahik samaachaar-patron mein se ek hai. the vilej vauyas, is nagar mein sthit ek pramukh vaikalpik saaptaahik samaachaar-patra hai.[173]

New York mein TV udyog viksit hua aur yeh shahar ki arthavyavastha ka ek mahatvapoorn niyokta hai. chaar pramukh ameriki prasaaran network - ABC (ABC), CBS (CBS), fauks aur enabeesi (NBC) mein se sabhi ka mukhyaalaya mainahatan mein hain aur yahaan ke kai kebal channelon mein emaesaenabeesi (MSNBC), emateevi (MTV), fauks news, echabeeo (HBO) aur Comedy sentral shaamil hain. 1971 mein, dablyooelaaaibi (WLIB) New York ka aisa pehla radio station bana jiska maalik kaale logon ki jaati ka tha aur saath mein yeh inar city braudakaasting kaurporeshan ke mukut ka ratn bhi tha. inar city ke ek sah-sansthaapak parsi satan the, jo mainahatan nagar ke ek poorv raashtrapati aur lambe samay se shahar ke kaale logon ke sabse shaktishaali netaaon mein se ek the.[174] dablyooelaaaibi (WLIB) ne 1949 mein afreeki ameriki samudaaya ke liye prasaaran karna shuroo kiya aur naagrik adhikaaron ke netaaon, jaise - maalakaulm ex, ka niyamit saakshaatkaar liya aur enaeeseepi (NAACP) ke sammelanon se seedha prasaaran kiya. prabhaavashaali dablyookyooechati (WQHT), jise haut 97 ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai, sanyukt raajya America ka Premier hip-haup station hone ka daava karta hai. dablyooenavaaisi (WNYC), jismein ek eem (AM) aur efem (FM) signal shaamil hai, ke shrotaaon ki sankhya desh mein sabse adhik hai aur mainahatan mein vaanijyik vijnyaaapanon ya gair-vaanijyik vijnyaaapanon ke liye sabse jyaada ise hi suna jaata hai.[175] samaachaar aur soochana kaaryakramon wala dablyoobeeeaai (WBAI) sanyukt raajya America mein sakriya kuchh samaajavaadi radio stationon mein se ek hai.

sanyukt raajya America ka sabse puraana saarvajaanik abhigm teleevijn channel, mainahatan nebarahood network hai jiski sthaapana 1971 mein hui thi aur jo udaar sthaaneeya kaaryakram prastut karta hai jismein shram muddon ki charcha ko lekar ek ghanton tak chalne waali gapashap se lekar videshi bhaasha aur dhaarmik kaaryakram bhi shaamil hain.[176] enavaai1 (NY1), jo ki time Warner kebal ka sthaaneeya samaachaar channel hai, ko city hall aur raajya ki raajaneeti ke beet coverage ke liye jaana jaata hai.

aavaasan

mainahatan ke shuroo ke dinon mein, lakdi ke bane bhavanon ki adhikta hone aur jal aapoorti ki badatar haalat ki vajah se shahar aag ki chapet mein aa jaata tha. 1776 mein, mainahatan se kauntineintal sena ke prasthaan aur british ke haathon mein is nagar ke aa jaane ke turant baad nagar mein ek bhayaanak aag lag gayi thi jismein shahar ka ek-tihaai hissa aur lagbhag 500 makaan nasht ho gaye the.[177]

traai-be-ka mein loft apaartameints

20veen sadi ki samaapti ke aaspaas aapravaasan mein vruddhi hone se mainahatan ke pramukh hisse, khaas taur par loar East side, haal mein aane vaale logon se khachaakhach bhar gaya jahaan ke asvaasthyakar aur gande makaan aapravaasiyon se bhar gaye. vaasagruh aam taur par paanch-manjila oonchi hoti thi jinhein tatkaaleen aadarsh roop 25x100 ke hisaab se nirmit kiya gaya tha, jahaan ke "tilchatta svaami" in nae aapravaasiyon ka shoshan karte the.[178][179] 1929 tak aavaaseeya imaaraton mein sakht se sakht aag sanhita aur lift ke upayog mein hui vruddhi ki prerana se ek nae aavaasan sanhita ka nirmaan hua jiske prabhaavasvarup in puraane vaasagruhon ka ant karke nae sire se nirmaan kaarya shuroo hua, haalaanki inmein se kai vaasagruh imaaratein aaj bhi nagar ke East side mein maujood hain.[179]

aaj, mainahatan saarvajanik aur niji aavaas ke vikalpon ki ek vistrut soochi pradaan karta hai. 2000 ki janaganana ke anusaar mainahatan mein 798,144 aavaaseeya ikaaiyaan thi jinka ausat ghanatv 34,756.7/varg meal (13,421.8/varg kimi) tha.[49] mainahatan ke nivaasiyon mein se keval 20.3% nivaasi maalik ke svaamitv vaale aavaason mein rahate the, jo desh ke sabhi praanton mein se the bronks ke baad doosra sabse kam dar wala praant tha.[102]

aadhaarbhoot suvidhaaen

parivhan

grand central terminal, ek terminal rel station aur ek pramukh shahar bhoomi-chinh.
kolanbas circle metro station shahar ke vyastatam metro stationon mein se ek hai.
inhein bhi dekhein: Transportation in New York City

mainahatan sanyukt raajya America mein saarvajanik parivhan ke atyadhik upayog aur niji car svaamitv ke abhaav ke maamale mein adviteeya hai. jabki desh bhar ke amerikiyon mein se 88% ameriki apne-apne kaamon par apni-apni gaadiyon se jaate hain aur keval 5% ameriki saarvajanik parivhan ka upayog karte hain, lekin jan-maarg hi mainahatan ke nivaasiyon ke liye yaatra ka pradhaan roop hai jiske saath nagar ke nivaasiyon mein se 72% log kaam par jaane ke liye saarvajanik parivhan ka upayog karte hain aur keval 18% log hi apni gaadiyon se jaate hain.[180][181] sanyukt raajya America ki 2000 ki janaganana ke anusaar mainahatan ke parivaaron mein se 75% se adhik parivaaron ke paas gaadi naheen hai.[180]

san 2007 mein, mayor Bloomberg ne ek jamaav moolya vyavastha ka prastaav rakha. raajya vidhaayika ne June 2008 mein prastaav ko khaarij kar diya.[182]

New York city sabave, jo track maailej ke aadhaar par duniya ka sabse bada upamaarg tantr aur stationon ki sankhya ke aadhaar par sabse bada upamaarg hai, jo shahar ke bheetar yaatra ka praathamik saadhan hai aur jo stetan dweep ko chhodkar pratyek nagar ko jodta hai. ek doosare upamaarg ka naam port othoriti traans-hadasan (peeeteeech (PATH)) tantr hai jo mainahatan ko uttari new jersey se jodta hai. yaatrign prati-savaari-bhugataan metro-kaards ki sahaayata se kiraae ka bhugataan karte hain, jo shahar ke sabhi bason aur upamaargon ke saath-saath peeeteeech (PATH) trainon mein bhi vaidh hai. bas ya metro ka ek taraf ka kiraaya 2.25[183] dollar hai aur peeeteeech (PATH) ka kharch 1.75[184] dollar hai. yahaan dainik, 7-divseeya, 14-divseeya aur 30-divseeya metro-kaards ki suvidha upalabdh hai jo sabhi metro (peeeteeech (PATH) ko chhodkar) aur emateee (MTA) bas maargon (express bason ko chhodkar) mein aseemit yaatra ki anumati pradaan karta hai.[185] peeeteeech (PATH) ke liye kvik-card ke nirmaan ki yojana ban rahi hai aur peeeteeech (PATH) evam emateee (MTA) donon metro-card ki jagah "smart card" bhugataan tantron par pareekshan kar rahe hain.[186] mainahatan se aur mainahatan tak parichaalit hone waali dainik yaatri rel seva mein laaaing aailaind rel road (jo mainahatan aur New York shahar ke anya nagaron ko laaaing dweep se jodta hai), metro-North relarod (jo mainahatan ko vestachestar praant aur dakshin-pashchimi Connecticut se jodta hai) aur new jersey ke vibhinn sthaanon ke liye new jersey traanjit train shaamil hai.

emateee (MTA) New York city bas, mainahatan ke bheetar vibhinn prakaar ki sthaaneeya bas seva pradaan karta hai. express bas maargon ka ek vistrut network dainik yaatriyon aur mainahatan jaane vaale anya yaatriyon ko seva pradaan karta hai. bas tantr ne 2004 mein 7400 lakh yaatriyon ko seva pradaan ki jiska desh mein sabse ooncha sthaan tha aur jo doosra sthaan praapt karne vaale loss enjils ki savaari ke duguna se bhi adhik tha.[187]

New York ki prateekaatmak peele rang ki gaadiyaan nagar mein har jagah upalabdh hai jiski sankhya shahar bhar mein 13,087 hai aur iske paas sadak par se logon ko le jaane ka adhikaar pradaan karne wala apekshit padak hona chaahiye.[188] mainahatan mein hajaaron-laakhon cycle yaatri bhi dikhaai dete hain. roojvelt aailaind traamave, uttar America ke do yaatri kebal gaadi tantron mein se ek, paanch minute se bhi kam samay mein yaatriyon ko roojvelt dweep aur mainahatan ke beech ki yaatra karaata hai aur 1978 se dweep ki seva kar raha hai. (uttar America mein anya tantr portalaind eriyl traam hai.)[189][190]stetan aailaind feri, jo ek din mein 24 ghante aur ek saal mein 365 din chaaloo rahata hai, mainahatan aur stetan dweep ke beech prati varsh 190 lakh se bhi adhik yaatriyon ko 5.2 meal (8.4 kimi) ki yaatra karaata hai. pratyek kaarya-diwas ko paanch naav lagbhag 65,000 yaatriyon ko 110 baar yaatra karaate hain.[191][192] yeh naav seva 1997 se kiraaya-mukt hai, jab tatkaaleen 50 seint ke kiraae ko samaapt kar diya gaya.[193]

pen station, jo New York shahar ka ek pramukh niyamit yaatri rel kendra hai, pratyaksh roop se maidisn square garden ke neeche hai.

metro kshetr ki yaatri rel laainein, midtaaun mainahatan ke pashchim aur poorv disha mein kramash: pen station aur grand sentral terminal ki taraf jaati hain. ye sanyukt raajya America ke do sabse vyast rel station hain. desh mein jan maarg ka istemaal karne vaale logon ka lagbhag ek-tihaai hissa aur rel yaatriyon ka do-tihaai hissa New York aur iske upanagaron mein rahate hain.[194] aimatraik, pen station se Boston, filaadelfiya, baalteemor, di.si. ke Washington, new England ke apastet New York, tak antar-shahari yaatri rel seva aur Toronto evam mauntriyl tatha south evam midvest ke anchalon tak seema-paar seva pradaan karta hai.

