maigna kaarta

मैग्ना कार्टा

maigna kaarta (Magna Carta) ya maigna kaarta librataitam (Great Charter of Freedoms ya aajaadi ka mahaan chaartar) inglaind ka ek kaanooni pariptr hai jo sabse pehle san 1215 E mein jaari hua tha. yeh laitin bhaasha mein likha gaya tha.

maigna kaarta mein inglaind ke raaja John ne saamanton (nobles and barons) ko kuchh adhikaar diye; kuchh kaanooni prakriyaaon ke paalan ka vachab diya; aur sveekaar kiya ki unki ichha kaanoon ke seema mein bandhi rahegi. maigna kaarta ne raaja ki praja ke kuchh adhikaaron ki raksha ki spasht roop se pushti ki, jinmein se bandi pratyaksheekaran yaachika (habeas corpus) ullekhaneeya hai.

chaartar ki mahatta is tathya mein nihit hai ki pratyek peedhi ne iski vaidhaanik vyaakhya kar is siddhaant par jor diya ki raaja ko kaanoon ka sammaan anivaaryat: karna chaahiye. yeh saamanton tatha saadhaaran janta donon ke liye vaidhaanikta ka prateek bana tatha british vaidhaanik adhiniyman ka shreeganesh bhi yaheen se hua maana jaata hai.

anukram

parichay

maigna kaarta (1215 i0) maigana kaarta athva mahaan-pariptr 15 June 1215 i0 ko, tems nadi ke kinaare sthit raneemeed sthaan par raaja John ne England ke saamanton ko pradaan kiya tha. hailam ke shabdon mein, yeh kaalaantar mein english svaatantrya ka pradhaan aadhaar bana, yadyapi iske rachayita, janasvaatantrya uddeshya se anuprerit naheen the. ve apne adhikaaron ke pratipaadan mein lage the. saamant (bairan), jo iski rachana mein sanlagn the, svabhaavat: apni sthiti ko surakshit kar rahe the. unhein doosare vargo ke svaarthon mein koi dilchaspi naheen thi. at: chaartar, raaja tatha bairan ke beech ek prasanvida tha, jo saamantavaadi pratha par aadhaarit tha. chaartar ki do tihaai dhaaraaeain saamanton ke kashton ki soochi theen. kintu rachayitaaon ne pariptr ke dvaara apni maaaingon ke atirikt, sabhi vargo ko santusht karne ke liye prashaasakeeya sudhaaron ke bhi sannihit kiya tha. chaartar ki upayogita samaapt ho jaane ke uparaant bhi, iski dhaaraaeain sammaan ki drushti se adhik samay tak dekhi gayi.

aitihaasik kaaran

chaartar, raaja John dvaara bainranon par adhik vashon se laade gaye anyaayapoorn karon tatha atyachaachaaron ka parinaam tha. Pope se sangharsh le lene ke uparaant, John ne paadariyon ke saath bhi atyaachaarapoorn vyavahaar usi maatra jaari mein rakha. vastut: raaja ne samast janta ke prati ek nrushansata ki neeti apnaai. falat: raashtreeya vidroh ki bhaavana jaagrat hone lagi. bairan vidroh ke pratham Lakshman 1212 i0 mein parilkshit hue kintu vaastavik ashaanti us samay faili jab aarkabishp stefan ke netrutv mein bairanon ne London mein seint paal ki goshthi mein apne kashton par vichaar kiya tatha henari pratham dvaara sveekrut chaartar ke aadhaar par, upani maaainge rakhi. 1214 i0 mein France ne John ko paraast kar shaanti ke liye baadhya kiya. England vaapas aane par, bairanon ke ek sangh ne apni maaaingo ki ek soochi uske saamane rakhi. John ne prastaav ko sthaapit karne ke liye jhootha baada kiya aur is beech mein yuddh ka taiyaari praarambh ki. videshon se kiraae ke sainik maingaae tatha church ko apni or milaane ki koshish ki. kintu bairan shaktishaali ho chale the. bairanon ke vidroh ko saadhaaran janta se adhik sahaayata mili, kyonki John ke videshi yuddh tatha aantarik damananeeti ne aantarik sthiti ko asahya bana diya tha. shakti se saamana karne mein asamarth paakar John chaartar par hastaakshar karne ko baadhya ho gaya.

