maiks plaank

yuva maiks plaank (1878)

jarman vaigyaanik maiks plaank (Max Planck) ka janm 23 April 1858 ko hua tha. grejueshan ke baad jab usane bhautiki ka kshetr chuna to ek adhyaapak ne rai di ki is kshetr mein lagbhag sabhi kuchh khoja ja chuka hai at: ismein kaarya karna nirrthak hai. plaank ne javaab diya ki main puraani cheejein hi seekhana chaahata hooain. plaank ke is kshetr mein jaane ke baad bhautiki mein itni nai khojein huin jitni shaayad pichhle hajaar varshon mein naheen hui theen.

plaank ne apne anusandhaan ki shuruaat ooshmaagatiki (Thermodynamics) se ki. usane vishesh roop se ushmaagatiki ke dviteeya niyam par kaarya kiya. usi samay kuchh ilektrik companiyon ne uske saamane ek aise prakaash srot ko banaane ki samasya rakhi jo nyoonatam oorja ki khapat mein adhik se adhik prakaash paida kar sake. is samasya ne plaank ka rukh vikirn (Radiation) ke adhyayan ki or moda . usane vikirn ki vidyut chumbakeeya prakruti (Electromagnetic Nature) gyaat ki. is tarah gyaat hua ki prakaash, radio tarangein, paraabaingani (Ultraviolet), infraared sabhi vikirn ke hi roop hain jo daraasal vidyut chumbakeeya tarangein hain.

plaank ne black baudi rediyeshan par kaarya karte hue ek niyam diya jise veen-plaank niyam ke naam se jaana jaata hai. baad mein usane paaya ki bahut se prayogon ke parinaam isse alag aate hain. usane apne niyam ka punarvishleshan kiya aur ek aashcharyajanak nai khoj par pahuncha, jise plaank ki kvaantam parikalpana kehte hain. in paikets ko kvaanta kaha jaata hai. har kvaanta ki oorja nishchit hoti hai tatha keval prakaash (vikirn) ki aavrutti (rang) par nirbhar karti hai. (sootr E = hν jahaaain h plaank niytaank tatha ν aavrutti hai.)

plaank ki is parikalpana ne bhautik jagat mein halachal macha di. yaheen se janm hua bhautiki ki nai shaakha kvaantam bhautiki ka. baad mein isi parikalpana ka upayog karte hue aainsteen ne prakaash vidyut prabhaav ki vyaakhya ki, jiske liye use Nobel puraskaar se sammaanit kiya gaya. is parikalpana ke anusaar prakaash tatha anya vidyut chumbakeeya vikirn oorja ka satat pravaah na hokar oorja ke chhote chhote packet ke roop mein chalta hai.

kvaantam bhautiki ki sthaapana ke liye plaank ko 1918 ke Nobel puraskaar se sammaanit kiya gaya. dhaarmik roop se vah isaai tha. vah tatha aainsteen gahre dost the. unki piaano ki mahafilein saath mein jamati theen. 4 October 1947 ko nabbe varsh ki avastha mein usaki mrutyu hui.


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