Lincoln surang, jo new jersey aur mainahatan ke beech hadasan nadi ke neeche ek din mein 120,000 vaahanon ka bojh vahan karta hai, duniya ka sabse vyast vaahan surang hai.[195] New York bandargaah se mainahatan ke bandaragaahon ke liye hadasan ki taraf ravaana hone vaale bade-bade yaatri aur maalavaahi jahaajon ke liye ek abaadhit maarg ki suvidha pradaan karne ke liye ek setu ki jagah is surang ka nirmaan kiya gaya tha. kveens midtaaun surang, jise mainahatan ko kveens aur brookaleen se jodne vaale setuon ki bheed ko kam karne ke liye banaaya gaya tha, apne samay ki sabse badi gair-sangheeya pariyojana thi jab yeh surang 1940 mein bankar taiyaar hua.[196] raashtrapati Franklin di. roojvelt hi sabse pehle vyakti the jinhonne isse hokar gaadi se yaatra ki thi.[197]

efdeeaar (FDR) drive aur haarlem rivr drive seemit upayog vaale do maarg hain jo East nadi ke kinaare mainahatan ke poorv disha mein sthit hai aur jiska design New York ke vivaadaaspad maahir yojanaakaar Robert moses ne banaaya tha.[198]

mainahatan mein teen saarvajanik helikauptar-adde hain. yooes helikauptar ne 2009 mein vyavasaaya se baahar hone se pehle daaunataaun mainahatan heliport ko kveens mein John ef. kainedi intaranaishanal airport se aur new jersey mein nevaark librti intaranaishanal airport se jodne waali niyamit roop se nirdhaarit helikauptar seva pradaan ki.[199]

New York mein desha ka sabse bada saaf-hava deejl-sankar aur sanpeedit praakrutik gas bas samooh hai. iske paas pehli sankar taiksiyon mein se kuchh taiksiyaan bhi hai jinmein se adhikaansh mainahatan mein parichaalit hai.[200]

janopayogi sevaaen

poore mainahatan ko gas aur bijli seva, kaunsolideted edisn dvaara pradaan ki jaati hai. kaun edisn ke bijli vyavasaaya ka mool Thomas edisn ki edisn ilektrik ilyumineting company hai jo bijli seva pradaan karne vaale niveshak ke svaamitv waali pehli company hai. company ne 4 sitmbar 1882 ko apne parl street station se loar mainahatan ke ek varg meal kshetr mein 800 laait balbon ke saath 59 graahakon ko 110 volt ka pratyaksh vidyut dhaara (deesi (DC)) pradaan karne ke liye ek generator ka istemaal karke apni seva pradaan karni shuroo ki.[201] kaun edisn duniya ke sabse bade jila vaashp tantr ka parichaalan karta hai jismein 105 meal (169 kimi) tak faile vaashp pipe shaamil hai aur lagbhag 1,800 mainahatan graahakon ko ooshma, garm jal aur vaataanukoolan[202] ke liye vaashp pradaan karta hai.[203] kebal seva, time Warner kebal dvaara aur telephone seva, verijon kamyunikeshans dvaara pradaan ki jaati hai, haalaanki eti end ti (AT&T) bhi upalabdh hai.

do khaare jal ki nadiyon se ghire mainahatan mein svachh jal ki seemit aapoorti thi. ameriki kraantikaari yuddh ke baad shahar mein teji se vruddhi hone ke kaaran aapoorti ghat gayi. badhti janasankhya ki maang ko poora karne ke liye shahar ne vestachestar praant mein bhoomi ka adhigrahan kiya aur vahaan krotan ekvedakt tantr ka nirmaan kiya jisne 1842 mein seva pradaan karna shuroo kiya. yeh tantr krotan nadi ke ek baandh se jal lekar haai pul ke raaste haarlem nadi ke oopar the bronks se hote hue sentral park aur 42nd street evam fifth evenyoo ke bhandaaran jalaashayon mein aur dhalava lohe ke paaipon ke ek sanjaal ke maadhyam se upabhokta ke naalon tak bhejata tha.[204]

aaj, New York shahar ka paryaavaran sanrakshan vibhaag kaitaskil parvaton mein 2,000 varg meal (5,180 varg kimi) tak faile jalotsaaran kshetr dvaara poshit nivaasiyon ko jal upalabdh karaata hai. choonki yeh jalotsaaran kshetr sanyuk raajya America ke sabse bade sanrakshit vanya kshetron mein se ek hai, isliye yahaan praakrutik jal shuddhikran prakriya yathaavat hai. parinaamasvaroop, New York sanyukt raajya America ke ekamaatr paanch pramukh shaharon mein se ek hai jahaan ka jal itna shuddh hai ki saamaanya paristhitiyon mein bhi nal par iski shuddhata ko sunishchit karne ke liye keval kloreen ke prayog ki aavashyakta hoti hai.[205][206] mainahatan mein jal New York city tanal nan. 1 aur tanal nan. 2 se hokar aata hai jo kramash: 1917 aur 1936 mein bankar taiyaar hua tha. 1970 mein shuroo New York city vaatar tanal nan. 3 ka nirmaan kaarya abhi bhi chaaloo hai jo do anya surangon ke liye atiaavashyak sahaayata dene ke saath-saath is tantr ki prati din 1.2 arab gailan ki vartamaan kshamata ko duguna kar dega.[207]

kachara hataane ka daayitv New York shahar ki svachhata vibhaag par hai.[208] shahar ke kachare ke thok bhandaar ko ant mein (new jersey, brookaleen aur kveens mein sthaanaantaran kendron ke maadhyam se) stetan dweep ke fresh kils laindafil ke 2001 mein band ho jaane ke baad se peinsilveniya, varjeeniya, dakshin kairolina aur ohiyo mein mega-danps mein daal diya jaata hai.[209] new jersey ke sthaanaantaran sthalon par sansaadhit kiye jaane vaale kachare ke ek chhote parimaan ko kabhi-kabhi koode-se-oorja ka nirmaan karne vaale kendron mein jalaakar raakh kar diya jaata hai. New York shahar ki tarah new jersey aur greater New York ka adhikaansh kshetr apne kachare ko door-daraaj ke sthaanon mein bhejane mein vishvaas rakhate hain.

shiksha

inhein bhi dekhein: Education in New York City, List of high schools in New York City, evam List of colleges and universities in New York City
New York pablik laaibreri, keindreeya khand, 1897-1911 mein nirmit, kaarer aur hestings, vaastukaar (June 2003).yeh sarvotkrusht pustakaalaya bhavan hai; shahar mein kaheen bhi enavaai (NY) pablik laaibreri dvaara istemaal hone vaale anya bhi bhavan hain.

mainahatan mein shiksha, saarvajanik aur niji sansthaanon ki ek vishaal sankhya dvaara pradaan ki jaati hai. nagar mein pablik schoolon ka parichaalan New York shahar ke shiksha vibhaag dvaara kiya jaata hai jo 11 lakh chhaatr-chhaatraaon ki shiksha pradaan karne wala sanyukt raajya America[210] ka sabse pada pablik school system hai.[211]

New York shahar ke sabse-mashahoor pablik haai schoolon mein se kuchh, jaise - stuyavesant haai school, fiyorelo H. la-gaardiya haai school, haai school of fashion indastreej, mari bargatraum haai school, mainahatan center for science end maithametiks, hantar college haai school aur city college ka haai school for maith, science end engineering mainahatan mein sthit hai. baard haai school arli college, jo ki baard college dvaara nirmit ek naya sankar school hai, shahar ke har kshetr se aane vaale chhaatron ko shiksha pradaan karta hai.

mainahatan desh ke sabse pratishthit niji praarambhik schoolon mein se kai schoolon ka ghar hai jinmein upper East side ka breyarale school, daultan school, braauning school, spens school, chaipin school, naaitingal-baimaford school aur kaunveint of the saikrid heart aur upper vest side ka kaulejiyet school aur triniti school shaamil hain. yeh nagar do niji schoolon, mainahatan County school aur United nations intaranaishanal school, ka bhi ghar hai jo desh mein sabse vividh roop mein jaane jaate hain. mainahatan, America ke ekamaatr sarkaari itaalavi ameriki school, la skyuola di'itaaliya ka ghar hai.[212]

2003 ki ganana ke anusaar mainahatan ke 25 varsh se adhik aayu ke nivaasiyon mein se 52.3% nivaasiyon ke paas snaatak ki upaadhi hai jo desh ke sabhi praanton mein paanchavaan sabse ooncha sthaan rakhata hai.[213] san 2005 tak, kul nivaasiyon mein se lagbhag 60% nivaasi college snaatak the aur lagbhag 25% ke paas usase unnat upaadhiyaan thi jo mainahatan ko desh mein bahut adhik shikshit logon ki sabse ghani saandrata vaale kshetron mein se ek ka darja pradaan karta hai.[214]

mainahatan mein vibhinn mahaavidyaalaya aur vishvavidyaalaya hain jinmein New York vishvavidyaalaya (enavaaiyoo (NYU)), Columbia vishvavidyaalaya, koopar union, fordaham vishvavidyaalaya, the jooliyrd school, Berkeley college, the new school aur yeshiva vishvavidyaalaya shaamil hai. anya schoolon mein bank street college of edukeshan, borikuaa college, jooish thiyolaujikl seminaari of America, maireemaaunt mainahatan college, mainahatan school of myujik, metropolitan college of New York, New York insteetyut of technology, pace vishvavidyaalaya, seint jauns vishvavidhyaalaya, school of vijual Arts, tauro college aur union thiyolaujikl seminaari shaamil hain. kai anya niji sansthaanon ne mainahatan mein apni upasthiti ko banaae rakha hai jinmein se the college of new rochel aur prait insteetyut mukhya hain.