chaartar ki dhaaraaeain

chaartar 63 dhaaraaon ka tha. adhikaansh dhaaraaeain raaja ke visheshaadhikaaron ke virooddh saamanto ke adhikaaron ka samarthan karti theen. chaartar ki mukhya dhaaraaeain nimnaankit hai:-

  • (1) church vyavastha tatha svatantr chunaav
  • (2) tatha saamanton ke sambandh
  • (3) saadhaaran vaidhaanik vyavastha
  • (4) aasaami ke adhikaar
  • (5) nagar, vaanijya tatha vyaapaariyon ke adhikaar
  • (6) svaayattashaasan ke doshon ka niraakaran
  • (7) nyaaya tatha vidhi vyavastha mein sudhaar
  • (8) kaanoon vyavastha
  • (9) chaartar ka pratipaadan tatha vyavahaarya banaana, aadi.

is vyaapak pariptr ki chaar dhaaraaeain sadaiv ke liye vaidhaanik mahatav ki siddh hui. 12veen dhara ne ghoshit kiya ki kisi bhi prakaar ki seva athva sahaayata bina raajya ki saadhaaran parishd ki sveekruti ke naheen li jaayagi. 14veen dhaara ne saadhaaran parishd ki rachana bataai. is vidhaan sabha mein aark bishp, bishp, arl tatha bade bade bairan pruthak pruthak aajnyaaapatron se aamantrit honge tatha pramukh krushak jilaadheesh ke dvaara soochit kiye jaayainge. 39veen dhaara ne daihik svaataintrya ki charcha karte hue kaha ki kisi bhi svatantr naagrik ko raajya ke niyamon athva vaidhaanik nirnaya ke pratikool kisi bhi disha mein bandi, sanpatirhit, gairkaanooni ya nishkaasit naheen ghoshit kiya jaayaga. 40veen dhaara ne yeh ghoshana ki ki pratyek vyakti ke naiyaayik adhikaaron par kisi bhi prakaar ka aadhaat naheen hoga. kaalaantar mein janasvaatantrya, joori ke dvaara nyaayaprashaasan, kaanoon ki dyashti mein sabke samaanaadhikaar tatha kaanoon ki raajya mein sarvashreshthata ityaadi isi chaartar ki prashaakhaaeain siddh hui. chaartar mein kisi naveenata ka samaavesh naheen kiya gaya tha. isne keval John dvaara atikramit reetiyon evam prathaaon ki punaraavruti ki.

prabhaav evam parinaam

hastaakshar ke uparaant chaartar ki pratiyaaain pratyek saamant evam paadari ke pradesh mein varsh mein do baar uchch svar mein saarvajanik ghoshana ke liye bheji gayi. John ne yadyapi hastaakshar kiye, tathaapi kaaryaanvit karne mein aapati pragat ki. usane Pope se praarthana ki tatha ek vishesh popaadesh ke dvaara chaartar ko avaidh viddh karaaya. kiraae ke sainik ekatrit kar bairanon ke virooddh yuddh ghoshit kiya. ek varsh tak gruhayuddh chala aur 1216 i0 mein John ki mrutyu ho jaane se yeh yuddh band hua. usaki mrutyu par, chaartar ki anrtakaaleen dhaaraaon ko nikaal kar, chaartar ko punarghoshit kiya gaya. 1225i0 mein kuchh parivartan ke uparaant chaartar ki fir ghoshana hui. Edward shashth tak pratyek maadhyamik yug ke shaasak ne chaartar ki vaidh bataaya.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain