mahaayaan

gandhaar se pehli sadi isavi mein bani mahaatma buddh ki moorti

mahaayaan vartamaan kaal mein bauddh dharm ki do pramukh shaakhaaon mein se ek hai. doosari shaakha ka naam theravaad hai. mahaayaan buddh dharm Bhaarat se aarambh hokar uttar ki or bahut se anya Asiaee deshon mein fail gaya, jaise ki cheen, Japan, Korea, taaivaan, Tibet, bhootaan, mangoliya aur Singapore. mahaayaan sampradaaya ki aage aur upashaakhaaeain hain, masalan jen/chaan, pavitra bhoomi, tiyaanataai, nichiren, shingon, tendaai aur tibbati bauddh dharm.[1]

anukram

theravaad aur mahaayaan mein antar

'theravaad' shabd ka arth hai 'bade-bujurgon ka kehna'. bauddh dharm ki is shaakha mein paali bhaasha mein likhe hue praacheen tripitk dhaarmik granthon ka paalan karne par jor diya jaata hai. theravaad anuyaayiyon ka kehna hai ki is se ve bauddh dharm ko uske mool roop mein maanate hain. inke liye mahaatma buddh ek mahaapurush zaroor hain lekin koi devata naheen. ve unhein poojate naheen aur na hi unke dhaarmik samaarohon mein buddh-pooja hoti hai. jahaaain mahaayaan bauddh paramparaaon mein devi-devataaon jaise bahut se divya jeevon ko maana jaata hai vahaaain theravaad bauddh paramparaaon mein aisi kisi hasti ko naheen pooja jaata. theravaadiyon ka maanana hai ki har manushya ko swayam hi nirvaan ka maarg dhoondhana hota hai. in samudaayon mein yuvakon ke bhikshuk banane ko bahut shubh maana jaata hai aur yahaaain yeh rivaayat bhi hai ki yuvak kuchh dinon ke liye bhikshu bankar fir gruhasth mein laut jaata hai. theravaad shaakha dakshini Asiaee kshetron mein prachalit hai, jaise ki Sri Lanka, barma, kambodiya, viytanaam, Thailand aur laaos.[2] pehle jmaane mein 'theravaad' ko 'heenayaan shaakha' kaha jaata tha, lekin ab bahut vidvaan kehte hain ki yeh donon alag hain.

mahaayaan bauddh dharm ke anuyaayi kehte hain ki adhiktar manushyon ke liye nirvaan-maarg akele dhoondhana mushkil ya asambhav hai aur unhein is kaarya mein sahaayata milni chaahiye. ve samajhte hain ki brahmaand ke sabhi praani ek-dusare se jude hain aur sabhi se prem karna aur sabhi ke nirvaan ke liye prayatn karna zaroori hai. kisi bhi praani ke liye dushbhaavana naheen rakhani chaahiye kyonki sabhi janm-mrutyu ke janjaal mein fanse hain. ek hatyaara ya ek tuchh jeev apna hi koi fir se janma poorvaj bhi ho sakta hai isliye unki bhi sahaayata karni chaahiye. prerana aur sahaayata ke liye bodhisttvon ko maana jaata hai jo ve praani hain jo nirvaan pa chuke hain. mahaayaan shaakha mein aise hajaaron bodhisttvon ko pooja jaata hai aur unka is sampradaaya mein devataaon-jaisa darja hai. in bodhisttvon mein kuchh bahut prasiddh hain, udaaharan ke liye avalokiteshvar (arth: 'drushti neeche jagat par daalne vaale prabhu'), Amitabh (arth: 'anant prakaash', 'amit aabha'), maitreya, manjushri aur kshitigrbh.[2]

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. Establishing a pure land on earth: the Foguang Buddhist perspective on modernization and globalization, Stuart Chandler, University of Hawaii Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-8248-2746-5, ... The Hinayana school is identified with the Theravada tradition, which is practiced in Thailand, Sti Lanka, Myanmar, etc. The Mahayana school, by contrast, is seen as having taken root in China, Japan, Korea, and Tibet ...
  2. a aa Inside Buddhism (eBook), Kathy Zaun, Lorenz Educational Press, ISBN 978-0-7877-8193-4, Pages 26-27