city university of New York (seeyooenavaai (CUNY)), jo ki New York shahar nagarapaalika mahaavidyaalaya tantr hai, sanyukt raajya America ka sabse bada shahari vishvavidyaalaya tantr hai, jo 226,000 se adhik degree chhaatr-chhaatraaon aur lagbhag vyask logon ki sankhya ke baraabar vyaavasaayik shiksha praapt kar rahe chhaatr-chhaatraaon ko shiksha pradaan karta hai.[215] New York shahar mein college se snaatak karne vaale chhaatr-chhaatraaon ka ek tihaai hissa seeyooenavaai (CUNY) se snaatak karte hain jahaan New York shahar ke kul college chhaatr-chhaatraaon ke lagbhag aadhe chhaatr-chhaatraaon ka daakhila isi ke sansthaanon mein hota hai. mainahatan mein sthit seeyooenavaai (CUNY) ke varishth mahaavidyaalayon mein shaamil hain: baarook college, city college of New York, hantar college, John J college of kriminl Justice aur seeyooenavaai (CUNY) graijuet center (snaatak ke adhyayanon aur dauktaret ki upaadhi dene wala sansthaan). mainahatan mein sthit ekamaatr seeyooenavaai (CUNY) saamudaayik mahaavidyaalaya, baro of mainahatan kamyuniti college hai.

state university of New York ka pratinidhitv fashion Institute of technology, state university of New York state college of optometri aur stoni Brooke university - mainahatan dvaara kiya jaata hai.

mainahatan dava aur jeevan vigyaan ke prashikshan aur shiksha ka ek vishv kendra hai.[216] sampoorn shahar ko sabhi ameriki shaharon mein naishanal insteetyuts of helth se vaarshik anudaan ki doosari sabse adhik raashi praapt hoti hai,[217] jiska adhikaansh bhaag mainahatan ke shodh sansthaanon mein jaata hai, jinmein memoriyl slon-ketaring Cancer center, raukafelar university, mount sinaai school of medisin, Columbia university college of fijisiyans end sarjans, veel kaurnal college aur New York university school of medisin shaamil hain.

mainahatan ko New York pablik laaibreri ki seva praapt hai, jiske paas desh ke kisi bhi saarvajaanik pustakaalaya tantr ka sabse bada sangrah hai.[218] sentral laaibreri ki paanch ikaaiyon—aamid-mainahatan laaibreri, daunal laaibreri center, the New York pablik laaibreri for the parafaurming Arts, Andrew heeskel brel end tauking book laaibreri aur science, industry end bijnes laaibreri—amein se sabhi mainahatan mein sthit hai.[219] 35 se adhik anya shaakha pustakaalaya nagar mein sthit hai.[220]

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/n' not found. luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/n' not found.

  • loar mainahatan
  • mainahatan ka nirmaan
  • midtaaun mainahatan
  • mainahatan dweep ka vibhaajan
  • upper mainahatan

sandarbh

  1. U.S. Census Bureau press release, "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers New York's 2010 Census Population Totals, ...", March 24, 2011, and this accompanying Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, Table 1. The Most Populous Counties and Incorporated Places in 2010 in New York: 2000 and 2010, which cites "U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File, Table PL1, and ... Table P1.", retrieved on April 2, 2011
  2. County and City Data Book:2007 (U.S. Census Bureau), Table B-1, Area and Population, retrieved on July 12, 2008. New York County (Manhattan) was the nation's densest-populated county, followed by Kings County (Brooklyn), Bronx County, Queens County and San Francisco, California.
  3. American Fact Finder (U.S. Census Bureau): New York by County - Table GCT-PH1. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2000 Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data, retrieved on February 6, 2009
  4. new jersey banaam New York , 523 you.S. 767 (1998). 04-01-2008 ko pun:praapt.
  5. "New York County, New York". Quickfacts.census.gov. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/36/36061.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-05-30.
  6. "U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis". Bea.gov. 2009-04-23. http://www.bea.gov/regional/reis/drill.cfm?table=CA1-3&catable=CA1-3&lc=30&years=2005&rformat=display&areatype=LOCAL&sort=1. abhigman tithi: 2009-05-30.
  7. bairi, dain. "ek raashtra ne chunauti di: New York mein; New York jaari rakhata hai, lekin iske dhairya ka pareekshan abhi-abhi shuroo hua hai", the New York times, 11 October 2001. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "vishv ke vitteeya kendra mein ek garjan shoonya ka nirmaan kiya gaya hai."
  8. soreintino, Christopher. "jab vah satrah ke the", the New York times, 16 sitmbar 2007. 22 December 2007 ko abhigmit. "1980 mein abhi bhi vibhinn daaunataaun kraantiyon ke padachihnon ke avashesh the jisne New York ke sangeet aur kala ko punarjeevit kar diya tha aur isne mainahatan ko usi sthit mein rakha jis sthiti ko usane 1940 ke dashak ke baad se duniya ke saanskrutik kendra ke roop mein praapt kiya tha."
  9. bumilr, elisaabeth. "Pope ki yaatra: kaardinl; Pope ke mahatvapoorn sahayogi ke roop mein, padaanukram mein kaardinl ki chamak jyaada hai", the New York times, 8 October 1995. 18 December 2007 ko abhigmit. "sanyukt raajya America ki media aur saanskrutik kendra ke aarkabishp ke roop mein kaardinl O'kaunar ka Catholic dharmaadhyakshon ke beech asaadhaaran shakti hai."
  10. sanyukt raajya America ke kendreeya vyaavasaayik jilein, demograafiya . 18-01-2009 ko praapt.
  11. BarryPopik.com
  12. [http://www.newsday.com/community/guide/lihistory/ny-history-hs216a1v,0,919043.story?coll=ny-lihistory-navigation Robert juet ke journal ka poora paath: New York ki aitihaasik society ke sangrah se, dviteeya shrrunkhala, 1841 laug book], nyoojde . 16-05-2007 ko praapt.
  13. a aa i holove, maargarit. "urban taiktiks; I'l tech mainnaahatta", the New York times, 16 May 2004, 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "vah kalpana kar sakta tha jo kuchh henari hadasan ne 1609 mein dekha tha jab vah mainnaahatta ki yaatra ki thi, jiska arth lenep ki boli mein sanbhavat: kai pahaadiyon ka dweep tha.''' sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Mannahatta" defined multiple times with different content
  14. suleevaan, dau॰ James. "New York raajya ka itihaas: pratham pustak, truteeya adhyaaya", yooesajenanet (USGenNet), 01-05-2007 ko abhigmit. "santoshajanak saboot hai ki jiyovaani da veraajno ne 1524 mein New York ke baahar ke bandargaah ki yaatra ki.
  15. Rankin, Rebecca B., Cleveland Rodgers (1948). New York: the World's Capital City, Its Development and Contributions to Progress. Harper.
  16. "henari hadasan aur unka anveshan" scientific American, 25 sitmbar 1909, 1 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "haalaanki yeh ek vyarth aasha thi aur saja aakhirkaar nidr saahasi ke dil mein hona chaahiye ki ek baar fir vah uttar-pashchim maarg ki apni baar-baar ki khoj mein vifal ho gaya tha. .. agale din "half moon" ne use saindi hook ke bheetar apna langar daalne dena chaahiye. ek dongi, ya chhoti naav ke saath khaadi ki talaash mein saptaah beet gaya aur "do mukhya bhoomikhandon ke beech unhein ek achha pravesh dwaar mil gaya" (nairoj) "aur is prakaar 11 sitmbar ko utani hi sundar nadi mein pravesh kiya jitna sundar yeh ho sakta tha.""
  17. dach upanivesh, naishanal park service. 19 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "vest India company dvaara praayojit, aaj ke mainahatan mein ek upanivesh ki sthaapana karne 1624 mein uttar America mein 30 parivaar pahunche."
  18. gavarnars dweep par tolareins park ka aitihaasik new emstardam, tolareins park. 12 May 2007 ko abhigmit. lejisletiv rijolyooshans senate nan. 5476 aur assembly nan. 2708 dekhein.
  19. shahar ki mohar aur jhanda, New York city, 13 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "dinaank: kshaitij laurel shaakha ke neeche 1625 ki taareekh, jo new emstardam ki sthaapana ki saal hai."
  20. IISG.nl
  21. Nevius, Michelle; Nevius, James (2009), Inside the Apple: A Streetwise History of New York City, Free Press, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 141658997X, http://www.insidetheapple.net
  22. Williams, jaismin ke. "New York - the empaayar states", the New York post, 22 November 2006. 19 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "1647 mein, dach neta Peter stuyavesant upanivesh ke vyaapt aparaadh ko samaapt karne aur vyavastha bahaal karne ke liye pahunche."
  23. parishd ke baare mein, New York shahar parishd 18 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  24. New York raajya ka itihaas, New York raajya vibhaag, 29 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "...yaurk ke Duke ke sammaan mein New York naam diya gaya hai."
  25. grifis, William iliyt. "the story of new Netherland" chaiptar XV: the faul of new Netherland, hyootan miflin company, 1909. "dhaarmik maamalon mein, samarpan-patra ke anuchhed aath mein likha tha, "dach daivik poojan aur church ke shaasan mein apne vivek ki svatantrata ka aanand uthaaenge.""
  26. gavarnars dweep par tolareins park ka aitihaasik new emstardam, tolareins park. 26 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  27. fort Washington park, New York shahar udyaan aur manoranjan vibhaag. 18 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  28. "haippi ivaakyooeshan de", New York shahar udyaan evam manoranjan vibhaag, 23 November 2005. 18 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  29. the naais kaipitls of the United states. United states senate historikl ofis. 9 June 2005 ko abhigmit. fortenabaugh, Robert, the naain kaipitls of the United states, par aadhaarit, yaurk, PA: maipal press, 1948...
  30. bleyar, sinthiya. "1858: sentral park opeins", nyoojde . 29 May 2007 ko abhigmit. 1853 aur 1856 ke beech, nagar aayukton ne sentral park ka nirmaan karne ke liye fifth aur aitth evenyoo ke beech 59th street se 106th street tak 700 ekad (2.8 kimi2) se bhi adhik bhookhand khareed liya, jo desha ka pehla saarvajanik udyaan ke saath-saath iska pehla bhoo-drushya wala udyaan hai."
  31. reebkajeenski, vitold. saaaincha:Waybackdate, smithsoniyn (maigajeen), July 2003. 29 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "1876 tak, bhoo-drushya designer fredarik law olmsted aur vaastukaar kailvart vauks ne haarlem aur midtaaun mainahatan ke beech ki daladali, vruksharahit 50 blaukon ko sanyukt raajya America ke pratham bhoo-drushya vaale udyaan mein roopaantarit kar diya tha."
  32. ward, jyaufri si. "gaings of New York", kevin bekar dvaara pairaadaaij eli ki ek sameeksha, the New York times, 6 October 2002. 20 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "New York ke masaude ke dange ameriki itihaas mein sabse badatar naagrik ashaanti ke roop mein kaayam hai: itihaasakaar edriyn cook ke anusaar, 119 logon ke maare jaane ki khabar hai jinmein se jyaadaatar dangaaiyon ya tamaashabeenon ko vyavastha ko bahaal karne ke liye yuddhakshetr se vaapas laaya gaya tha jo us vakt itne kareeb aa gaye the jab sangheeya sainya tukadiyon ne goliyaan chalaana shuroo kiya tha."
  33. staichoo of librti, naishanal park service. 17 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  34. "new jersey nivaasi' svatantrata ka daava karte hain, mainne inkaar kar diya", the New York times, 6 October 1987. 20 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "Supreme court ne aaj ek new yaurkar ke roop mein iski sthiti ke staichoo of librti se vanchit karne se inkaar kar diya. court ne bina tippani ke hi new jersey ke nivaasiyon ke raajya ke liye bhoomi-chinh par adhikaar ka daava karne ke liye do new jersey ke nivaasiyon ke prastaav ko khaarij kar diya."
  35. mesi junior, Harry. paanch-nagar shahar: puraane shaharon, kasbon aur gaanvon, jo "greater New York" ka gathan karne ke liye ekajut hue, se pehle, the enavaaiji end bi (NYG&B) nyoojletar se New York jiniylaujikl end baayograafikl society, winter 1998, 29 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "1683 mein jab New York ilaake ko pehli baar praanton mein vibhaajit kiya gaya, tab New York shahar bhi New York praant ban gaya... 1874 mein is vruddhi ko anukool banaane ke liye New York shahar aur praant ko vestachestar praant se adhikrut kar liya gaya jo ab pashchimi bronks hai... 1895 mein New York shahar ne poorvi bronks par kabja kar liya."
  36. harmaleen, Gary aur ultan, lauyad. bronks history: A jenaral sarve New York pablik laaibreri. 26 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  37. ches-dan, Christopher aur maining, susain. "city sistams end world-sistams: for mileniya of city growth end diklaain", California vishvavidyaalaya, rivrasaaid insteetyut faur research on world-sistams. 17 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "New York, jo 1925 tak landan ko maat dete hue duniya ka sabse bada shahar ban gaya..."
  38. rojenabarg, Jennifer. traaiaingal shartavest factory mein lagi aag, About.com. 17 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  39. Allen, Oliver E. (1993). "Chapter 9: The Decline". The Tiger – The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100781540. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-25.
  40. "stuyavesant kasbe ko aaj iske pehle kiraaedaar milne vaale hain," the New York times, 1 August 1947. prushth 19
  41. beharans, David. "vishv laaaing dweep mein seemit ho gaya: chhote se lek gaanv ne sanyut raashtra mein shubhaarambh ek bahut badi bhoomika nibhaai", nyoojde . 29 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "1951 ke vasant mein, sanyukt raashtra mainahatan ke East nadi ke kinaare apne maujooda ghar mein sthaanaantarit ho gaya."
  42. haibaramain, klaaid. "jeevit vitteeya sankat (aur disco)", the New York times, 25 January 1998. 29 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  43. jeetj, joshuaa. "New York shahar kagaar par", American heritej (maigajeen), 26 November 2005. 29 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  44. faayaraston, David. "is baar, New York shahar bilkul akela hai", the New York times, 18 May 1995. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit.
  45. hairis, paul. "kaise New York ki sankari galiyon ko anukool banaaya gaya", the gaarjiyn, 15 January 2006. 29 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "badli hui rananeetiyon ke saath krik epidemik mein giraavat I jo assi ke dashak mein shahar mein fail gaya tha. nabbe ke dashak tak police ne deelaron ko galiyon se bhaga diya tha aur is prakaar nasheeli dava sambandhi hinsa kam ho gayi... aankade khud bataate hain. 1990 mein 2,245 New York vaasiyon ki hatya kar di gayi. pichhle saal yeh sankhya 537 thi, jo 40 saalon mein sabse kam sankhya thi."
  46. hevesi, denis. "shahar ke adhikaansh bhaag mein ek majaboot baajaar", the New York times, 16 March 1997. 29 June 2009 ko abhigmit.
  47. nagaron aur tatsanbandhi seemaaon mein New York shahar ki prashaasanik sanhita ki dhaara 2-202 vibhaajan - nagaron aur tatsanbandhi seemaaon mein vibhaajan., lauyar research center. 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "mainahatan nagar New York praant naamak kshetr se milkar banega jismein aam taur par maarbal hil ke naam se jaane jaane vaale bhoomi ke us bhaag sahit aur unnees sau chauraasi ke kaanoonon ke adhyaaya nau sau ikatees ke anusaar sabhi prayojanon ke liye New York praant aur mainahatan nagar ke bheetar bhaagon samet aur fir mainahatan dweep, gavarnars dweep, bedalos dweep, Alice dweep, Franklin di. roojvelt dweep, randaals dweep aur oistar dweep naamak dweep sahit shahar aur raajya ke ve sabhi bhaag shaamil honge..."
  48. a aa New York kaise kaam karta hai, how staf varks, 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "dweep ka kshetrafal 22.7 varg meal (58.8 varg kimi), lambaai 13.4 meal (21.6 kilometer) aur (iske sabse chaude sthaan par) chaudaai 2.3 meal (3.7 kilometer) hai."
  49. a aa i nyooyaurka—aasthaan evam praant upakhand, sanyukt raajya America janaganana bureau. 01-05-2007 ko pun:praapt.
  50. a aa gre, Christopher. "sadak-drushya: spuyaten duyavil swing pul; shahar ki jeevan-rekha ki ek kadi ka pun:sthaapan". the New York times, 6 March 1988. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "canal" defined multiple times with different content
  51. Cudahy, Brian J. Cudahy (1990). Over and Back: The History of Ferryboats in New York Harbor. Fordham University Press. pa॰ 25.
  52. Gillespie, Angus K. (1999). Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center. Rutgers University Press. pa॰ 71.
  53. Iglauer, Edith (November 4, 1972). "The Biggest Foundation". The New Yorker.
  54. eesaelae (ASLA) 2003 the laindamaark award, American society of laindaskep aarkitekts. 17 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  55. 3 April 1807 ke adhiniyam ke tahat New York shahar mein galiyon aur sadkon ka jaal bichhaane ke liye aayukton ki sameekshaaen, kaurnel vishvavidyaalaya. 2 May 2007 ko abhigmit. gali number pandrah, jo ek sau feet chaudi hai, ko chhodkar ye sabhi galiyaan, arthaat gali number chaudah, ikkees, chautees, bayaalees, sattaavan, bahattar, unaasi, chhiyaasi, chhiyaanabe, ek sau chh:, ek sau solah, ek sau pachchees, ek sau paintees, ek sau paintaalees aur ek saur pachapan, saat feet chaudi hai aur unke beech ke block ya sthaan ki doori saamaanyat: lagbhag do sau feet hai.
  56. a aa silvaramain, Justin rocket. shahar ke drushya mein khushamijaaj aanand", nyoojde, 27 May 2006. "mainahatanaheinj ravivaar ke din hota hai jab shahari yojana aur khagol bhautiki ke ek sukhad sanyog ke parinaamasvaroop soorya nagar mein 14vein street ke pratyek poorv-pashchim sadak ke saath bilkul pankti roop mein hota hai. stonaheinj, jo greeshmakaaleen sankraanti soorya ke saath pratyaksh roop se sanrekhan mein hota hai, ki tarah "mainahatanaheinj" imaaraton ke beech ek sahi sanrekhan mein utaarate hue soorya ko pakad leta hai. sthaaneeya ghatna ek varsh mein do baar, 28 May aur 12 July ko, hota hai...
  57. mainahatan grid ke 34vein street par sooryaast, naicharal history (maigajeen) special feechara—aasiti of stars. 4 sitmbar 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  58. senft, bret. "yadi aap ismein/traai-be-ka mein rahane ke baare mein soch rahe hain; parivaar parivartan ke mukhya srot hain", the New York times, 26 sitmbar 1993. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "parivaaron ne is traaiaingal bilo canal street mein parivartan ke mukhya srot ke roop mein vaanijya ko peechhe chhod diya hai (haalaanki keval traaiaingal hi yahaan iska dil hai: chaimbars street par vest braudave ko apne uttar disha mein kainal ke saath milaane waali hadasan street) ... 70 ke dashak ke madhya ke bilkul aarambh mein kalaakaaragan faishanebal so-ho (south of haaustin) se sharan lene lage."
  59. kohen, jauis. "yadi aap ismein/nolita mein rahane ke baare mein soch rahe hain; little Italy ka ek sampannasheel tukada", the New York times, 17 May 1998. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "kisi ko bhi is baat ka poora pakka vishvaas naheen ki is kasbe ke is hisse ko kya kehkar bulaaya jaae. nolitaa—aalitil Italy ke uttar mein, arthaat—aabhaugolik drushti se ise nishchit roop se sahi nirdhaarit karta hai. kshetr ko kam se kam ek chhota sa nishaan pradaan karne ki maang karne vaale achal sampatti ke dalaalon dvaara kai saal pehle jaahir taur par asampoorn aadivrnik shabd ko gadha gaya."
  60. pits, David. ameriki daak ticket sammaan ka haarlem laingstan Hughes, sanyukt raajya America ka raajya vibhaag. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "haarlem, ya niyoo haarlem, kyonki yahi mool naam tha, ko dach ne mool amerikiyon se niyantran praapt karne ke baad 1658 mein sthaapit kiya tha. unhonne nedaralainds ke haarlem naamak shahar ke naam par iska naamakaran kiya."
  61. brooni, Frank. "the graaunds hi staimpd: the New York of ginsabarg", the New York times, 7 April 1997. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "daraasal, shri ginsabarg ko praapt sabhi vishvavyaapi dhyaan ke liye ve hamesha se mukh roop se daaunataaun mainahatan ke ek praani aur prateek the, unka vishv drushya iski raajaneetik aur laingik bhaavanaaon ki kathin pareeksha mein nirmit hua tha, unka anokhaapan iske anokhe demimond se poshit tha, unka vyaktigat mithk bohemiya ke East gaanv ke mithk se juda tha jismein unhonne apna ghar nirmit kiya. hi imabaudeed the East vilej aur the loar East side, bill morgan, ek dost aur shri ginsabarg ka puraalekhapaal, ne kal kaha."
  62. Dunlop, David dablyoo. "new Chelsea ke kai chehare", the New York times, 13 November 1994. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "gay Chelsea ki bhoomika ka thosakaran hua hai aur saath mein A difreint laait kitaabon ki dukaan ka aagaman bhi hua hai jo ek saanskrutik aadhaar hai jise peri street ke paas 548 hadasan street par 800 varg fut (74 mi2) ke ek nukkad mein ek dashak tak sthit tha. ismein ab 151 vest 19th street par 5,000 varg fut (500 mi2) se adhik nihit hai aur lagta hai ki iske pravaasan mein greenavich gaanv se samalaingik purushon ke jeevan ka ek uttaramukhi paari sannihit hai... jiska kaaran Chelsea ki pratishtha tha, shri gaaramendiya ne kaha, akeli mahilaaon ke ismein sthaanaantaran ki sambhaavana naheen thi. lekin akele purushon ne aisa kiya. "70 ke dashak ke dauraan poora pados samalaingik purushon se bhar gaya," unhonne kaha."
  63. graaims, Christopher. "vishv samaachaar: New York ka chaainaataaun 'khatamal' ki chikoti ko mahasoos karna shuroo karta hai", financial times, 14 April 2003. 19 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "New York ka chaainaataaun pashchimi golaardh mein cheeni logon ki sabse bade sankendran ka sthal hai."
  64. chaainaataaun: bhojan, shopping aur itihaas ki duniya, enavaaisi (NYC) end company, 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. New York shahar ki koi yaatra naheen sanyukt raajya America mein sabse badi chaainaataaun ke drushyon, vyanjan, itihaas aur dukaanon ki khoj ke bina poori hai. pashchimi golaardh mein cheeni logon—a150,000—ake sabse bade sankendran daaunataaun mainahatan mein do varg meal vaale ek kshetr mein hain jo nirbaadh roop se lefaayet, varth aur grand sadkon aur East braudave se ghira hai."
  65. upper vest side, enavaaisi (NYC) end company, 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "yeh shahar ke bauddhik, rachanaatmak aur dhani samudaaya ka paaramparik gadh hai, lekin maahaul upper East side ki tarah naheen hai."
  66. maanachitr aur pados - upper East side, enavaaisi (NYC) end company, 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "pados ki hava mein puraane paison, roodhivaadi moolyon aur aakarshak krutrimta ki sugandh faili hui hai jiske saath shaimpen ki dhakkan khulati hai aur uchch samaaj ritj ka pradarshan karta hai."
  67. poorv kuleenon ki jeevan shailiyon ke liye upper East side ka paribhraman, ameriki samaajashaastriya sangathan ke footanots, March 1996, 29 June 2009 ko abhigmit.
  68. petjold, Charles. "mainahatan ke evenyoo vaastavik uttar se kitni door hai?", 30 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "baharahaal, shahar ke raaston ka unmukheekaran mainahatan dweep ki dhuri ke samaanaantar kiye jaane ke liye nirdhaarit kiya gaya tha aur iska vaastavik uttar evam dakshin ke saath keval ek aakasmik sambandh hai. maanachitr jinhein sachche uttar (daayeen taraf ke ek sthal ki tarah) ke liye unmukh kiya gaya hai, dweep ko ek mahatvapoorn jor par dikhaata hai. sach mein, raaste uttar aur dakshin ki tulana mein uttar-pashchim aur dakshin-pashchim ke bahut kareeb se gujarte hain."
  69. Jackson, nainsi beth. "59th street/mein jeevan-yaapan; sone ke pattaron waali svaagat aasan bichhaana", the New York times, 29 August 2004. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "ab chamachamaate tauvaron, gantavya suparamaarketon aur dukaanon se poorv aur pashchim mein susajjit 59vaan street usase kaheen adhik hai jahaan midtaaun apataaun se milti hai."
  70. a aa NYC ki mool baatein, enavaaisi (NYC) end company, 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "daaunataaun (14th street ke neeche) mein greenavich gaanv, so-ho, traai-be-ka aur Wall street ka faaineinsiyl jila shaamil hai."
  71. a aa i E "The Climate of New York". New York State Climate Office. http://nysc.eas.cornell.edu/climate_of_ny.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-27.
  72. Riley, Mary Elizabeth (2006). "Assessing the Impact of Interannual Climate Variability on New York City's Reservoir System" (PDF). Cornell University Graduate School for Atmospheric Science. http://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/1813/2623/1/MER%20Thesis-new.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-29.
  73. "New York shahar ko sheetal rakhana naasa ke ooshma anveshakon ka kaam hai.", Spacedaily.com, 9 fravari 2006. 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "dweep mein shahari garmi ki ghatna khaas taur par garmiyon ki garm havaaon ke dauraan aur un raaton mein sunane ko milti hain jab hava ki gati kam hoti hai aur samudri sameer halaki hoti hai. is avadhi ke dauraan, New York shahar ki hava ka taapamaan aaspaas ke kshetron ki tulana mein 7.2 °afai (−13.8 °ase) ki oonchaai tak badh sakta hai."
  74. "2003 New York shahar chaartar sanshodhan aayog ke matadaan prastaav par report" (peedeeef (PDF)), association of the baar of the city of New York. 11 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "adhikaansh shaharon, jo nirdaleeya chunaav pranaali ka prayog karte hain, ke vipreet New York shahar mein ek bahut hi sashakt mayor pranaali aur 1989 ke chaartar sanshodhan ke baad ek uttarottar shaktishaali shahar parishd hai."
  75. kaurnal law school Supreme court kalekshan: board of esteemet of city of New York varsas mauris, kaurnal law school. 12 June 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  76. mainahatan nagar raashtrapati Scott M. stringar, mainahatan nagar raashtrapati kaaryaalaya. 27 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "Scott M. stringar ne 2006 ki January mein mainahatan ke 26vein nagar raashtrapati ke roop mein shapath li..."
  77. Cyrus aar. veins ki jeevani, New York praant jila ataarni kaaryaalaya. 27 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "ve 1974 tak neeji jeevan mein laut aae, jab unhonne New York praant ke jila attorney ke roop mein chunaav ke liye aath safal boli lagaain."
  78. videshi vaanijya-doot society: hamaare baare mein. 19 July 2006 ko pun:praapt .
  79. mainahatan nagarapaalika bhavan, New York shahar. 29 June 2009 ko abhigmit.
  80. "Election results from the N.Y. Times". Elections.nytimes.com. 2008-12-09. http://elections.nytimes.com/2008/results/president/map.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-05-30.
  81. grogan, Jennifer. chunaav 2004—aapanjeekaran sambhaavana record taadaad mein vruddhi, Columbia university graijuet school of jarnalijm, 25 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "22 October ki samay-seema tak panjeekrut matadaataaon ki kul sankhya ke liye board ke aankadon ke anusaar, mainahatan mein 11 lakh panjeekrut matadaata the jinmein se 727,071 democrat the aur 132,294 Republican the jo 2000 ke chunaav se 26.7 pratishat adhik hai jab 876,120 panjeekrut matadaata the."
  82. raashtrapati—aitihaas: New York praant, hamaare abhiyaan. 1 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  83. 2004 ka aam chunaav: sanyukt raajya America ke raashtrapati aur uparaashtrapati ke kaaryaalaya ke liye matadaataaon ke vaktavya aur pratifl (peedeeef (PDF)), New York shahar chunaav board, dinaank 1 December 2004. 30 April 2008 ko pun:praapt.
  84. raashtreeya avlokan: sheersh jip code 2004 - sabhi ummeedavaaron ke sheersh yogadaanakaari jip code (vyaktigat sangheeya yogadaan ($200+)), paise ka rang. 29 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  85. baseron par abhi bhi bade daataaon ka shaasan hai, pablik kaimpen, press release dinaank 29 October 2004. 18 July 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  86. "daakaghar sthaan - James A faarle." United states postal service. 5 May 2009 ko pun:praapt.
  87. "New York shahar ke mukhya daakaghar ki 24-ghante seva band." associated press . shukravaar 17 April 2009. 5 May 2009 ko pun:praapt.
  88. Christiano, gregari. "the five pauints", arbanograafi. 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  89. vaalsh, John, "the five pauints", garden shahar kshetr ka aayarish saanskrutik samaaj, sitmbar 1994. 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "five pauints basti itni badnaam thi ki isne ummeedavaar Abraham Lincoln ka dhyaan kheench liya jinhein apne koopar union edres se pehle kshetr ka daura kiya."
  90. al kaipon, Chicago itihaas sangrahaalaya. 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "kaipon ka janm 17 January 1899 ko New York ke brookaleen mein hua tha... vah mainahatan ke kukhyaat five pauints gang ka hissa bana aur saragana fainki yel ke Harvard in naamak brookaleen sthit adde mein ek bouncer aur baarateindar ke roop mein kaam kiya.
  91. a aa i jef, erik. saaaincha:Waybackdate, smithsoniyn (maigajeen), April 2007. 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  92. lingan, paitrik A. aur duroj, Matthew aar."New York shahar mein aparaadh mein ullekhaneeya giraavat" (peedeeef (PDF)). sanyukt raajya America nyaaya vibhaag, 21 October 2004. 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  93. a aa jeranski, tod. "efbeei (FBI) ka kehna hai, aparaadh vruddhi ke anusaar enavaaisi (NYC) sabse surakshit shahar hai". Bloomberg news, 12 June 2006. 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  94. 13vein vaarshik sabse surakshit (aur sabse khatarnaak) shahar: oopar se neeche tak kul milaakar 25 shahar, 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  95. maikadaunald, Heather. "New York police: abhi bhi sabse behtar - raashtreeya chalan ko aage badhaate hue, gautham ke aparaadh dar mein lagaataar giraavat. aakhir yahaan kyon." city journal (New York), 2006 ki garami. 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "lekin apne atyadhik shreya ke liye (aur mayor Michael Bloomberg ke shreya ke liye, jinhonne unka samarthan kiya hai) Kelly ne New York ki police kraanti ke kendra ko banaae rakha hai—ajo is samay ka javaabadehi kriyaavidhi hai jise kaump-stait ke naam se jaana jaata hai, jo ek saaptaahik aparaadh-niyantran baithak hai jahaan aala adhikaari seema maalikon se unke aadesh ke pratyek antim vivran ke baare mein prashn poochhate hain—aayahaan tak ki unhonne aparaadh pravruttiyon ka vishlekshan aur usaka javaab dene ki vibhaag ki kshamata ko parishkrut kiya hai."
  96. dakshin mainahatan nagar ki paharedaari — 05/5/2009 se 05/10/2009 tak ki report (peedeeef (PDF)), New York shahar police vibhaag kaump-stait, 30 May 2009. 30 May 2009 ko abhigmit aur dakshin mainahatan nagar ki paharedaari — 04/30/2007 se 05/06/2007 tak ki report (peedeeef (PDF)), New York shahar police vibhaag kaump-stait, 30 May 2009. 30 May 2009 ko abhigmit.
  97. 2000 ki janaganana ke anusaar New York praant ka data, sanyukt raajya America janaganana bureau, 29 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  98. 2000 ki janaganana ke anusaar New York shahar ka data, sanyukt raajya America janaganana bureau, 29 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  99. 2000 ki janaganana ke anusaar New York (raajya) ka data, sanyukt raajya America janaganana bureau, 29 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  100. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. abhigman tithi: 2008-01-31.
  101. "janasankhya ka ghanatv", jiyograafik inafaurmeshan sistams - jeeaaies (GIS) of intarest. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "mujhe jo pata chala vah yeh hai ki janaganana ke janasankhya data mein soocheebaddh 3140 praanton mein se keval 178 praanton mein prati ekad ek vyakti se adhik janasankhya ghanatv vaale praant ke roop mein ganana ki gayi. ismein aashcharya ki koi baat naheen hai ki New York praant (jismein mainahatan shaamil hai) ka janasankhya ghanatv sabse adhik hai jahaan ka jan-ghanatv 104.218 vyakti prati ekad thi."
  102. a aa svaamitv-adhikrut aavaaseeya ikaaiyon ka pratishat, sanyukt raajya America janaganana bureau. 18 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  103. aayu/ling ke aadhaar par New York shahar ki janasankhya ka pratyaalekh evam nagar 2000-2003. New York shahar ka shahar yojana vibhaag, December 2006. 18 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  104. American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "New York County, New York - ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2005–2007". Factfinder.census.gov. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&-tree_id=3307&-redoLog=true&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=05000US36061&-format=&-_lang=en. abhigman tithi: 2009-05-30.
  105. American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "New York County, New York - Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2005–2007". Factfinder.census.gov. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=05000US36061&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR2&-context=adp&-ds_name=&-tree_id=3307&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-format=. abhigman tithi: 2009-05-30.
  106. New York praant mein boli jaane waali bhaashaaen, modern laingvej association. 25 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  107. sahaadi, jiyaan. vruhhattam aayakar bojh: sheersh 10 sthaan, seeenaen (CNN) mani. 28 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  108. nyoomain, jefre L. "sthaaneeya kshetr niji aay ka vyaapak sanshodhan: 2002 ka praarambhik anumaan aur 1969-2001 ka sanshodhit anumaan", sarve of kareint bijnes, June 2004. 29 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "enavaai (NY) ke New York praant (mainahatan) mein prati vyakti vyaktigat aay 84,591 dollar thi jo raashtreeya ausat ka 274 pratishat tha jo sabse adhik tha."
  109. jip code saaraneekaran kshetr 10021, sanyukt raajya America ki varsh 2000 ki janaganana. 27 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  110. yaurk praant, New York, yukt raajya America ki varsh 2000 ki janaganana. 27 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  111. steenahauar, Jennifer. "faaineinsiyl jila mein chhoti-chhoti thele par lagani waali dukaanon aur suparamaarketon ka vistaar", the New York times, 15 April 2005. 11 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  112. New York praant, New York, association of rilijn data aarkivs. 10 sitmbar 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  113. raubarts, saim. "mainahatan ke bachchon ki sankhya mein vruddhi hone se dhani gore parivaaron ka maarg nirdeshan", the New York times, 27 March 2007. 27 March 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  114. maikakinle, jese. "ef. vaai. I. (F.Y.I.): taul. taular.taulest", the New York times, 5 November 1995. prushth CY2. 30 June 2009 ko pun:praapt.
  115. "big spaan project ka aarambh shahar dvaara hua; mainahatan plaaja of brookaleen brij ke traafik se nipatne ke liye fir se banaaya jaaega, keemat 6,910,000 dollar hai, todfod kaaryakram nirdhaarit hai — kshetr ki sadak vyavastha ko bhi ulatafer ka saamana", the New York times, 24 July 1954. prushth 15.
  116. gre, Christopher. "sadak-drushya/park ro bhavan, 15 park ro; 1899 ka ek 'daanav' jiska shahar ki oonchaai par raaj tha", the New York times, 12 March 2000. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit.
  117. gre, Christopher. "sadak-drushya/singar bhavan; ek baar ka sabse ooncha bhavan, lekin 1967 se ek bhoot", the New York times, 2 January 2005. 15 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "41-manjila singar bhavan, jo 1908 mein duniya ka sabse ooncha bhavan tha jab braudave aur librti street mein yeh bankar taiyaar hua, 11 sitmbar 2001 tak hi tha, jo ab tak dhvast hone wala sabse ooncha dhaancha tha. bhavan, ek suruchipoorn beyauks-Arts tauvar, aaranbhik parirkshan aandolan ki sabse dardanaak nukasaanon mein se ek tha jab ise 1967 mein dhvast kar diya gaya.... 1906 mein shuroo hua, singar bhavan mein meenaaron ke ek shahar ke liye flaig ka model shaamil tha jiske saath 1896 ke dhaanche ko aadhaar ke roop mein fir se banaaya gaya aur 65 foot vargaakaar ek shaaft ki oonchaai 612 fut (187 mi) thi, bilkul oopar choti par ek ubhada hua mansard aur daityaakaar laalaten thi."
  118. gre, Christopher. "sadak-drushya/1 maidisn evenyoo par mahaanagareeya jeevan; bahut kam samay ke liye, duniya ka sabse ooncha bhavan", the New York times, 26 May 1996. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit.
  119. Dunlop, David dablyoo. "kondos tu top vaunted tauvar of voolavarth", the New York times, 2 November 2000. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit.
  120. "sabse lambe bhavan ke badalne ki yojanaaon se inkaar; staaret ka kehna hai ki bank of mainahatan ki oonchaai ko us had tak naheen badhaaya gaya ki vah krislar ko maat de sake.", the New York times, 20 October 1929. prushth 14.
  121. record samay mein bank of mainahatan ka nirmaan hua; dhaanche ki oonchaai 927 fut (283 mi) hai, jo duniya ka doosra sabse ooncha bhavan hai, kaarya ke varsh mein khada kiya gaya hai." the New York times, 6 May 1930. prushth 53.
  122. gre, Christopher. "sadak-drushya: krislar bhavan: soorya ke saamane gaganachumbi ka sthaan", the New York times, 17 December 1995. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "tab krislar aur vaan Allen ne is baar 40 Wall street par khadi tatkaaleen 921 fut (281 mi) tauvar ke saath oonchaai ki pratiyogita ko jeetne ke uddeshya se fir se design ko sanshodhit kiya. seedheeyon se dhuna nikalne ke uddeshya se vishaal vargaakaar fire-tauvar shaaft ko ek machaan kshetr ke roop mein istemaal karte hue ise gupt roop se kiya gaya. shaaft ke andar, vaan Allen ke paas shramikon ke dal the jinhonne 185 foot oonche shikhar ki rooparekha ko ekatrit kiya jab 1929 ke patan mein jagah mein uth gaya aur jisse krislar bhavan ka nirmaan hua jo duniya ka sabse ooncha bhavan tha jiski oonchaai 1046 feet 4.75 inch thi.
  123. "oonchaai ke liye hone waali pratidvandvita ka ant hote dekha gaya hai; empaayar raajya ka record kai saalon tak kaayam raha, bhavan nirmaataaon aur achal sampatti ke kaarobaar se jude logon ka kehna hai. vyaavahaarik seema tak pahunch gayi; iske sheersh 1,250 fut (380 mi) ooncha hai, lekin staaf vahan upakaran shikhar ko 1265.5 feet tak vistaarit karta hai.", the New York times, 2 May 1931. prushth 7.
  124. gre, Christopher. "sadak-drushya: empaayar state bhavan: ek '31 aashcharya' ka ek laal badla", the New York times, 14 June 1992. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit.
  125. baars, karen. "gaganachunbi imaaraton ka itihaas: sheersh ke liye ek daud", inafaurmeshan pleej. 17 May 2007 ko abhigmit. empaayar state bhavan ka 1972 tak 41 saalon tak gaganachumbi imaaraton par saravochh raaj tha, jab ise world trade center (1,368 foot, 110 manjilein) dvaara maat de di gayi. do saal baad New York shahar ne sabse ooncha bhavan banaane ka gaurav kho diya jab Chicago mein Willis tauvar (1450 foot, 110 manjilein) ka nirmaan hua.
  126. "About the WTC". Silverstein Properties. http://www.wtc.com/about/. abhigman tithi: 2008-08-15.
  127. gre, Christopher. "sadak-drushya/'pen station ka vinaash'; 1960 ka ek virodh jisne ateet ke ek tukade ko bachaane ki koshish ki", the New York times, 20 May 2001. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit.
  128. bhoomi-chinh parirkshan aayog ke baare mein, New York shahar ka bhoomi-chinh parirkshan aayog. 17 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  129. "pen station ke liye shok", CBS (CBS) news, 13 October 2002. 17 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  130. pogrebin, raubin. "7 world trade center aur haarst bhavan: New York dvaara paryaavaran ki drushti se sachet kaaryaalaya tauvaron ke liye pareekshan ke maamale", the New York times, 16 April 2006 .19 July 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  131. central park ki saamaanya soochana, central park kanjrveinsi. 21 sitmbar 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  132. central park ka itihaas, central park kanjrveinsi. 21 sitmbar 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  133. saaaincha:Waybackdate, mainahatan nagar raashtrapati Scott stringar. 19 October 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  134. America ke sabse mahange jip code, Forbes, 26 sitmbar 2003. 29 June 2009 ko abhigmit.
  135. a aa mainahatan mein 2006 ke doosare timaahi mein ausat saaptaahik vetan 1,453 dollar (peedeeef (PDF)), shram saankhyiki bureau, sanyukt raajya America shram vibhaag, 20 fravari 2007. 21 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  136. "sheersh 10 mahaanagareeya kshetron mein aavaagaman parivartan", yooesae (USA) tude, 20 May 2005. 25 June 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  137. din ke samay ki anumaanit janasankhya aur rojagaar-nivaas ke anupaat: 2000, sanyukt raajya America ki janaganana, 2000. 25 June 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  138. enavaaisi (NYC) mein vyavasaaya - vitteeya sevaaen, enavaaiseedeesi (NYCEDC). 29 June 2009 ko abhigmit.
  139. "America's 500 Largest Corporations", Fortune: F-45 and F-64, April 30
  140. maikageehan, paitrik. Wall street mein aay aakaash chhoota hai, bahut bada antar, the New York times, 23 March 2006. 1 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  141. faurchyoon maigajeen: New York raajya aur shahar adhikaansh faurchyoon 500 companiyon ka ghar, empaayar raajya vikaas nigam, press vigyapti dinaank 8 April 2005, 26 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "New York shahar abhi bhi desh ke kisi bhi shahar ki tulana mein adhikaansh faurchyoon 500 mukhyaalayon ka ghar hai."
  142. noonan, paitrika. moyanihn station draft iaaies (EIS) ka saakshya, paartanaraship for New York city, saakshya dinaank 31 May 2006, 26 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "Jacob ke. jaivits kanveinshan center ke vistaar ke saath sanyukt, sudoor vest side desh mein sabse bade kendreeya vyaavasaayik jile ke taarkik vistaar hone ka vaada karta hai."
  143. loar mainahatan rikvari kaaryaalaya, Federal traanjit edaministreshan, 26 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "loar mainahatan desh ka teesara sabse bada vyaavasaayik jila hai. 11 sitmbar se pehle vahaan 385,000 se adhik log kaaryarat the aur un karmachaariyon mein se 85% karmachaari kaam par jaane ke liye saarvajanik parivhan ka prayog karte the."
  144. sheersh 10 samekit agency network: 2006 mein varldavaaid network rivenyoo dvaara shreneet, edavarataaijing ej agency report 2007 soochakaank, 25 April 2007 ko prakaashit. 8 June 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  145. gelar, Andy. "N.vaai. (N.Y.) hits 'pe'dart: nait'l vetan vruddhi mein mainahatan number 1, New York post, 21 fravari 2007. 18 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  146. staisi, lindau॰ enavaai (NY), oech (OH): yeh adhik saaf, adhik safed, adhik chamakadaar hai, the vilej vauis, 24 sitmbar 1997. 30 June 2009 ko pun:praapt.
  147. traaiaingal factory mein lagi aag, kaurnel university school of industrial end lebar rileshans. 25 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  148. "staailish trevalar: Chelsea girls", treval + lejr, sitmbar 2005. 14 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "200 se adhik gailariyon ke saath, Chelsea mein paryaapt vividhta hai."
  149. "shahar yojana aavaaseeya vikaas ki anumati pradaan karne aur haai line tak abhigman ka parirkshan aur nirmaan karne ke liye kriyaavidhi ka nirmaan karne ke liye vest Chelsea ka pun:-kshetreekaran karne ke liye saarvajanik sameeksha shuroo karta hai", New York shahar ka shahar yojana vibhaag, press vigyapti dinaank 20 December 2004. 29 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "lagbhag 200 gailariyon ne haal ke varshon mein apne dvaara khol diye hain aur vest Chelsea ko shahar evam duniya bhar ke kala premiyon ka ek gantavya bana diya hai."
  150. vebar, brus. "samaalochak ka notabuk: theatre ka vachan? of braudave ko dekho", the New York times, 2 July 2003. 29 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "yeh bhi sach hai ki jo braudave ka gathan karta hai, usaka bayaan karna aasaan hai; yeh 39 nirdisht thiyetaron ka ek brahmaand hai, jinmein se sabhi mein kam se kam 500 seatein hain. aisa maana jaata hai ki of braudave mein aam taur par 99 se 499 tak seaton vaale theatre hain (kisi bhi kami ko of of maana jaata hai), jo jaahir taur par kalaakaaron, nirdeshakon aur press agenton ke liye sangh sanvidaaon ka nirdhaaran karta hai."
  151. theatre 101, theatre development fund. 29 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  152. ravivaar 5 January 1997 ka sangeet vivran, ABC (ABC) classic efem (FM). 19 June 2007 ko abhigmit. "James levin ne 27 saal ki umr mein apne metropolitan opera ki shuruaat ki, toska ka aayojan.... assi ke dashak ke madhya ke baad se unhonne aartistik director ki bhoomika dhaaran kar liya hai aur yeh unke kaaryakaal ke adheen hai ki met duniya ka sabse pratishthit opera house ban gaya hai."
  153. purdam, tod S. "raajaneetik gyaapan; ek sankatagrast city hall ka sthaanaantaran brookaleen mein hota hai", the New York times, 22 fravari 1992. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "unamein se sabhi netaaon ko is baat ka dar hai ki city chaartar, jisne satta ko nagar raashtrapatiyon se lekar shahar parishd ko saunp diya hai, mein haal hi mein hue parivrtanon ne sarkaar ki pehchaan ke arth ki maanyata ko kam kar diya jisse log kehte hain ki ve bronks mein rahate hain aur mainahatan ki yaatra ko 'shahar ki yaatra' ke roop mein varnit karte hain."
  154. "New York Minute". Dictionary of American Regional English. 1984-01-01. http://www.worldwidewords.org/qa/qa-new1.htm. abhigman tithi: 2006-09-05.
  155. "melting paut", the first mejrd century, pablik braudakaasting service. 25 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  156. dolkaart, Andrew S. "New York shahar ki vaastukala aur vikaas: gaganachumbi - premapoorn prateekon ka janm", Columbia vishvavidyaalaya, 15 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "yeh ek tribhujaakaar sthal par hai jahaan braudave aur fifth evenyoo—aajo New York ke do sabse mahatvapoorn sadkein hain—aamaidisn square par milte hain aur sadak ke aar-paar sadkon aur park ki sameepata ke kaaran yahaan ek hava-surangi prabhaav tha. beesaveen sadi ke shuroo mein, purushavarg tvanti-thard street par yahaan thahar jaate the aur hava se mahilaaon ke vastr ko is had tak udta hua dekhte the ki unhein unke takhane ki ek jhalak mil jaati thi. yeh lokapriya sankruti mein shaamil ho gaya aur aise saikadon postakaard aur mahilaaon ke chitr hain jinmein unke vastr flaitirn bhavan ke saamane udte hue dikhaai dete hain. aur maana jaata hai ki yahi vah jagah hai jahaan se graamya abhivyakti "23 skidoo" utpann hota hai kyonki police aaenge aur drushyaratikon ko vahaan se chale jaane ke liye kehne ke liye unhein 23 skidoo deinge."
  157. "mayor giyooliyaani mainahatan mein "big epal corner" ke nirmaan ke liye vidhaan par hastaakshar karte hain", New York shahar press vigyapti dinaank 12 fravari 1997.
  158. jaayants baulapaarks: 1883 se ab tak, MLB.com. 8 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  159. yaanki baulapaarks: 1903 se ab tak, MLB.com. 8 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  160. mets baulapaarks: 1962 se ab tak, MLB.com. 8 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  161. drebingar, John. "polo graaunds, 1889-1964: yaadon ka ek jeevanakaal; haarlem ka baul park kai khel romaanchon ka drushya tha", the New York times, 5 January 1964. prushth S3.
  162. arnold, Martin. "aah, polo graaunds, khel khatm ho gaya hai; vidhvansak aavaaseeya pariyojana ka vidhvans shuroo karte hain", the New York times, 11 April 1964. pi 27.
  163. naishanal inaviteshan tournament ka itihaas, naishanal inaviteshan tournament. 8 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "parampara. NIT ismein ot-prot hai. desh ke sabse puraane satrottar kaulejiyet baasketabaul tournament 1938 mein gathit hua.
  164. New York niks ka itihaas, NBA.com. 8 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  165. New York librti ki kahaani, veemens naishanal baasketabaul association. 8 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  166. rakar park, thinkakvest New York city. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit.
  167. jaayants stadium: 1925 mein apni sthaapana se lekar ab tak jise jaayants ne apna ghar kaha hai, New York jaayants, dinaank 7 November 2002. 8 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "1925 mein league mein pravesh karne ke samay se lekar 1956 ke satr ki shuruaat ke liye apekshaakrut bade yaanki stadium mein sthaanaantarit hone tak jaayants ne New York besabaul jaayants ke saath polo graaunds ka saajha kiya."
  168. stediyms of the enaefel (NFL): shiya stadium. stediyms of the enaefel (NFL). 8 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  169. New York amerikns, sports inasaaiklopeediya. 8 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  170. "45 lakh ka ek juaa", time (maigajeen), 30 June 1975. 24 sitmbar 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  171. kaulins, glen. "gati aur sthaaneeya garv ke liye nirmit; randaals dweep par track stadium ka udbhav", the New York times, 20 August 2004. 30 June 2009 ko pun:praapt.
  172. "mayor Michael bloomabark, park evam manoranjan aayukt edriyn benep aur randaals aailaind sports foundation dvaara aaikaahn stadium ke roop mein New York shahar ke sabse nae ethaletik kendra ka naamakaran", mayor of New York city press vigyapti, dinaank 28 January 2004. 24 sitmbar 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  173. New York shahar ke samaachaar patra aur samaachaar media, ebeevaaijed (ABYZ) news links. 1 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  174. jekar, bill; sulek, Frank; aur keinj, Peter "New York ke eyaravev: mahaanagareeya kshetr mein 156 AM stationon ka sachitr itihaas", Google book sarch, prushth 113. 25 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  175. raashtrapati ki jeevani, dablyooenavaaisi (WNYC), 1 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "prati saptaah 12 lakh se adhik shrotaaon dvaara suna jaane wala dablyooenavaaisi (WNYC) radio desh ka sabse bada saarvajanik radio station hai aur prasaaran nirmaataaon ko samarpit hai jo New York shahar ki saanskrutik sampannta ko duniya bhar ke saarvajaanik radio stationon tak pahunchaate hain."
  176. samudaaya, pablik ekses TV ke 35vein varshagaanth ka jashn manaata hai, mainahatan nebarahood network press vigyapti dinaank 6 August 2006, 28 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "aam janta ke sadasyon ko apna khud ka TV kaaryakrama—aajiske maadhyam se ve apne vaktavya ka ni:shulk prasaaran karte hain—aka nirmaan aur prasaaran karne ki anumati pradaan karne ke liye 1970 ke dashak mein pablik ekses TV ka nirmaan kiya gaya tha. ise sabse pehle 1 July 1971 ko America ke mainahatan mein teleepromptar aur starling kebal tantron, ab time Warner kebal, par shuroo kiya gaya tha."
  177. 1776 ki bhayaanak aag, city university of New York. 30 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "Washington ke kuchh salaahakaaron ne New York shahar ko jalaane ka sujhaav diya taaki british ko is par kabja karne ke baad ise bahut kam laabh ho. is vichaar ko tyaag diya gaya aur Washington ne 12 September 1776 ko shahar se apni sena vaapas bula li. teen din baad british ne shahar par kabja kar liya aur 21 sitmbar ko faaiting kauks taivarn mein aag lag gayi. shahar ke agnishaamak-karmiyon ke shahar aur duty par naheen hone ke kaaran aag teji se fail gaya. shahar ka ek tihaai hissa jal gaya aur 493 makaan nasht ho gaye."
  178. loar East side ki bastiyon ka nirmaan. 30 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  179. a aa Peterson, aaivar. "1880 ke dashak ke vaasagruhon ka 1980 ke dashak mein anukoolan", the New York times, 3 January 1988, 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "aam taur par paanch manjila lamba aur 25 fut (7.6 mi) ke samooh mein nirmit vaasagruhon ke aag se bache baahari hisse latake hue hain aur aatanrik hisse lambe aur sankeern hain—avaastav mein, apaartameinton ko relarod flait ki sanjnyaa di gayi."
  180. a aa 2001 ki raashtreeya ghareloo yaatra ke sarvekshan ke vishisht tathya, parivhan saankhyiki bureau, sanyukt raajya America parivhan vibhaag. 21 May 2006 ko abhigmit.
  181. New York shahar paidal yaatri seva star ka adhyayan - pratham charan, 2006", New York shahar ka shahar yojana vibhaag, April 2006, prushth 4. 17 May 2007 ko abhigmit. "varsh 2000 mein America ke 16 varsh se adhik umr vaale kaaryakartaaon mein se 88% karmi kaam par jaane ke liye car, truck ya vain ka istemaal karte the, jabki lagbhag 5% saarvajanik parivhan ka istemaal karte the aur 3% paidal kaam mein jaate the.... mainahatan mein, jo sabse adhik janasankhya ghanatv (varsh 2000 mein prati varg meal 66,940 vyakti; 1,564,798 nivaasi) wala nagar aur vyavasaaya evam paryatan sthalon ka kendra hai, 2000 mein kaam karne waali janasankhya mein se keval 18% log apne niji gaadiyon mein kaam par jaate the jabki 72% saarvajaanik parivhan ka istemaal karte the aur 8% paidal jaate the."
  182. . "Congestion plan dies". NY1. http://www.ny1.com/Default.aspx?SecID=1000&ArID=80238. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-30.
  183. NY.com, enavaaisi (NYC) sabave system. 4 August 2009 ko abhigmit.
  184. peeeteeech (PATH) raipid-traanjit system: kiraaya aur kvikkaard, port othoriti of New York end new jersey. 6 March 2008 ko pun: praapt.
  185. metrokaard, metropolitan traansaporteshan othoriti (New York). 11 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  186. peeeteeech (PATH) ke baare mein aksar poochhe jaane vaale prashn, port othoriti of New York end new jersey, 28 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "peeeteeech (PATH) smaartalink fair card prastut ho jaane ke baad kvikkaard hata dega."
  187. bas ke tathya, metropolitan traansaporteshan othoriti (New York), 11 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  188. enavaaisi (NYC) ke taxi aur limosin aayog ke baare mein. 4 sitmbar 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  189. li, Jennifer 8. "sankatagrast East rivr traam se yaatriyon ka beech-bachaav", the New York times, 19 April 2006. 28 fravari 2008 ko abhigmit. "tantr, jo khud ko desh ka ekamaatr havaai yaatri traam kehta hai, ko filmon mein dikhaaya gaya hai jinmein bili kristal abhineet city slikrs, silvestar staulan abhineet naaitahauks aur 2002 ka spaaidar-main shaamil hain."
  190. roojvelt aailaind traam, roojvelt aailaind operating kaurporeshan. 30 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  191. ghaat ke baare mein tathya, New York shahar parivhan vibhaag, 28 April 2007 ko abhigmit. ek vishisht kaaryadivs niymaavali mein pratidin lagbhag 65,000 yaatriyon ke parivhan (110 dainik yaatraaen) ke liye paanch naav ka upayog shaamil hai. bheed-bhaad vaale samay ke liye chaar naav (15 minute sheershaantar) ki niymaavali ki vyavastha ki gayi hai.
  192. stetan aailaind feri service ka ek moolyaankan aur iske vikaas ke sujhaav (peedeeef (PDF)), New York shahar parishd, November 2004, 28 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "maujooda saat jahaaji bede mein se paanch naav ek vishisht kaaryadivs niymaavali ke tahat 104 yaatraaen karti hain".
  193. holove, laainet. "mayor dvaara S.I. (S.I.) feri mein lagne vaale 50 seint ke kiraae ka ant", the New York times, 29 April 1997, 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "mayor roodolf dablyoo. giyooliyaani ne kal kaha ki vah 4 July se stetan aailaind feri ke 50 seint ke kiraae ka ant kar deinge aur kaha ki jo log mainahatan ke baahar rahate hain unhein yaatra karne ke liye atirikt bhugataan naheen karna chaahiye."
  194. emateee (MTA) network, metropolitan traansaporteshan othoriti, 17 May 2006 ko abhigmit.
  195. Lincoln surang ka aitihaasik avlokan, NYCRoads.com. 28 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "port othoriti ke anusaar, Lincoln surang pratidin lagbhag 120,000 vaahanon (AADT) ka bhaar vahan karta hai, jo ise duniya ka sabse vyast vaahan surang banaata hai."
  196. kveens-midtaaun surang, NYCRoads.com. 27 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "judvaan-tube surang 15 November 1940 ko bankar taiyaar hua. jab iska shubhaarambh hua, us samay yeh apne samay ka sabse bada gair-sangheeya pariyojana thi.
  197. "midtaaun tube ka upayog karne vaale 'pehle' vyakti raashtrapati the; udghaatan ke avsar par vareeyata ki vajah se saikadon motor-chaalakon ko naamanjoori mili", the New York times, 9 November 1940. prushth 19.
  198. keneekaut, Phillip. "ek bhavan-nirmaata jo kasbe mein gaya: Robert moses ne aadhunik New York ko, bhala ya bura, aakaar diya", the Washington post, 11 March 2007, 30 April 2007 ko abhigmit. "unki upalabdhiyon ki soochi aashcharyajanak hai: saat setu, 15 express-maarg, 16 park-maarg, vest side highway aur haarlem rivr drive..."
  199. you, Roger. havaai adda pravesh jaanch: nevaark se mainahatan aane vaalon ke liye sheegra seva, yooesae (USA) tude, 10 December 2006. 28 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  200. "New York shahar ki peeli taiksiyaan hari hone waali hain" siyra club press vigyapti dinaank 1 July 2005. 19 July 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  201. "vidyut shakti udyog ka itihaas", edeesan ilektrik sansthaan. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit.
  202. re, si. kleborn. "kyoo end A (Q&A)", the New York times, 12 May 1992. 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. ek vaashp-chaalit tantr mein, sanpeedn, sheetalan, vistaaran evam vaashpeekaran ka poora chakr ek band tantr mein poora hota hai jis tarah refrijretar ya vidyuteeya air-kandishnar mein hota hai. shri saarno ne kaha, ismein fark sirf itna hai ki sanpeedk (kampresar) ko chalaane ke liye aavashyak yaantrik shakti vaashp-chaalit tarbaainon se, na ki vidyuteeya motaron se, aati hain."
  203. kaun edisn: vaashp ka ek sankshipt itihaas, kaunsolideted edisn. 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  204. New York shahar ka jal aapoorti tantr: itihaas, New York shahar paryaavaran sanrakshan vibhaag. 5 sitmbar 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  205. saaaincha:Waybackdate, New York shahar paryaavaran sanrakshan vibhaag, 20 November 1998. 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  206. "2005 ki peya jal aapoorti evam gunavatta report", New York shahar paryaavaran sanrakshan vibhaag. 19 July 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  207. chaan, sevel. "surang banaane vaalon ne ek bahut bada keertimaan sthaapit kiya", the New York times, 10 August 2006. 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  208. deeesaenavaai (DSNY), ke baare mein, New York shahar svachhata vibhaag, 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  209. bargar, Michael aur steevart, Christopher. "gaarbej aaftar fresh kils", gautham gaijet, 28 January 2001. 16 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  210. New York: shiksha aur shodh, city data. 10 sitmbar 2006 ko pun:praapt.
  211. gootamain, Elisa. "pun: nirmit ho rahi vyavastha mein school vaapasi", the New York times, 5 sitmbar 2006. 11 May 2007 ko abhigmit.
  212. la skaaula di'itaaliya, 29 June 2009 ko abhigmit.
  213. snaatak ki upaadhi praapt kar chuke 25 varsheeya aur usase adhik aayu ke logon ka pratishat, sanyukt raajya America janaganana bureau. 28 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  214. maikageehan, paitrik. "New York kshetr snaatakon ke liye ek chunbak hai", the New York times, 16 August 2006. 27 March 2008 ko abhigmit. "mainahatan mein paanch mein se lagbhag teen nivaasi college snaatak the aur chaar mein se ek ke paas usase oonchi upaadhi thi, jisne ise kisi bhi ameriki shahar mein atyadhik shikshit logon ke sabse bade kendron mein se ek bana diya.
  215. city university of New York desh ka sabse bada shahari saarvajaanik vishvavidyaalaya hai, city university of New York, 30 June 2009 ko abhigmit. "city university of New York desh ka sabse bada shahari saarvajanik vishvavidyaalaya hai..."
  216. New York City Economic Development Corporation (2004-11-18). "Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Economic Development Corporation President Andrew M. Alper Unveil Plans to Develop Commercial Bioscience Center in Manhattan". http://home2.nyc.gov/portal/site/nycgov/menuitem.c0935b9a57bb4ef3daf2f1c701c789a0/index.jsp?pageID=mayor_press_release&catID=1194&doc_name=http%3A%2F%2Fhome2.nyc.gov%2Fhtml%2Fom%2Fhtml%2F2004b%2Fpr310-04.html&cc=unused1978&rc=1194&ndi=1. abhigman tithi: 2006-07-19.
  217. National Institutes of Health (2003). "NIH Domestic Institutions Awards Ranked by City, Fiscal Year 2003". http://report.nih.gov/award/trends/top100fy03.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-30.
  218. "Nation's Largest Libraries". LibrarySpot. http://www.libraryspot.com/lists/listlargestlibs.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-06.
  219. the sentral laaibrereej, New York pablik laaibreri. 6 June 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  220. mainahatan ka maanachitr, New York pablik laaibreri. 6 June 2006 ko pun:praapt.

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